Skip to main content

Full text of "United States congressional serial set"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



INDEX 



TO THE 



EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS 



OK THE 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIYES 



FOR THE 



SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-FIFTH CONGRESS, 



1877-^78. 



IN aa VOLUMES. 



VOLUME IX.— Report of the Commissioner of Education (No. 1, Pt. 5, Vol 2). 



\V ASUINOTON: 

C i I » V 10 U N U E M' P U I N T I N G ( > K M ( J K . 

1878. 



^ LIBRARY 

I OF THE 

LEUND STANFORD JUNIOR 
l^ UNIVERSITY. 



r 



JZC27 



INDEX TO HOUSE EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



CONTENTS OF THE VOLUMES. 



Vol. 1 
Vou 2. 
Vol. 
Vol. 
Vol. 
Vol. 6 
Vol. 7 



3. 
4. 

5. 



Vol. 8. 
Vol. 9. 
Vol. 10. 

Vol. 11- 



. FOREIGN RELATTOXS : Xo. 1, pt 1. 
.WAR: No. 1, pta, v.l. 

ENGI1IEEB8: No. 1, pt. 3, Y. 2, pt 1. 
EXGINEBBS : No. 1. pt 2, ▼. 2, pt 2. 
Obdnakcb : No. 1, pt 2, V. 3. 
Signal Office : No. 1, pt 2, v. 4. 
NAVY AND POSTMASTER: No. 1, 

parte 3 and 4. 
. INTERIOR : No. 1, pt 5, v. 1. 

Education : Na 1, pt 5. r. 2. 
.'So. 1, parts 6. 7, 8, and Non. 7 to 33. lo- 
ci naive. 
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF 
TREASURY: No. 2. 



Vol. 12. 


Vol. 13. 


Vol. 14. 


Vol. 15. 


Vol. 16. 


Vol. 17. 


Vol. 18. 


Vol. 19. 


Vou 20. 


Vou 21. 


Vou 28. 



..Nos. 3 and 4. 
..Nofl.5, 0, 61, and73. 

.Nob. 34 to 72, except Nos. 34, 39, 51. and 61. 
.No8.35aud39. 
No. 51. 
.Nos. 74 to 101, Inclasive, except Nos. 89 

and 90. 
.No. 89, FiBiiBRT Awards, t. 1. 
.No. 89, FisHRKT Awards, t.2. 
.No. 89, FistiRRT Awards, t. 3. 

.No. 90, COMlfERCB AND NAVIGATION. 
.No. 108, COMMKRCIAL RELATIONS. 



INDEX TO THE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



Volume. I No. Part. 



A. 

Adjutant-General, report of the freedmen^s branch of office of.. 
Agricultare, message of the President, transmitting a special 

report on forestry by the Commissioner of 

Appointment of cadets by the President, letter from the Attor- 
ney-General, in response to a resolation of the House in re- 
gard to 

Appropriations, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 

transmitting estimates of 

Appropriations, deficiency in, for the Army, letter from the 

Secretary of War, transmitting estimates 

for 

deficiency in, for 1876 and prior years, letter 
from Secretary of Treasury, transmitting 

estimates for 

estimates of, for payment of claims due prior 
to July 1, 1875, letter from the Secretary of 

the Treasury, transmitting 

Arid regions of the United States, report of Msy. J. W. Powell 

on 

Arizona, military roads in, letter from the Secretary of War 

in relation thereto 

Arkansas River, report of Chief of Engineers upon the neces- 
sity of the improvement of 

Arms, George R., letter from the Secretary of War, transmit- 
ting report of Adjutant-General in the case of 

Army appropriations, for certain deficiencies in 

Anny,report of the General of the (vol. 1) 

supplemental report of the (voL 1) 

report of the Judge- Advocate-General of the (vol. 1) .. . 

report of the Quartermaster-General of the (vol. 1) 

rex>ort of the Commissary-General of the Subsistence of 

the (vol. 1) 

report of the Surgeon-General of the (vol. 1) 

report of the Paymaster*General of the (vol. 1) 



10 



10 
13 
10 
10 



18 



14 i 45 



27 
73 
21 
22 



2 1^2 

10 [ 24 

14 j 70 

13 I 5 



10 


12 




10 


18 




2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 



II 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



Army, report of the Chief of EngiDeers of the (being vol. 2, 

parts 1 and 2) 

report of the Chief of Ordnance of the (being vol. 3).. 
report of the Chief Signal Officer of the (lieing vol. 4).. . 
letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting esti- 
mates of appropriations for certain deficiencies in ap- 
propriations for the 

letter from the Secretary of War, showing the distribu- 
tion of United States troops 

Attorney- General, annoal report of the 

letter from the, in response to a resolution of 
the House in reference to the appointment 
of cadets to the Naval and Military Acad- 
emies, by the President 

letter from the, in response to a resolution 
of the House in relation to suits against 

the Kansas Pacific Railroad 

letter from the, in response to a resolution 
of the House, transmitting a list of par- 
dons by the President between March 4, 

, 1877, and May 20. 187d 

Award of the Fishery Commission, aocumeuts and proceed- 
ings of the Halifax (3 vols.) 

B. 

Sarracks, letter from the Secretary of War, recommending ap- 
propriations for new, at Fort Monroe, Va 

Bath, Me., letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting re- 
port of engineer upon the improvement of the '*guf oppo- 
site , , 

Blackwater River, in Virginia, letter from the Secretary of War, 
transmitting report of engineer upon the improvement of.. . 

Board of Health of District of Columbia, annual report of 

Board of Visitors of Military Academy, report of (vol. 1) 

Board of Visitors of the Government Hospital for the Insane, 
report of (vol. 1) 

Board of Commissioners of the Soldiers' Home, report of (vol. 1) 

Bonds, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, in response to 
a resolution of the House, in reference to the sale of United 
States, for outstanding legal-tender notes 

Bridge, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting report 
of engineer upon bridgiug the Saginaw River at East Sagi- 
naw, Slich 

Bureau of Statistics, annual report of Chief of, on the com- 
merce and navigation of the Uni ted States 

C. 



Volume. 


No. 


Part. 


3 and 4 


1 


2 


5 


1 


2 


6 


1 


2 


10 


18 




14 


55 




10 


7 





14 70 



17 



76 



17 ! 100 

I 

18, 19, 20 89 



14 43 



14 56 



14 m 

14 57 
21 90 



14 


60 




10 


1 


4 


2 


1 


2 


H 


1 


5 


2 


1 


2 



1.2 



Cadets, letter from the Attorney-General, in response to a reso- 
lution of the House, in reference to the appointment of, to 

the Naval and Military Academies, by the President 

Canal, Dismal Swamp, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury in reference to the interest of the government in., 
ship. Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan, letter from the 
Secretary of War, transmitting the report of engineer 

on the improvements of , 

Certificate of citizenship, to seamen during year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1877, letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting 
an abstract of returns made by collectors of customs of the 

number of seamen who had received 

Chickahominy River, report of the engineer upon the improve- 
ment of , 

Chief of Bureau of Statistics, annual report of, on the com- 
merce and navigation of the United States , 

Chief of Ordnance, annual report of the (vol. 3) 

Cincinnati, harbor of, report of the engineer concorning the 
best method of protecting, from ice , 



14 I 70 
10 19 

14 44 



14 

14 

21 
5| 



60 

90 
1 



14 41 



INDEX. 



m 



Subject. 



Volume. 



Claims, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting 

list of, allowed under act of July 4, 1864 

letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting 
an estimate of appropriations for payment of, origi- 
nating prior to July 1, 1875, under section 3687 and 

3689 Revised Statutes 

Clerks in the War Department, letter from the Secretary of 

War, transmitting a list of 

Coast Sarvey, annual report of Superintendent 

Columbia Hospital for Women and Lying-in Asylum, annual 

report of (vol. 1) 

Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, annual report of 

(voLl) 

Colorado, letter from the Secretary of War, in response to a 
resoloiion of the House concerning the protection of resi- 
dents of, against the Indians 

Colorado and New Mexico, letter from the Secretary of War, 

transmitting report on lines of communication between 

Commerce and navigation of United States, report of Chief of 

Burean of Statistics 

Commercial relations of the United States with foreign coun- 
tries, report npon the, for the year 1877 

Commission, Hot Springs, report (vol.1) 

letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting 
correspondence, &c., in connection with the, 
appointed by the President to visit Louisiana 

in April, 1877 

award of the Halifax Fishery (3 vols.) 

Venezuelan mixed claim, message from the Presi- 
dent, transmitting correspondence between Ven- 
ezuela and the United States in regard thereto.. 

Comminioner of Education, annual report of the 

Commiasioner of Customs, report of 

Commissioner of Pensions, report of (vol. 1) 

Commissioner of Agriculture, message of the President, trans- 
mitting report on forestry by 

Commissioner of Internal Revenue, annual report of, with table 

showing receipts from 
each specific source, <&c .. 
report of, with additional 
statements and tables . . . . 

Commissioner of General Land Office, report of (vol. 1) 

Commissioner of Patents, annual report of 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, statements of disbursements 

for the Indian Department 

for 1877 

report of (vol. 1) 

papers accompanying the 

above report ( vol. 1 ) 

Commissioners to treat with Sitting Bull, report of (vol. 1) ... 
Commissioners of the District of Columbia, annual report of.. 

Commissary-General of Subsistence, report of 

Commutation allowed officers in certain cities, letter from the 
Secretary of War, transmitting a list of officers who received 

fuel, forage, and quarters in certain cities 

Commntation of quarters, fuel, and forage, letter from the 
Secretary of War, recommending an amendment of the stat- 
utes in relation thereto 

Connecticut River, report of survey of, transmitted by Secre- 
tary of War 

Comparative exhibit of dnties npon foreign imports, &c., let- 
ter from the Secretary of the Treasury, in answer to a reso- 
]ati<m of the House, relative to duties npon foreign imports, 
Slc*, showing proposed rate of duty, preaent rates, and qnan- 
tity and value of imported commodities which entered into 
eoDtnmpiJoa in the United States daring the year end i nip 
JaDe30,l&n * 



10 



10 
10 

11 

8 
8 

17 
14 

21 

22 

8 



17 

18 



No. Parr. 



31 



27 

16 
2 

1 

1 

91 

66 

90 

102 
1 



97 
89 



10 I 30 
9 1 

11 2 
8 1 

10 24 



12 



10 i 17 



17 



101 



5 



5 
5 



11 


2 




8 


1 


5 


13 


61 




13 


6 




8 


1 


5 


, 8 


1 


5 


! 8 


1 


5 


10 


1 


6 


2 

14 


1 
4H 


2 



17 7S 



J 



IV IKDEX. 



Subject. Volnme. No. Part. 



Compensation of inspectors of costoms, letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, traosmittiof^ a letter fttMn ihe Conunis- 
sioner of Costoms proposing an alteratioo of oertain sections 

of the EeTised Statutes fixing the 14 36 

Comptroller of the Currency, annual report of 1*2 3 

Comptroller of the Treasury, report of af^regate resoorces and 
liabilities of national banks from October, 1863, to October, 

1877 11 2 

Contingent expenses, letter from the Secretary of State, trans- 
mitting estimate of expenditure of con- 
tingent fund for the department 10 9 

letter from the Secretary of the Interior 
oonoeming deficiency in the, of the 

General Land Office 10 13 

Contingent fund of the Interior Department, letter from the 
Secretary, transmitting detailed account of the expenditure 

of the contingent fund of Interior Department 14 42 

Currency, anneal report of Comptroller of 11 3 

Customs, report of Commissioner of 11 i 2 

Costoms officers, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, ' 

transmitting a statement of emolnmentti 

and fees of 14 i 65 > 

letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 
transmitting a copy of letter from the Com- 
missioner of Customs proposing an altera- 
tion in the Revised Statutes fixing the 

compensation of inspectors of customs 14 36 

Customs revenue, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 

transmitting draught of a bill to prevent frauds in 17 86 

Customs service, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, i 
transmitting papers relative to the iuvestigation of the 10 25 

D. 

Deaf and Dumb, annual roport of the officers of the Colombia 
Institution for the (vol. 1) ; 8 1 

Decrease of receipts from internal revfune, letter from the ' 
Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting a communication 
from the Commissioner of Intemal Revenue, showing a de- 
crease in the receipts of 14 f^ 

Deficiencies in certain appropriat ions for t he Army 18 

Deticiencies in appropriations for 1^78 and prior yean*, letter 
from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting estimates 
of 14 45 

Deficiency for the contingent expenses of the General Land- 
Office, letter from the Secretary of the Interior concerning.. 10 13 

Director of the Mint, report of 11 2 

Directors of the Union Pacific Railroad, report of (vol. 1) 8 15 

Disbursing clerk, letter from the Secretary of the Interior, rec- 
ommending that the disbursing clerk of the dopartmeut be 
relieved from responsibility of the payment of certain forged 
vouchers i 14 54 

Disbursements made from appropriations for the Indian De- 
partment 13 6 

Dismal Swamp Canal, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury in reference to the interest of the government in 10 19 

Distribution of United States troops, letter from the Secretary 
of War, showing the 14 55 

District of Columbia, annual report of Commissioners of 10 i 1 . 6 

annual report of the Board of Health . .. i 10 i 1 7 

Dredge-boat McAllister, letter from the Secretary of War in I ' i 

relation to the disappearance of 14 | 67 

Duties upon foreign imports, comparative exhibit of, letter ' I 

from the Secretary of the Treasury in answer to a resolu- > 

tion of the House relative to 17 I 76 



5 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



Volume. I No. Part. 



E. 

EdncatioD, aunual report of the ComniissioDer of 

El Paso troubles in Texas, letter from the Secretary of War 
in response to a resolution of the House, tranRmitting re- 
ports of the commission appointed to iovestifi^ate the 

£1 Paso troubles, letter from the Secretary of War, transmit* 
ting report from Colonel Hatch on 

Emaoael, Victor I, King of Italy, letter from the Secretary of 
State, transmitting a letter from the Italian minister, rela- 
tive to the respect shown the memory of 

Employ^ of the War Department, letter from the Secretary of 
War, in response to a resolution of the House, trunsmittini; 
a list of, who have rendered service in the Army and Navy 
of the United States • 

Employ^ of the Navy Department, letter from the Secretary 
of the Navy, transmitting a list of civil employes for the 
year 1877 

Employ^ in the Interior Department, letter from the Secre- 
tary, transmitting a list of all employes who were honorably 
discharged from the military or naval service for disability 
arising from sickness or wounds incurred in the line of duty.. 

Eogioeers, report of the Chief of (vol. 2, parts 1 and 2) 

Estimates of appropriations. (See Appropriations.) 

Expenditures and receipts of the United States, an account of, 
for the year ending June 30, 1873 

Expenditures and receipts of the Uuitod States, an account of, 
for the year ening JunetiO, 1874 

£x]>enditures in the State Department, letter from the Secre- 
tary of State, transmitting statement of ooutiugent fund for 
the department 

Explosions, steam-boiler, message from the President, trans- 
mitting the report of the commission appointed under act of 
March 3, 1873, relative to the causes of 

F. 



Fees of customs officers, letter from Secretary of Treasury, 
transmitting a statement of 

Fire, security of public buildings against, message from the 
President, transmitting report of the commission appointed . 
to examine into the security of, in the city of Washington . . 

Fishery Commission, award of the Halifax, of 1877, with docu- 
ments and proceedings (3 volumes) 18, 

Flushing Bay, New York, letter from the Secret>ary of War, i 
transmitting report relative to improvement of ' 

Forage, letter from the Secretary of War, recommending an 
amendment of the statutes in relation to commutation of. .. 

Foreign relations, papers relating to 

Appendix, containing correspondence rela- 
tive to the improvement of commercial 
intercourse between the United States 
and foreign countries, preceded by a list 
of papers and followed by an index of per- 
sons and subjects 

Foreign countries, report upon the commercial relations of the 
United States with, for the year 1877 

Fishery Commission, documents and proceedings of the Hali- 
fax (3 voJS.) 18, 

Forestry, message from the President of the United States, 
transmitting a special report upon the subject of, by the 
Commissioner of Agriculture 

Fort Monroe, Va., letter from the Secretary of War, recom- 
mending appropriations for six new buildings at 

Frauds in customs revenue, letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasury, transmitting draught of a bill to prevent 

Freedmen's Hospital and Asylum, report upon the (vol. 1) 



9 1 

17 93 

17 84 

14 69 

17 99 

10 29 

17 94 

3,4 1 



15 i 


35 


1 
15 


39 


10 

1 


9 


14 


40 



14 65 



10 


10 


r20 


89 


17 


74 


10 

1 


17 
1 



5 



1 


1 


I 


22 


102 




19,20 


89 




10 


24 




14 


43 




17 

8 


8<> 

1 


5 



VI 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



Volume. No. Part. 



Fuel, letter from the Secretary of War, recooiroending an 
amendment of the statutes in relation to commutation of 

G. 

Geological and geographical surveys, a letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, transmitting a report of ProfesAor Pow- 
ell in regard to, in response to a resolution of the House — 

General of the Army, report of the (vol. 1) 

General Land Office, letter from the Secretary of the Interior 
concerning deficiency for contingent expeuses of the 



H. 

Halifax Commission, 1877, award of the Fishery* Connnission, 
documents and proceedings of, under the treaty of Washing- 

ington of May 8,1871, in three volumes 

Harbor at Cincinnati, letter from the Secretary of War, trans 
mittiug a report of engineer concerning protection 

of, from ice 

Norfolk, Hampton River, Pagan Creek, and the 
Chickahominy and Blackwater Rivers in Virginia, 
letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting re- 
port of engineer on improvement of 

Hampton River, letter of Secretary of War, transmitting re- 
ports of engineer upon the improvement of 

Hayden, Professor F. V., preliminary report of the field-work of 
the United States geological and geographical survey of the 

Territories by 

Hot Springs (Arkansas) Commission, report of the 

Hurtt, Captain F. W., assistant quartermaster, testimony and 
papers in cose of, transmitted by Secretary of War 

I. 

Illinois, survey of lake-beds, letter from Secretary of Interior 
in response to a resolution of the House in refereuce to the 

survey of 

Indian Afiairs, report of the Commissioner of (vol. 1) 

papers accompanying 

report of the Commissioner of, of disbursements 
for the Indian Department for year ending 

June 30, 1877 

Indiana, survey of lake-beds, letter from Secretary of Interior 
in response to a resolution of the House, in reference to the 

survey of 

Indians, letter from the Secretary of War, in response to a reso- 
lution of the House concerning the protection of the 

residents of Colorado against the 

letter from the Secretary of the Interior relative to 
land-entries by, in Michigan, and certain frauds 

practiced upon 

Informers, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, trans- 
mitting a detailed report of the sums allowed as compensa- 
tion to officers of customs and 

Insane, Government Hospital for, report of the operations of, 

by the board of visitors (vol. 1) 

Inspectors of customs, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, transmittiug letter from Commissioner of Customs pro- 
posing an alteration of certain sections of the Revised Stat- 
utes fixing the compensation of 

Interest paid to national banks, letter from the Secretary of 
the Treasury, transmitting a statement of the sums paid to.. 

Internal Revenue, Commissioner of, annual report of 

Interior Department, accountability of disbursing-clerk of, 

letter from the Secretary, recommend- 
ing that he be relieved 



10 



17 
2 



18, 19, 20 
14 

14 
14 



8 
8 

17 



17 

8 
8 



17 



80 
1 



10 13 



89 i 
41 

60 
60 



1 
1 

85 



83 
1 
1 



1 

i 

13 1 


6 


' i 
17 


83 


17 


91 


17 


82 


10 


26 


8 


1 


1 





14 


36 


14 
12 


34 

4 


14 


54 



INDEX. 



vn 



Subject. 



loterior Department, employes who have served in the milU 

tary and naval service, letter from the 

Secretary, transmitting a list of 

contingent fund of, letter from the Sec- 
retary of, transmitting detailed ac- 
count of expenditure of 

Interior, Secretary of the, annual report of the (vol. 1) 

letter from, relating to land entries by Indians in Michi- 




Part. 



gan 



annual report of the Commissioner of the General Land 

Office (vol. 1) 

papers accompanying the above report (vol. 1) .... 

report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

papers accompanying the same ( vol. 1 ) 

reiK>rt of the commission appointed to meet the Sioux In- 
dian chief Sitting-Boll, with a view to avert hostile 
incursions into the territory of the United States 
from the Dominioi^of Canada (vol. 1) 

report of the Commissioner of Pensions 

report of the field-work of the United States geological 
and geographical survey of the Territories under 
Professor Hayden (vol. 1) 

report on the geological and geographical survey of the 
Rocky Mountain region by J. W. Powell (vol. 1) 

report of the commission appointed under act of March, 
1877, regarding the Hot Springs reservation in the 
State of Arkansas (vol. 1) 

report of the government directors .of the Union Pacific 
Railroad (vol. 1) 

report upon the Yellowstone National Park (vol. 1) 

report of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
(vol.1) 

report upon Freedman's Hospital and Asylum (vol. 1) 

report upon the Columbia Hospital for Women and Lying- 
in Aaylum (vol. 1) 

report of the board of visitors upon the operations of thn 
Government Hospital for the Insane (vol. 1) 

report of the Architect of the Capitol 

tabular statements of the disbursements made from the 
appropriations for the Indian Department for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1877, and of salaries and, 
incidental expenses paid at each agency in the In- 
dian service during said period 

deficiency for the contingent expenses of the General Land 
Office, letter from the Secretary of the Interior con- 
cerning 

contingent fund of the Interior Department, letter from 
the Secretary of the Interior, transmitting detailed 
account of expenditures of 

accountability of disbursing-clerk, letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, recommending that the disburs- 
ing-clerk of the department be relieved from respon- 
sibility of the paymtnt of certain forged vouchers.. 

adoption of the metrical system, letter from the Secretary, 
transmitting report concerning 

Yellowstone National Park, letter from the Secretary in 
regard to the better protection of, from injury 

lands granted the State of Michigan for railroad purposes, 
Tetter from the Secretary, transmitting information 
conoeming 

geological and geographical surveys, letter from the Sec- 
retary, transmittin|; a report of Professor Powell in 
regard t j surveys,, in response to a resolution of the 
Hoose 

geolotgioa) and geographical aarvey 8, letter from the Sec- 
tary, in reeponae to a reaolntion of the House, traiis- 
miUing a report of Pro feasor Hayden 



14 

8 


42 

1 


5 


17 


82 




8 
8 
8 
8 


1 
1 
1 
1 


5 
5 
5 
5 


8 
8 


1 
1 


t 


8 


1 


5 


8 


1 


& 



8 
8 

8 : 

8 I 

I 

8! 

I 

8 
8 



1 

1 I 

1 I 
1 I 



1 

1 I 



10 


6 


10 


13 


14 


42 


14 


54 

1 


14 


<1 

1 


17 


75 , 



17 77 



17 \ 80 \ 



5 
5 



5 

5 

5 



\ 



17 B\ 



VIII 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



Interior, Secretary of the, survey of lake-beds in Indiana and 

Illinois, letter from the Secretary 
in response to a resolution of the 

House, in reference to the 

employ 68 in the Interior Department who have served in 
'military \ and naval service, letter from the Secre- 
tary, transmitting a list of 

ravages of the locnsto, letter from the Secretary, transmit- 
ting a report from the commission of entomologists 

on the, in Western States and Territories 

Iron, steel, and other metals, report of board for testing, trans- 
mitted by President 

Italy, letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting a letter 
from the Italian minister concerning the marks of 
respect shown to the memory of Victor Emanuel I, 
late King of 

J. 

Jetties, South Pass, Mississippi River, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War, relative to report of M. R. Brown, engineer, re- 
lating to the work on 

Joint commission, report of the, created to direct and super- 
vise the completiou of the Washington Monument 

Judge-Ad vocate-General, report of 

K. 

Kansas Pacific Railroad, letter from the Attorney-General of 
the United States, in response to a resolution of the House 
in relation to suits against the ,; 

Khedive of Egypt, letter from the Secretary of War, concerning 
a decoration conferred upon Assistant Surgeon Wilson, United 
States Army, by the 

King Victor Emanuel, of Italy, letter from the Secretary of 
State, transmitting a letter from the Italian minister concern- 
ing the marks of lespect shown to the memory of 

L. 

Lake-beds, survey of, in Indiana and Illinois, letter from the 
Secretary of the Interior, in response to a resolution of the 
House in reference to 4 

Lake Michigan and Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, letter from the , 
Secretary of War, transmitting report of engineer on the ] 
improvement of , 

Land-grant railroads, letter from the Secretary of War, rela- 
tive to a decision of the Supreme Court upon the matter of i 
payments to 

Land entries by Indians in Michigan, letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, relating to : 

Land Office, letter from the Secretary of the Interior, concerning 
deficiency for contingent expenses of the General Land Office. ; 

Land Office, report of the Commissioner of the General Land i 
Office (vol. 1) 

Lands granted to the State of Michigan for railroad purposes, 
letter from the Secretary of the Interior, transmitting infor- 
mation concerning lands granted to 

Leavenworth military prison, report concerning (vol. 1) 

Legal-tender notes, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 
in reference to sale of United States bonds for outstanding .. 

Locnsts, ravages of, letter from Secretary of Interior, trans- 
mitting a report from commission of entomologists on the . .. { 

Loss of the steamer Metropolis, letter from the Secretary of i 
the Treasury, transmitting report of the Life-Saving Service 
in reference to 

Louisiana, commission sent to, by the Pi-esideut, letter from the 
Secretary of State, trausmitiiug correspondence, «Src 



Volume. 



No. 



Part. 



17 


83 


17 


94 


17 


95 


17 


98 



14 



14 

10 
2 



17 



10 



69 



37 

1 
1 



76 



23 



14 69 



17 ; 83 



14 44 



8 
2 



10 


20 




17 


82 




10 


13 




8 


1 


5 


17 
2 


77 

1 


2 


14 


63 




17 


93 




14 


58 




17 


97 





INDEX. 



IX 



Subject. 



Volaine. ' No. 



Part. 



M. 

Mail steamship service, letter from the Postmaster-General, 
Iq compliaQoe with the resolatioa of the Hoase, traasniittiDg 

a tabalar statement of the ocean, of foreign countries 

MailSy offer for carrying land and water, established, &c 

McAllister, dredge-boat, letter from the Secretary of War, in 

relation to 

Metrictal system, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 

transmitting, in response to a resolution 
of the Honse, reports concerning adoption 

of the, of weights and measures 

letter from the Secretary of the Interior in 

regard to the above 

letter from the Secretary of War in regard to 

the above 

Metropolis, loss of steamer, letter from the Secretary of the 
Tresisiirj, transmitting report of the Life-Saving Service in 

raference to 

Mtchi^aD, land granted to, for railroad purposes, lett^^r from 
Secretary of Interior, transmitting information con- 
cerning « 

letter from Secretary of the Interior, relating to 

land entries by Indians in the State of 

Military Academy, report of visitors to (vol. 1) 

letter from the Attorney-General, in re- 
sponse to a resolution of the House in 
reference to the appointment of cadets to 

the Naval and, by the President 

Military posts, abondonment of certain, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War concerning 

Military post, site for in Texas, letter from the Secretary of 

Wju* relative to th ) donation of land as a 

Military roads in Arizona, letter from the Secretary of War 

in relation to certain 

Miat, report of the Director of 

IfjSBiasippi River, jetties, South Pass, letter from Secretary of 

War, relative to the report of M. R. Brown, 
* engineer, relating to the work of Mr. 

Ei^s at 

improvement of Southwest Pass of, letter 
from the Secretary of War, transmitting 
report of engineer npon the improvement 

of i 

Sonth Pass of, letter from the Secretary of 
War, transmitting a report upon the im- 
provement of 

reservoirs to improve the navigation of, let- 
ter from the Secretary of War, transmit- 
ting information concerning the effect of., 
improvement of, letter from the Secretary 
of War, transmitting report of Chief of 

Engineers upon the necessity for 

South Pass of, report of the engineer on the 

improvement of 

Mississippi, veto of the bill for special term of United States 
coart in, message from the President of the Halted States 

assigning reasons for 

MisBoari River, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting 

report of Chief of Engineers on the improvement of 

Mo) toe Water-Power Company, letter from the Secretary of 
War« transmitting communication from the president of, of 
Moline, III., with a report of the Cbief of Orduance thereon.. 



14 38 
16 51 

14 ' 67 



14 I 71 

14 71 

10 8 

14 I 58 

17 77 

! 

17 ! 82 



14 



10 

10 
11 



14 



14 



70 



17' 79 



14 

21 
2 



37 



14 64 



52 



14 I 49 

10 22 

2 1 

14 62 

10 22 

17 , 87 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



N. 

NatioDal banks, letter from the Secretary of Trea»nry, traDs- 
mitting a statement of the soms paid for interest iu coin and 
corrency upon bonds held by 

Naval Academy, appointment of cadets to, letter from Attor- 
ney-General in reference to 

Navy Department, civil employes in, letter from the Secretary 
of Navy, transmitting a list of civil enipIoy6s in that depart- 
ment for year ending December 31,1877 

Navy, letter from the Secretary of War, in response to a res- 
olution of House, transmitting a list of iiersons in the em- 
ploy of that department who have rendered service in the 
Army or 

Navy, Secretary of, annual report of the 

transmits list of civil employes la his de- 
partment 

Navy, State, and War Department buildings, report of the 
engineer upon the state of (vol. 1) 

New Mexico and Colorado, letter from the Secretary of War, 
transmitting reports on lines of communication between 

New York, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting report 
relative to improvement of Flushing Bay 

Norfolk Harbor, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting 
a report of engineers upon the improvement of 

O. 

Ocean mail steamship service, letter from the Postmaster-Gen- 
eral, in compliance with a resolution of the House, trans- 
mitting a tabular statement of, of forei|[n countries 

Officers, commutation allowed in certain cities, letter from Sec- 
retary of War, transmitting a list of, who received 

Ordnance, Chief of, annual report of (vol. 3) 

P. 

Pacific Railroad, Kansas, letter from the Attorney-General, in 
response to a resolution of the House in relation to suits 

against the 

Pagan Creek, Virginia, letter from Secretary of War, trans- 
mitting reports of engineers upon the improvement of, &o .. 
Painting, message from the President, informing Congress that 
he had delivered to Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson a copy of the 

joint resolution accepting 

Pardons, letter from the Attorney-General, in response to a 
resolution of the House, transmitting a list of, by the Presi- 
dent between March 4, 1877, and May 20, 1878 

Park, Yellowstone National, lett<)r from the Secretary of the In- 
terior in regard to the better protection of the 

Patents, annual report of the Commissioner of 

Paymaster-General, annual report (vol. 1) 

Payments to informers, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, transmitting a detailed report of the sums allowed as 

compensation to officers of customs 

Pensions, annual report of the Commissioner of (vol. 1) 

Pennsylvania avenue, letter from the President, transmitting 

report of Commissioners upon the repavement of 

Postmaster-General, report of the 

transmits a tabular statement of the 
ocean mail steamship service of foreign 

countries 

otfer for carrying mails, land and water 

mails established, &c 

Powell, J. W., report on the geographical and geological sur- 
vey of the Rocky Mountain region 

(vol.1) 

on the arid regions of the United States.. 




Part. 



14 34 
14 70 



10 I 29 i 



17 
7 


99 
1 


10 


29 


2 


1 


14 


66 


17 


74 


17 


60 



14 76 



14 



14 



17 

17 

13 

2 



60 



47 



100 

75 

61 

1 



14 


38 


14 


48 


5 


1 



3 



10 

8 


26 
1 


5 


10 
7 


11 

1 j 


4 


14 


38 

1 




16 


1 
51 





8 
13 



1 
3 



i} 



INDEX. 



XI 



Subject. 



Volume. I No. ' Part. 



of the United States, traDsmits auDual mesRage and 

accompauying dooumeuts, 
secoud session, Forty-fifth 
Congress 

transmits papers relating to 
the foreigu relations of the 
United States, preceded by a 
list of papers and followed 
by an index of persons and 
subjects 

transmits report of the joint 
com mission created to direct 
and supervise the completion 
of the Washington Monu- 
ment 

transmits report of the commis- 
sion appointed to examine 
into the security of the pub- 
lic buildings in the city of 
Washington against fire 

transmits report of commis- 
sioners niK>n the repavement 
of Pennsylvania avenue 

transmits a special report upon 
the subject of forestry, by 
the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture 

transmits the recent correspon- 
dence between the Govern- 
ments of Venezuela and the 
United States, in relation to 
the Venezuelan Mixed Claims 
Commission, in answer to a 
resolution of the House 

transmits a report of the Attor- 
ney-General, in answer to a 
resolution of the House, upon 
the operation of the Union 
Pacific Railroad and its 
branches 

transmit^^ report of the com- 
mission appointed under the 
act of Congress approved 
March 3, 1873, relative to the 
causes of steam-boiler explo- 
sions 

informs Congress that he has 
delivered to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thompson a copy of the joint 
resolution accepting a paint- 
ing tendered by her 

communicates, by message, his 
reasons for withholding ap- 
proval of the bill (H. R. 1093) 
entitled '*An act to author- 
ize the coinage of the stand* 
ard silver dollar and to re- 
store its legal-tender char- 
acter" 

communicates, by message, his 
reasons for withholding ap- 
proval of t he bill ( H. R. 3072) 
of the House authorizing a 
Bpecial term of the circuit 
court of the United States for 

the southern district of Mis- 
aiaaippi 



10 



8 



10 
10 



10 
11 



10 24 



10 30 



10 32 



14 40 



14 47 



14 



59 



\4 (a 



XII 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



President of the United States, transmits, in response to a res- 
olution of the House, a re- 
port from the Secretary of 
State in reference to the 
seizure of the steamer Vir- 
giuius 

trausmits the documents and 
proceedings ef the Halifax 
Commission, 1877 (Fishery 
Commission), under the 
treaty of Washington of May, 
1871, in thr^e volumes 

transmits, by message, a com- 
munication from the Secre- 
tary of State, in response to a 
resolution of the House, in 
relation to the convention 
for establishing an interna- 
tional bureau of weights and 
measures 

transmits letter from the Attor- 
ney-General, in reference to 
the appointment of cadets 
to thev Naval and Military 
Academies by 

transmits letter from the Sec- 
retary of State, transmitting 
correspondence, &c., in con- 
nection with the commission 
appointed by the, to visit 
Louisiana, in April, 1877 

transmits report of the board 
for testing iron, steel, and 

other metals 

Public buildings, report of the commission appointed to exam- 
ine into the security of the public buildings in the city of 
Washington against fire 

Q. 

Quartermaster-General, report of ( vol. 1) 

Quarters, commutation of, letter from the Secretary of War, 
recommending an amendment of the statutes in relation to.. 

R. 

Railroads, land-grant, letter from the Secretary of War, rela- 
tive to a decision of the Supreme Court upon the 

matter of payment to 

lands granted the State of Michigan for, letter from 
the Secretary of Interior, transmitting informa- 
tion concerning 

Union Pacific and its branches, message from the 
President, in answer to a resolution of the House, 
transmitting a re^iort of the Attorney-General 

upon the operation of 

location of Southern and Texas Pacific, letter from 
the Secretary of War concerning tiie, through 
Fort Yuma reservation and across the Colorado 

River 

Reappropriations for 1875 and prior years, letter from the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, transmitting estimates of 

Receipts, decrease of, from internal revenue, letter from Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, showing 

Receipts and expenditures, an account of, for the year ending 
Jane 30, 1873 



Volume. 



N«». ; Part. 



14 



18,19,20 



17 



10 
14 
14 
14 



72 



89 



96 



14 1 70 



i 

17 


97 


17 


98 


10 


10 


2 


1 


10 

1 


17 


'i 10 


20 


17 


77 



10 I 32 



33 
46 
50 
35 



INDEX. 



XIII 



Subject. 



Volume. No. 



Part. 



>iptf» and expenditnree, an account of, for the year ending 

Jane 'M\ 1?^4 

lirs on the Speiden building, letter from the Secretary of 

War, ivcoiH mending an appropriation for 

Repa^enien of Pennsylvania avenue, report of the commis- 

ftioners upon the 

ScvrrvoifB, to promote the navigation of the Mississippi River, 
Itrtr-er fr<»m the Secretary of War, transmitting information 

coDceruing the e£feot of 

ReTenue, prevention of frands in customs, letter from the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, transmitting draaght of a 

bill to prevent 

iovestigation of the customs service, letter from the 
Secretary of the TreMury, transmitting papers 

relative to 

Roberta. Marshall O., report of the Quartermaster-Greueral, rela- 
tive to the names, ages, &:c., of the steamships purchased of, 
and owned in part or whole by 

S. 

Sa^naw River, proposed bridge over, letter from the Secre- 
tarj of War, transmitting report relative to 

Saint Croix River, letter from the Secretary of War, trans- 
mittini; report upon 

Sale of United States bonds for ont«tanding legal-tender notes, 
letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, in response to reso- 
lution of the House concerning 

Seameo, certificates of citizenship to, during year ending De- 
cember, 31, 1877, letter from the Secretary of State, trans- 
mitting number of 

Secnrity of public buildings against lire in the city of Wash- 
ington, report of commission 

Siisnal Officer, annual report of Chief (vol. 4) 

Silver bill, veto of, message from the President, assigning rea- 
sons for vrithholding his signature to (H. R. 109:<) 

Sitttnj^ Boll, report of the commission appointed to visit 

(TOl. 1> 

Soidieni* Home, report of the board of commissioners (vol. 1).. 
Sooth Pass of the Mississippi River, improvement of, report 

of engineer (vol. 1) 

letter fiom the Secretary of War on above 

Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War on the improvement of 

Sonthem Pacific Railroad, location of, letter from the Secretary 

of War 

Speiden bailding, repairs of 

State, War, and Navy Department building, report of engineers 

on (vol. 1) 

State Department, expenditure of the, letter from the Secre- 
tary, transmitting statement of 

State, Secretary of, transmits statement of expenditures in his 

department 

% transmits abstract of returns made by the 
collector of cuotoms of the number of 
sea • en having received certificates of 

citizenship during 1877 

transmits letter from the Italian minister, 
concerning marks of respect shown the 
memory of Victor Emanuel I, late King 

of Italy 

transmits correspondence, «fcc., in connec- 
tion with the commissiou appointed by 
the President to yisit Lonhiana in April, 

li^r 

%ieam^ boiler explosions, report of com mission 



17 
10 
10 

14 

17 

10 

17 



10 
10 

2 

10 

10 



14 
14 

14 

14 

10 
6 

14 

8 
2 

2 

14 



7y 

15 
11 

49 

86 

25 

92 



57 
53 

68 

10 
1 

59 

1 
1 

1 

59 



14 64 



33 
15 

1 

9 

9 



14 68 



14 69 



1,2 



17 
14 




5 
2 



XIV 



INDEX. 



Sabject. 



Steamer Virginias, message from the President, transmitting a 
report from the Secretary of State in reference to seizure of 
the 

Snits against the Kansas Pacific Railroad, letter from the Attor- 
ney-General of the United States, in relation to 

Snrgeon-General, annual report of the, for the year ending 
June 30, 1877 (vol. 1) 

Surgeon at West Point, New York, letter from the Secretary 
of War, transmitting leport of 

Surveys, geological and geo^aphical, letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, transmitting report of Professor Hay den 
upon 

Survreys of lake-beds in Indiana and Illinois, letter from the 
Secretary of the Interior in reference to 

Surveys by the War Department for the last ten years, letter 
from the Secretary of War relating to 

T. 

• 

Territories, preliminary report of the field-work of the U nited 

States Geological and Geographical Survey of the (vol 1) . .. 

Texas, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting report 

of Colonel Hatch on the subject of El Paso troubles 

in 

letter from the Secretary of War, trauBmitting reports 
of the commission appointed to investigate the £1 

Paso troubles in 

Texas Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroad, letter from the 
Secretary of War, concerning the location of, through Fort 

Yuma reservation and across the Colorado Rtver 

Texas, site for a military post in, letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to the donation of lands for 

Thompson, Mrs. Elizabeth, letter from the President, in- 
forming Congress that be bad delivered a copy of a joint 
resolution of Congress accepting a painting tendered by her 

to 

Treasurer of the United States, annual report of, for year end- 
ing June 30,1877 

Treasury, Secretary of, annual report of, on the state of the 

finances 

Papers accompanying the above : 

Report of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue 

Report of the Comptroller of the Currency 

Report of the Director of the Mint 

Report of the First Comptroller 

Report of the First Auditor 

Report of the Treasurer of the United States 

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey 

Report of the Commissioner of Customs 

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

Report of the Register of the Treasury 

Treasury, Secretary of, transmits estimates of apppropriations 

for fiscal year ending June 30, 1879.. . 
transmits a statement in reference to 
the interest of the government in 

the Dismal Swamp Canal 

transmits papers relative to the investi- 
gation of the customs service 

transmits report of the sums allowed as 
compensation to officers of customs 
and informers for fiscal j-ear ending 

June 30, 1877 

transmits estimates of appropriations 
for payment of claims due prior to 

July 1, 1875 

transmits list of claims allowed under 
the act of July 4, 1864 



Volume. 


No. 


Part 


14 


79 




17 


76 




2 


1 

1 


2 


10 


28 




17 


81 




17 


83 




17 


i 
88 





i ® 

1 


1 


17 

1 


84 


17 


93 


10 1 


33 


]0 


14 



14 47 



11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 1 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


13 


5 


10 


19 


10 


25 


10 


26 


10 


27 


10 


31 



INDEX. 



XV 



Sabjeot. 



rreajrary. Secretary of, traDsmits answer to resolation of the 

House, with statement of the snnis 
paid for interest, in coin and enrrency, 
upon bonds held by national banks.. 

transmits an account of the receipts 
and expenditures for the year ending 
June 30, 1873 

transmits a copy of a letter from the 
Commissioner of Customs, relative to 
the compensation of inspectors of 
customs 

transmits an account of the receipts 
and expenditures for the year ending 
June 30, 1874 

transmits estimates of deficiencies in 
appropriations for the year 1878 and 
prior years 

transmits estimates of amounts to be 
reappropriated for the year 1875, and 
for prior years 

transmits a communication from the 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
showing a decrease of receipts for 
the current fiscal year 

transmits report of the Life-Saving 
Service, relative to the loss of the 
Steamer Metropolis 

transmits answer to a resolution of 
the House in reference to the sale of 
United States bonds for outstanding 
legal-tender notes 

transmits a statement of emoluments 
and fees of customs officers 

communicates, in response to the reso- 
lution of the House relative to the 
adoption of the metrical system, and 
transmits certain reports in reference 
thereto 

communicates, in response to a resolu- 
tion of the House, relative to duties 
on foreign imports 

transmits draught of a bill to prevent 
frauds in customs revenues 

transmits annual report of the Chief of 
Bureau of Statistics 

U. 

Union Pacific Railroad, message from the President, transmit- 
ting, in answer to a resolution of the 
House, a report of the Attorney- Gen- 
eral npon the operation of the 

report of the government directors of 
the, for the year ending June 30, 

1677, (vol. 1) 

Uoit€)d States troops, communication from the Secretary of 
War, showing the distribution of 1.. . 

V. 



Volume. 


No. Part. 


14 


34 




15 


35 

] 


14 


36 ! 


14 


39 


1 

14 


45 


14 


40 


14 


50 


14 


58 


! 14 


m 


14 


C5 





14 71 



17 


78 


17 


8G 


14 


90 



10 I 32 



8 5 



14 55 



Veaeznelaa Mixed Claims Commission, message from the Pres- 
ident, in answer to a resolution of the House, transmitting 
ihe recent correspondence between the Governments of Ven- 
ezoela and the United States in relation to the 

V«iD of the silver biJJ, message of {the Presidentf with his rea- 
9eBi9 for witbboldiofir his approval of the silver bill CH R 

i(xaj ^ 



10 ^50 



14 l^ 



i 



XVI 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



Veto of the bill for special term of United States conrt in Mis- 
sissippi. Message from the President, assigning his reasons^ 
for withholding his approval of said bill (H. R. 3072) 

Yirginius, steamer, message from the President^t ransmitting, 
in compliance with a resolution of the House, a report from 
the Secietary of State in reference to the seizure of 

W. 

War Department, surveys by the, letter from the Secretiiry of 

War, in response to a resolution of the 
House, relating to surveys conducted by, 

for the last ten years 

list of clerks in the, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War, transmitting 

War Department building, report of the engineers in charge of. 

War, Secretary of, annual report of (vol. 1) 

Papers accompanying the above : 

Report of the General of the Army 

Report of the Judge-Ad vocate-General 

Report of the Quartermaster-General 

Report of the Commissary-General of Subsistence 

Report of the Surgeon-General 

Report of the Payraaster-Gteneral 

Report of the Board of Visitors to the United States Mili- 
tary Academy 

Report of the Board of Commissioners of the Soldiers' 

Home 

Report on the State, War, and Navy Department buildings. 
Reports upon the improvement of the South Pass of the 

Missiso' . River 

Report conce ing Leavenworth military prison 

Report cfthv ireedmen's branch of the Adjutant-General's 

Office 

Report of the Chief of Engineers (volume 2, parts 1 

and 2) 

Report of the Chief of Ordnance (volume 3) 

Report of the Chief Signal Officer (volume 4) 

War, Secretary of, transmits reports of chiefs of bureaus upon 

the adoption of the metrical system, in re- 
sponse to a resolution of the House 

transmits report of the Adjutant- General in 

the case of George A. Armes 

communicates relative to the donation of 
laud as a site for a military post in 

Texas 

communicates, recommending an appropri- 
ation to repair the Speiden building 

transmits list of clerks in the War Depart- 
ment 

communicates, recommending an amend- 
ment of the statutes in relation to commu- 
tation of quarters, fuel, and forage 

transmits estimates of appropriations for 
certain deficiencies in the appropriations 

for the Army 

communicates relative to a decision of the 
Supreme Court upon the matter of pay 

ments to land- grant railroads 

communicates relative to certain military 

roads in Arizona 

transmits reportof Chief of Engineers upon 
the necessity for the improvement of 
the Mississippi, Missouri, and Arkansas 
Rivers 



Volume. 




14 
14 



17 

10 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



Part. 



2 
2 

2 
2 



3,4 
;> 



10 

in 



62 
72 



88 

16 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 t 



1 
I 



1 
1 
I 



8 
12 



10 


14 


10 


15 


10 


16 


10 


17 


10 


18 


10 


20 


10 


21 


10 


22 



2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



2 
2 

2 
2 



2 
2 
2 



INbEX. 



XVII 



Subject. 



Volume. 



War, Secretary of, commnuicates coocerniDji^ a decoration con- 
ferred npon Assistant Suri^eon Wilson, 
United States Army, by the Khedive ot 

Ewrpt 

transmits tbe report of the surgeon at 
West Point, N. Y 

communicates concerning the location of 
the Southern Pacific and Texas Pacific 
Railroads through Fort Yuma reserva- 
tion and across the Colorado Hi ver 

communicates relative to tbe report of M. 
R. Brown, captain of engineers, relative 
to tbe work of Mr. Eads at South P<tS8, 
Mississippi River 

tmnsmits report of the engineer concerning 
the best method of protecting thu harbor 
of Cincinnati from ice 

cnmmunicntes, recommending an ai»pro!»ri- 
ation for bix Lew buildings at Fort Mon- 
roe, Virginia 

transmits report of tbe engineer on tbe im- 
provements of Stur*;eoii Bay and Lake 
Michigan Ship Canaland Harbor 

transmits a list of officers who received 
commutatloD, fuel, forage, and quarters 
in certain cities 

transmits information concerning tbe effect 
of reservoirs upon tbe navigation of tbe 
Mississippi River , 

transmits a report upon tbe improvement. 
* of the South Pass of tbe M ssissippi River 

transmits report upon Saint Croix River 

communicates, showing tbe distribution of 
United States troops 

transmits re|K)rt of engineer upon the im- 
provement of the *'Gut" opposite Bath, 

transmits report of engineer upon bridging 
the Saginaw River, at East Saginaw, 
Mich 

transmits report of engineer upon the im- 

erovement of Norfolk Harbor, Hampton 
tiver, Pagan Creek, and the Chicka- 
bomony and Blackwater Rivers, in Vir- 
ginia 

transmits report of engineer upon the im- 
provement of the Southwest Pass of the 
Mississippi River 

transmits reports on lines of communication 
between Colorado and New Mexico 

communicates in relation to the disappear- 
nnoe of the United States dredge-boat 
McAlister 

transmits report relative to the improve- 
ment of Flushing Bay, New York 

communicates concerning the abandonment 
of certain militanr posts 

transmits report of Colonel Hatch on the 
subject of tbe £1 Paso troubles 

transmits testimony apd papers iu case of 
Captain F. W. Hnrtt, assistant quarter- 
master 

transmits communications from the presi- 
dent of the Moline Water Power Com- 
pany, of Moline, 111., with report of the 
Chief of Ordnance thereon 



H. Ex. 



11 




10 
10 

10 



14 



17 



17 



Parts. 



23 

28 

33 





37 




41 




43 




44 




48 




49 




52 
53 




55 




56 




57 



60 





64 




66 




67 




74 




79 


1/ 


84 



85 



87 



1.2 



i 



XVIII 



INDEX. 



Subject. 


Volume. 


No. 


Parta^ 


War, Secretary of, communicates, in response to a resolution 

of the House, giving information concern- 
ing the surveys conducted by the depart- 
ment in the last ten vears 


17 
17 

17 
17 

17 
17 

17 

10 

10 

• 

• 

17 

8 


88 
91 

92 
93 

99 
101 

96 

28 

23 

75 
1 




communicates, in response to a resolution 
of the House, concerning the protection 
of the residents of Western Colorado 
atrainst the Indians - 




transmits report of the Qnartermaster-Gen- 
eral relative to the names, ages, &c., of 
the steamships purchased of and owned, 
in part or whole, by Marshall O.Roberts, 
of New York 




transmits report of commission on El Paso 
troubles in Texas -. 




transmits a list of persons in the employ of 
the departments who have rendered serv- 
ice in the Army or Navy of the United 
States - 




transmits report of survey of Connecticut 
River 




Weights and measures, international bureau of, message from 
the President, transmitting a communication from the Sec- 
retary of State in relation to the convention for re-estab- 
lishinff.. .*. 




West Point, N. Y., sanitary report of surgeon at, transmitted 
bv the Secretary of War. ...... ...... ...... .... ...... ...... 




Wilson, W. J., assistant surgeon United States Army, letter 
from the Secretary of War, concerning a decoration conferred 
UDon. bv the Khedive of Efirvot 




Y. 

Yellowstone National Park, letter from the Secretary of the 

Interior in regard to the better 

protection of, from injury 

renort on the ( vol. 1). ............ 


5 







45th Congress, ) HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES. ( Ex. Doc. 1, 
2d Session. ] \ Part 5. 



KEPORT 



OF THB 



SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR; 



BUNG FAST OF 



THE MESSAGE AND DOCUMENTS 



OOMMUNICATKD TO TBB 



TWO HOUSES OF CONGRESS 



AT THB 



BEGINNING OF THE SECOND SESSION OP THE FORTY-FIFTH CONGRESS. 



VOLUME II. 



WASHIXGTOJS: 

aOTBBNHENT PBINTINO OFFIOB. 

1879, 



ERRATA, 

Page 53. Instead of James S. Smart, read James H. Smart. 

Page 79. The Medical College of Kentucky University is closed, not reorganized. 

Page 174. Omit the reference mark b. 

Page 351, line numbered 56. The amount $11.88, given in column 121, covers the 
average per capita expenditure for both instruction and incidentals ; it should there- 
fore appear in the centre of columns 120 and 121. 

Page 426, In column 1, transpose the lines numbered 1009 and 1010. 

• 

III 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Skport OF TRs Commissioner OF Education vii-ccvi 

General review of educational condition, vii ; conflict of capital and 
labor, vii-viii ; work of the Office, ix-xii ; school and college cata- 
lognee, zii-xiii ; sommaries of educational Btatistics, with remarks 
and diagrams, xiii-xxui; educational coudition of the States and 
Territories, xxiv-xxxii ; schools for the colored race, xxxiii-xxxix ; 
the township school system, xxxix ; free text books, xxxix-xl ; su- 
}>erYision in educational systems, xl-xlv ; summary of school statis- 
tics of cities, with remarks, xlvi-lix ; hygiene in the public schools, 
lix-lxv; education r«. police, Ixv-lxvi ; Janitors' wages, Ixvii-lxviii ; 
statistical summary of normal schools, Ixix-lxxiii ; professorships of 
}>edagogics, Ixxiv-lxxv ; statistical summaries of business colleges, 
Kindergarten, and secondary schools, with remarks, Ixxv-Ixxx ; the 
high school question, Ixxxi-lxxxviii ; secondary instruction abroad, 
Ixxxyiii-xci ; statistical summaries of preparatory schools, colleges 
for women, and universities and colleges, with diagrams and re- 
marks, xci-ciii ; statement respecting American colleges, civ-cviii ; 
condition of superior instruction, cviii-cx ; health of college stn^ 
denta, cxi-cxv ; statistical summary of schools of science, with re- 
marks, cxv-cxx ; vacation schools, cxx-cxxi ; statistical summaries 
of theological seminaries, schools of law, and schools of medicine, 
with remarks, cxxi-cxxvi ; statistical summary of degrees con- 
ferred, cxxvi-cxxxi ; improvements in public libraries, cxxxi-cxxxii ; 
Library of Congress, cxxxii-cxxxiv ; library of the Office, cxxxiv ; 
statistical summary of additional public libraries, cxxxiv-cxlii ; 
early American libraries, cxlii ; statistical summaries of schools 
for the deaf and dumb and the blind, benefactions, educational 
publications, schools for the feeble .minded, and patents for im- 
provements in school furniture, with remarks, cxlii-cliv ; education 
in foreign countries, cliv-clxxv ; instruction in art, with statistics, 
clxxv-clxxxi ; statistical summaries of orphan asylums, soldiers' 
orphans' homes, infant asylums, industrial schools, miscellaneous 
charities, and reform schools for 1876, clxxxii-cciii ; crime and edu- 
cation, cciii-ccv ; recommendations, ccv-rccvi ; conclusion, ccvi. 
Abstbacts t 1-304 

Abstracts of the official reports of the school officers of States, Terri- 
tories, and cities, with other additional information 5-297 

Educational conventions and associations 298-iK)4 

Statistics OF EDUCATION for the year 1877 - 305-6:r> 

Table I. Statistics of the school systems of the States and Territories. 306-313 
II. School statistics of cities containing 7,500 inhabitants and 

over 314-355 

III. Statistics of normal schools 356-365 

rV. Statistics of commercial and business colleges 366-375 

V. Statistics of Kindergarten 376-390 

VI. Statistics of institutions for secondary instruction 391-476 

V 



i 



VI CONTENTS. 

Table YII. Statistics of preparatory schools 477-486 

VIIL Statistics of institutions for the superior instruction of 

women ...^ •• 4OT--502 

IX. Statistics of universities and colleges 503-534 

X. Statistics of schools of science 535-^543 

XL Statistics of schools of theology 544-553 

XU. Statistics of schools of law 554-557 

XIII. Statistics of schools of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy. 558-566 

XIV. Summary of examinations for admission to the United States 

Military and Naval Academies 567 

XY. Degrees conferred in 1877 by universities, colleges, scientific 
and other professional schools, and by schools for the supe- 
rior instruction of women 568-582 

XVI. Statistics of additional public libraries numbering 300 vol- 
umes or upwards 583-585 

XV II. Statistics of institutions for the deaf and dumb 58&^589 

XV III. Statistics of institutions for the blind 590-591 

XIX. Statistics of educational benefactions 59^^-617 

XX. Publications, educational, historical, dec, for 1877 618-633 

XXI. Statistics of schools and asylums for feeble-minded children. 634 
XXII. Improvements in school furniture, apparatus, &>o., patented 

in the year 1877 635 

IKDEX 637-644 



EEPORT. 



Department of the Interior, Bureau op Education, 

Washington, D, C, Xavember, 1877. 

8iR : I have the houor to submit my eighth annnal report, covering the year 1877. 

During the year, education, in connection with other great intereste, has continued 
to suffer from the hard times. The depreciation in the value of investments has 
reduced the income of even the best endowed institutions. Poverty has rendered it 
impoesible for many young persotis to pay tuition or other expenses at school and has 
compelled them to finish their studies prematurely. The appropriations for public 
schools have been decreased in many directions, sometimes to the great ii^ury of their 
efficieXicy, as when the reduction of teachers* salaries has put poor teachers in the 
place of good ones, or when the school year has been shortened or the course of study 
abridged ; but, on the whole, the systems of free public instruction in the different 
States have given new proof of their fitness to our wants as a people by what they 
have accomplished, in spite of the present financial distress and widespread unrest. 

CONFUCT OF CAPITAL AND LABOR. 

In my Inst rexK>rt I noted the occasion we had, as a people, to congratulate our- 
selves that the first century of our national history was closing with so great freedom 
from the evils that have arisen in older civilizations from the conflicts between capi- 
tal and labor. Unfortunat<)ly, the possibilities of these evils pointed out by eminent 
educators and other students of social science have become realities as never beforo 
among us. Singularly enough, the lesson taught by these outbreaks has apparently 
in some cases stopped short of tracing them to their source in individual character, 
and has failed also to discover the part to be performed by education as a means of 
protection against their recurrence. 

In some communities where mob violence became most destructive, we have Wit- 
nessed the surprising spectacle of unusual efforts, sometimes aided by thoughtful per- 
sons, to cripple or paralyze the local public school system. We cannot review these 
events without reaching the conviction that capital, patriotism, and statesmanshii^, 
each and all, should bo more far-sighted. 

In the shadow of these untoward events we may fitly recall the great Stein, amid the 
evils under which Prussia was struggling, when enumerating in his political testa- 
ment the considerations fitted to elevate and preserve the state. He says : 

Most is to be expected from the education and instruction of youth. Could we by 
a method grounded on the internal nature of man develop from within every spiritual 
gift, rouse and nourish every noble principle of life^ carefully avoiding one sided cult- 
ure; could we diligently nurse those instincts, hitberto so often disregarded with 
shallow indifference, on which the force and dignity of man rest, » * • then 
might we hope to see a generation grow uj) vigorous both in body and soul, and a 
better prospect for the future unfold itself. 

Some speak of our liberty and the institutions fostered by it as in their very nature 
a sufficient guarantee of the perpetuity of our blessings and an ample guard against 
all the ills incident to other forms of government. The exx>erience of this year diould 

vn 



VIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

suffice to dissipate this idea, and to bring us back to the conviction that our safety 
is only in the most vigilant use of every instrumentality fitted to assure the training 
of each child in the land in virtue and intelligence and in the pursuit of some useful 
and honorable vocation. The evils here recalled are not limited to the action of great 
mobs; they are found also in some form in the path of the thousands of '^nomadic 
paupers" who wander about the country. 

It will not be amiss for the educator to recall the conditions which have attended 
the growth of these 'evils elsewhere. We are glad to believe that the horrors of the 
French revolution of 1793 would be impossible among us ; but it should be remembered 
that there has been no lack of bread in our land while we have witnessed these crimes 
of the mob and the " tramp." Indeed, it may be doubted whether we have sufficiently 
reflected upon the enormities possible in our communities if the systematic vagrancy 
of the ignorant, vicious, and criminal classes should continue to increase ; since the 
great size of our country and its facilities for travel will afford to any who choose to 
leave their own neighborhoods for such evil purposes unusual opportunities for com- 
mitting crime and mischief unrecognized. 

There is, no doubt, a lesson for us in the statement made by the famous Fletcher of 
Saltoun and used by Lecky,^ to the effect that in 1G98 there were in the little country 
of Scotland two hundred thousand x>^ople begging from door to door, besides a great 
many poor families, very meanly provided for by the church boxes, with others who 
by living upon bad food fell victims to various diseases. A similar lesson may be 
learned from a similar condition of affairs in the other small country of Ireland. Arthur 
Dobbs, in 1731, computed the number of strolling beggars in a single year at thirty- 
four thousand.' 

Do not the warnings which we may derive from such exx>eriences in other countries 
emphasize the conclusion that all interests require such a training for every child in 
the community as to turn him aside from the current which bears on to tliese evils f 
How can we resist the conclusion that iiis physical, intellectual, moral, and industrial 
training should be most efficiently arranged and carried forward to establish for him 
safeguards against a life of idleness, vice, or crime f Moreover, even if it be granted 
that we have never suffered, as did the French before 1793, from royal and aristocratic 
oppression, and that we possess and ei\joy the largest reasonable liberty for all classes, 
still the educator, in reasoning upon the acts of violence which have occurred among 
us during the year, may well ask what the consequences might have been had those 
disturbances been preceded here, as they were in France, by a series of dry seasons 
and bad crops, and these poor crops themselves ipjured or destroyed. Indeed, for the 
instruction of all patriotic teachers, M. Taine's picture of these events may well be 
contrasted with what has actually occurred here. 

In each event we must come back from the mass to the individual, and from the 
adult to the child, in order to do the work of preventing such evils. 
« Here our most conmion maxims are eloquent : 

'Tis edacation forms the oommon mind : 
Jnst as the twig is bent the tree's inclined. 

The mind of every child must be formed for all that is good before him and armed 
against all that is evil. All his powers must be developed to resist misfortune and 
wrong. Capital, therefore, should weigh the cost of the mob and the tramp against 
the expense of universal and sufficient education. 

1 History of England in the Eighteenth Century, voL ii, p. 43. 
•Ibid., yoLU,p. 273. 



WORK OP THE OFFICE. 



IX 



CORRKSPOXDENTS OF THE OFFICE. 



The following snmmaiy gives the nnmber of the correspondents of the Office, show- 
ijigthe sources of the information contained in these reports : 

StakmeiU of educatUnuU systems and institutions in correspondence with the Bureau of Educa- 
tion in the years named. 





1870.. 


187L 


• 

1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875^ 


1876. 


1877. 


SttttM ftnd Territorieii ,,,r-r 


37 


37! 
240 
65 
60 


44 

325 
98 
63 


48 
533 
114 
U2 

42 
944 

86 
205 
323 

70 
140 

37 

94 
377 

43 

22 


• 48 

127 

124 

126 

55 

1,081 

91 

209 

343 

72 

113 

38 

99 

676 

44 

27 

26 

40 

28 



209 

56 


48 

241 

140 

144 

95 

1,467 

105 

249 

885 

76 

123 

42 

104 

2,200 

53 

27 

29 

42 

29 

9 

408 

67 


48 

239 

152 

150 

149 

1,550 

114 

252 

381 

76 

125 

42 

102 

2,275 

54 

31 

30 

43 

29 

11 

533 

63 


48 


Citiee 


241 


• 

Xnrmal ar.KAnlA 


53 
26 


166 


BiuiiifMfi coUeffcs .................. 


157 




177 


Academies .............■>•••• 




638 


811 


1,650 


PnmikKtf/kVT' ■/•linnia . :. 




123 


CallMreH for women ................ 


33 
266 
17 
80 
28 
63 
156 


136 
290 
41 
94 
39 
82 
180 


175 
298 

70 
104 

37 

87 
306 

50 


264 


CoUeze* 


385 


wasv^v^ ...... ........... ..-_...--. 

ScIumIa of Acienco ....... .......... 


77 


SdioolB of thoolosT 


127 


Scliools of law..................... 


45 


Schools of medicine.... 

Public libraries 


106 
2,440 


Mtuemnii of natuml historv....... 


55 


Mnaennui of tvrt ...T....r«T . t 








Art icboola 










Imtitations for the deaf and dumb. 


34 
10 


36 
26 

1 8 


37 

27 

77 
20 


40 

• 

28 

7 

180 

34 


45 
80 


Schools for the feeble-minded 


11 


Orphan aavlomn. &.c 




640 


Seform schools 


28 


20 


63 






Total 


831 


2,001 


2,619 


3,449 


3,651 


6,085 


6,449 


6^750 





It will be observed that all the systems and institutions hero included publish either 
reports or catalogues or both. 

A complete list of the American' corresxK)ndents of this Office would embrace two im- 
portant additions to the foregoing summary, viz: (1) many thdusaoul county super- 
intendents and members of school- boards and of collegiate and scholastic faculties 
who do not issue separate printed publications, but who correspond with tlte Office 
and desi^ its publications ; and (2) a large number of writers and students who often 
assist the Office without expecting other remuneration than its publications^ 

Mail matter. — The following table shows the amount of mail matter handled during 

the year: 

Mail matter sent. 

Letters, written 6,500 

Letters, printed - 7,500 

Acknowledgments of documents received 6,000 

Documents (packages) 15,000 

Total 36,000 

Mail matter received. 

Original letters (inquiiies, requests, dbc) 4,000 

Beplies to inquiries of the Office 5,000 

Receipts for documents sent : 15,000 

Documents (packages) 6,000 

Total 30,000 



X REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

EXPECTATIONS IN REGARD TO THE OFFICE. 

Those correspondents who indulge special expectations in regard to the Office should 
not forget the terms of the law under which it was organized. It requires the coUect- 
ing of ^'such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education 
in the several States and Territories, and the diffusion of such information respecting 
the organization and management of school systems and methods of teaching as shall 
aid the people of the United States in tHe estahlishment and maintenance of efficient 
school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country/' 

As has heen well said, 'Hhe Office may be termed a clearing house of educational 
information.'* But, however comprehensive its duty in regard to collecting and dis- 
seminating information, it provides for no exercise of authority and nOne should be ex- 
pected from it. It may be reasonably anticipated that its plans will be comprehensive 
and its methods characterized by the utmost fairness. However great the interest of 
the Office in any one part of its duty, it must have greater concern for the whole. The 
guide to its conclusions must be the light that shines from the lamp of our entire edu- 
cational experience as a people. To the ardor of enthusiasts in different departments 
of educational labor this light may not always be characterized by the heat they 
would desire, but it is, on that account, the safer. When this Office commenced its 
work there was before the country no standard for a national educational report. 
These reports, made from year to year, furnish the facts upon which there may hereafter 
be formed a fair judgment of what such a report should be ; made under all the em- 
barrassments of the past, they have demonstrated the possibility of a national report. 
They show how the light from all phases and conditions of education may be gathered 
up and reflected for the benefit of the whole country. Some results are already very 
apparent. 

1. The remarkable unanimity 'of cooperation received by the Office firom those 
engaged in every grade of our educational work, shows how universal is the conxdo- 
tion that such an Office is desired. 

2. It indicat'Cs that, according to the judgment of our educators, the present plan 
of work is, in the main, the right one. 

3. There has been a gratifying progress in simplifying and systematizing the 
nomenclature used in educational publications, but this makes what is yet needed in 
this direction still more apparent. 

4. It moreover disposes of the fallacy that the gathering of information is a grasp- 
ing after power. 

5. The improvement in our educational nomenclature and in other conditions of 
«tatistics most essential to their value affords ground for hope that our teachers and 
•educational officers may anticipat'C in the near future such clear and full demonstration 
of some of the leading principles in the establishment and conduct of institutions and 
systems of education, by the people and for the i>eople, as to relieve themselves of the 
uncertainties which oft^n embarrass them now and well-nigh defeat their efforts. In 
these valuable contributions of data essential to the formation of a science of educa- 
tion among us, each contributor, unmoved by any authority or expectation of pecuni- 
ary reward, may fairly adopt the language of Bacon, when he says, " I hold every man 
a debtor to his profession ; from the which, as men of course do seek to receive coun- 
tenance and profit, so ought they of duty to endeavor themselves, by way of amends, 
to be a help and ornament thereunto."* 

It should be remembered that the Office has never had sufficient force to prepare the 
work expected of it under the law. In preparing its reports the only direct reward 
that it can promise its correspondents is a copy of the document in which their contri- 
butions are printed, but this is not always ordered by Congress in sufficient num- 
bers for this purpose. Of late, also, its means for collecting statistics and publishing 
Circulars of Information have been greatly restricted. There has, however, been a 

i Elements of the Laws, preface. 



WOEK OF THE OFFICE, XI 

steady increase (1) in the value of the work prepared by its regular clerks, (2) in the 
valae of the contributions forwarded free by its collaborators, and (3) in its collec- 
tion of books and appliaflces illustrative of edacation. 

In the embarrassments arising from lack of means to publish needed information, all 
that has been possible with the force of the Office has been done to make manascript 
replies to inquiries. Not a few of these have required much time and a command of 
material nowhere else possible in the country. Indeed, were there no work to be done 
on the annua] report or on Circulars of Information, the current caUs on the Office 
woold now absorb the working capacities of its entire force. 

THE ABSTRACTS.^ 

The abstracts which immediately follow this part of the Report of the Commissioner 
and precede the statistical tables of the appendix are prepared from the printed 
material furnished by the correspondents of the Office and from the numerous educa- 
tional journals published in the United States. The printed matter thus examined 
and summarized annually is more than seventy thousand pages. It has been practicable, 
with the present force of the Office, to assign only two persons to this labor, a number 
inadequate to its preparation; especially as a very large number of inquiries de- 
manding elaborate replies can be answered only in this division of the Office. 

SCHOOL REPORTS. 

I do not think that these documents are so carefully studied anywhere else in the 
country. There can be no question of their superior merit if they are compared with 
any other State or city documents. Often the intelligence and stability of local edu- 
cational sentiment can be estimated by the strength and value of these reports. The 
l)eneficial effect upon school administration of a proper expenditure of effort and money 
in this way can hardly be attained by any other method of communicating the same 
information. It may be considered settled that in a republic school officers must pro- 
mote the training of the people in sound ideas respecting educational theories and 
practice with as much care as they promote the instruction of the young in their 
schools. Careful students of school reports frequently are surprised by the total mis- 
conception and misrepresentation of many persons as to their use and value.* 

> On page 3 infra may b« found the rules followed in the preparation of these abstraGta. 

'Their use and value have been well expressed in the following sentences, which were written by an 
excellent and well known teacher after a careful study of the collection for the year 1877 in this Office : 
" It is impossible to read the vulous school reports of our country without being profoundly impressed 
with the watchful care and intelligent forethought of those to whom these interests are committed. 
Especially is this the effect of the reports from the larger cities, where, as the work is most concentrated 
4ad most completely organized, there is opportunity for the most perfect supervision. While these 
reports indicate the fixed and enduring character of our graded school system, they show that its 
friends are not obstinately committed to precedents, but are ever on the alort to modify and expand the 
system <»ccoTding to the changing conditions of the communities to which it ministers. The re* 
ports of 1877 abound in evidences of this disposition. The attention given to industrial drawing, the 
introduction of Grermui in the public schools of cities having large proportions of German population, 
the efforts made to familiarise pupils with the olemonts of the natural sciences, to cultivate a taste for 
hteratnre while still maintaining the drill in that narrow round of studies which enter most constantly 
into the ordinary business by which they must live -^ all these are proofs of the flexibility of the Amer- 
. kaa school system. These provisions for the intellectual wants of the young are not confined to the 
school room. In many cities public libraries exist in immediate relation to the educational department, 
snd %n important feature of their administration is their adaptation to the use and needs of students ; 
tiins, in Cincinnati, Cleveland, and St. LouLb the public libraries are under the control of the board of 
education. The fLnanci^ depression of the year has necessitated great economy in the management 
of Khool finances. In considering possible retrenchments, Mr. W. T. Harris, superintendent of schools 
for St. Louis, is led to propose the introduction of half time schools in the two lowest grades. This 
plan, it Lb believed, involves not economy only, but the mental and physical advantage of the pupils. It 
is generally admitted that from two and a half to four and a half hoars' mental labor is aU that should 
be allowed children under twelve years of age. It is also conceded that the alternation of study and 
work r as an excellent efTect upon ehildren, increasing their interest in both and their capacity for close 
attention. It appears, then, that a combination of half time literary schools with industrial training 
would fldford the boat possible conditions for elementary scholars." 



i 



XII BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONEB OP EDUCATION. 

The sale of school reports is sometimes advocat<ed among ns by those who have 
heard of the sale of public documents in other countries. The policy of selling docu- 
ments may be good if the Government desires to let those who cannot buy such books 
live in ignorance of public a£fairs, thus limiting a knowledge of its conduct to a ruling 
class which has means to purchase at will. A monarchy or an aristocracy may find 
such a policy expedient, but a republic may well hesitate before adopting it. Indeed, 
the preparation and free distribution of reports on education is a part of the general 
policy which underlies our free public school systems. To matters of education the 
law of supply and demand does not apply. Says Lecky : 

Thus education, in its simplest form, which is one of the first and liighest of 8.11 
human interests, is a matter in which government initiation and direction are impera- 
tively recognized, for uninstructed people will never demand it, and to appreciate 
education is itself a consequence of education. 

Lord Macaulay, in a speech on education in the Honse of Commons, felicitously 
remarked on this topic : 

If, they say, free competition is a good thing in trade, it must surely be a good thing 
in education. Tlie supply of other commodities — of sugar, for example — is left to 
adjust itself to the demand; and the consequence is that we are better supplied with 
sugar than if the government undertook to supply us. Why, then, should wo doubt 
that the supply of instruction will, without the intervention of the government, be 
found equal to the demand f 

Never was there a more false analogy. Whether a man is well supplied with sugar 
is a matter whit'h concerns himself alone. But whether he is well supplied with 
instruction is a matter which concerns his neighbors and the state. If lie cannot 
afibrd to pay for sugar, he must go without sugar. But it is by no means fit that, 
because he cannot afford to pay for education, he should go without education. Be- 
tween the rich and their instructors there may, as Adam Smith says, be free trade. 
The supply of music masters and Italian roasters may be left to adjust itself to the 
demand. But what is to become of the millions who are too poor to procure without 
assistance the services of a decent schoolmaster f 

SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CATALOGUES. 

The annual catalogue is a very common publication among all classes of institutions 
of learning. The study of the very great number of them accumulated in this OflSoe 
reveals the fact that they do not always enable the receiver .to address the institutions 
which issue them. Every catalogue should, it seems, contain somewhere the post office 
address of the institution which publishes it. It appears from our corrcsjioudence 
that many of the older institutions have not complete sets of their own catalogues. 
Many institutions, forgetting the historical value of these publications, fail to send 
them to libraries where they would be preserved and come into use in future research. 
As a rule, catalogues published at the present time give the course of study that it is 
proposed to accomplish in the year represented by the issue. Why should they not 
give the course of study accomplished in the year previous to their issue, and thus sup- 
ply an important element in any estimate or consideration of educational progress ? 
The careful study^ of these catalogues required in the work of the OflBce also suggests 
that they might accomplish more effectively the purpose for which they are published 
by including in each annual issue a brief, strong paper by some member of the faculty 
on some educational subject. 

In reference to that class of college catalogues known as "triennial," many ques- 
tions are suggested. They give many facts of value ; but does not the progress of 
educational inquiry demand important changes ? The language of these is usually 
Latin. If they were issued solely for scholars there might be some excuse for continu- 
ing to print them in Latin, but, in addition to the information they give to persons 
who read that language, they are expected to show to others what the institution has 
done in training men for different pursuits in life, and thus to furnish a basis for the 
judgment and choice of those seeking education for themselves or their friends. Why 
not, then, give the information in plain English f Most of these catalogues designate 
the cJergy and those who have received medical degrees ; so they note, perhaps, those 
who have become members of certain learned societies. There seems to be no good 



WORK OP THE OFFICE. 



xin 



reason why they shoald not treat all the almnni alike, noting the occupation and giv- 
iDg the last known place of residence of each. By the nse of symhols and abhrevia- 
tioDS much more information of value to the student, the historian, and the college 
could be printed in a space no greater than that at present used. 

STATISTICS. 

The statistics published in the appendix to these annual reports have been col- 
lected by this Office every year in the following way : A printed form containing a 
series of inquiries and spaces for answers is sent to the head of every system and insti- 
tation on the lists, which is retui^ied by the head thereof with the answers inserted 
in writing. These are transcribed into the tables ; from these the summaries here 
presented have been made. 

The influence of this extensive system of keeping the accounts of education is already 
apparent in many directions: 

1. The accounts are better kept. 

2. They ore better understood by those who keep them. It is not surprising that 
those who are inexact in their methods should find something to disturb them in keep- 
ing an accurate record of their educational work, but when Ibis has been well done 
none have a higher appreciation of its value. 

3. New officers are specially aided in taking up their duties by greater fulness and 
accuracy of records. 

4. The public is better able to inform itself in regard to every phase of education. 
There is in most people a fondness for fair and frank dealing. In the recent serious 
assaults upon many local systems of education, not a few would have been overturned 
hod the records of the past ten years been as imx)erfect as those of the previous 
decade. 

5. No man now need blunder on account of the narrowness of his own experience 
Of observation. lie has within his reach the recorded experience of forty-four million 
people ; ho need not err in estimating the relation of his work or of his system or 
school to that of others, or to the whole educational working force of the country. 

Statutical summary of institution 8, insttuctorSy and students, as collected by the United States 

Bureau of Educationy for 1872, 1873, and 1874. 



Citvachonls 

Normal schools 

Commercial and busiiicss 

colleges. 

Kindergilrten 

Institatioiia for secondary 

instruction. 

Preparatory schools 

Institutions for the supe* 

rior instruction of women. 
ITuiTersities and colleges . . 

Schools of science 

Schools of theology 

Scboolsoflaw 



1872. 



1873. 



08 
53 



811 

(d) 
175 

296 
70 

104 
37 



I 



23,194 
773 
203 



4,50l 

1,617 

3,040 
724 
435 
151 



s 



1» 215, 897 

11,778 

8,451 



98,929 

(d) 
U,288 

45,617 
5.395 
3,351 



(h) 

114 

112 



944 

86 
205 

323 

70 

110 

37 



27, 726 
887 
514 



5,058 

690 
2,120 

3,106 
747 
673 
156 



i 



1,564,063 
16,620 
22,397 



118, 570 

12,487 
24,613 

52,053 
8,950 
3,836 
2,112 



1874. 



Schools. 


Teachers. 


(c) 


16,488 


124 


966 


126 


677 


55 


125 


1,031 


5,466 


91 


697 


209 


2,285 


343 


3,783 


72 


609 


113 


697 


38 


181 



i 



976,837 
24,405 
25,892 

1,636 
98,179 

11.414 
23,445 

56,693 
7,2U 
4,356 
2,585 



1,976 

a3?6 dties were included in 1872, which had a population, according to the ninth census, of 8,036,(^7. 
baas cities, towns, and villages were included in 1873, which had a population of 10,042,892. 
el27 cities, oontahiing 10,000 Inhabitants or more, were included in 1874; their aggregate population 
was 6,637,905. 
d Included in the institutions for secondary instruction. 



XIV 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OP EDUCATION. 



StaHsiioal summary of institutions, instructora, and students, ^c. — Continued. 





1872. 


1873. 


1874. 




i 


i 




1 


• 

1 




1^ 

1 

90 

40 

29 
9 

209 
66 


• 

s 

1 

H 


P. 

a 

P-i 


Schools of medicine, of den- 
tiutry, nnd of pharmacy. 

Institutions for the deaf 
and dumb. 

Institutions for the blind . . . 

Schools for feeble-minded 


87 
36 
27 


726 
267 
613 


5,995 
4,337 
1,856 


94 

40 

28 
9 

178 
34 


1,148 

289 

545 
213 

1,484 
679 


8,681 
4,534 

1,916 

758 

22,107 
6,858 


1,121 

275 

525 
312 

1,678 
603 


9,095 

4,900 

1.942 
1,265 

26,300 
10,848 


children. 

Orphan asylnms, industrial 
schools, and miscellane- 
ous charities. 

Seform schools 


77 
26 


852 
331 


10,324 
4,230 





Statistical summary of institutions, instructors, and students, as collected by the United States 

Bureau of Education, for 1875, 1876, and 1877. 



City schools 

Normal schools 

Commercial and business 
colleges. 

Kindergarten 

Institutions for secondary 
instruction. 

Preparatory schools 

Institutions for the snpe- 
rior instruction of women. 

Universities and colleges . . 

Schools of science 

Schools of theology 

Schools of law 

Schools of medicine, of den- 
tistry, and of pharmacy. 

Institutions for the deaf 
and dumb. 

Institutions for the blind. . . 

Schools for feeble-minded 
children. 

Orphan asylums, industrial 
schools, and miscellane- 
ous charities. 

Beform schools.... 



1875. 



^ 
^ 






s 



(a) 


1 

22,152 


137 


1,031 


131 


594 


95 


216 


1,143 


6,081 


102 


746 


222 


2,405 


355 


3,909 


74 


758 


123 


615 


43 


22i 


106 


1,172 


41 


293 


29 


498 


9 


317 


278 


1,789 


47 


678 



29,105 
26,100 

2,800 
108,235 

12,954 
23,795 

58,894 
7,157 
5,234 
2,677 
9,971 

5,087 

2,054 
1,372 

54.204 



10,670 



1876. 



i 

.a 



ib) 

151 

137 

130 
1,229 

105 
225 

856 
75 

124 
42 

102 

42 

20 
11 

385 



51 



s 

I 



&4 



23,504 

1,065 

599 

364 
5,999 

736 
2,404 

3,920 
793 
580 
218 

1,201 

312 

580 
318 

3,107 



800 



1,343,48T 
33,921 
25,234 

4,090 



1877. 



.3 

s 



(c) 

152 

134 

129 



106,647 1,226 



12,360 
23,856 

56,481 
7,614 
4,268 
2,664 

10,143 

6,209 

2,083 
1,560 

47,439 



12,087 



114 
220 

351 
74 

124 
43 

106 

43 

30 
11 






Pi 



23,830 

1,189 

568 

336 
6,063 

796 
2,305 

3,998 
781 
564 
175 

1,278 

346 

566 
355 



1, 249, 271 
37,082 
23,490 

8.931 
98,371 

• 

12, 510 
23,022 

57,334 
8,559 
3,965 
2,811 

11, '>^''» 



6,743 

2,179 

1,781 



a 177 pities, each containing 7,500 inhabitants or more, were rei>orted in 1875; their aggregate popn 
At ion was 8,804,654. 

b 103 cities of 7, 500 inhabitants or more were reported in 1876 ; their aggregate population wos 9, 128, 955. 
c 195 cities of 7,500 inhabitants or more are reported in 1877; their aggregate population is 9,099,025. 



EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS. XV 

The above may be called a snmmary of the summaries which will be given in this 
part of my report. In considering the inquiries possible in this n;port, it should be 
borne in mind that only a limited number of the inferences that may be justly drawn 
from its facts are mentioned or even hinted at in these summaries. Moreover, however 
great the effort to condense into the report the great mass of trustworthy statements fur- 
nished to the Office, and thus to convey the largest amount of information possible, it 
ghoold be remembered that there is always in view, in all this work, as a special object, 
the promotion of the thorough study of educational statistics, with the hope that these 
may be steadily advanced toward perfection, and thus become more and more valu- 
able to all who seriously seek right educational theory and practice for themselves, 
their children, their country, or their State. 

In taking up the following mass of figures it is not improper, therefore, to recall the 
observations made some years ago by that eminent scientist Dr. Ficker : 

School statistics include an exhibit of the actual state of education and its results 
at a certain given moment, with a view of ascertaining the laws which regulate them. 
The very name, which, perhaps, would better be "educational statistics," shows the 
importance as well as the difficulty of the subject, which has recently, more than ever 
before, occupied the attention of statisticians. 

It may well be askeil whether there can be any educational statistics, and it lins 
seemed doubtful whether statisticians, with the means at their command, could suc- 
cessfully enter a field where the exhibit of mere facts would least of all seem sufficient. 
Education, however, is not altogether beyond the statistician's reach. Tables are c«ir- 
tainly the most important but not the only element of his exhibit. He may also give 
existing facts and results obtained in the form of a brief summary, only it should be 
borne in mind that he has to deal with a summary of facts and the develojuiient of 
lawB, On no other field of inquiry, perhaps, will he have to weigh each. expression so 
carefully in order to avoid even the appearance of mixing individual opinions with his 
exhibit of facts or of merely coloring them according to his own point of view. 

The fact that there are limits beyond which statistics cannot go, must not d(>terthc 
statistician. Even in that part of statistics which occupies itself most with mere 
figpres, financial statistics, there are points which the statistician cannot reach. 

Should no attempt be made to giye educational statistics because they also have 
their limits ; because it* will be diSlcult, if not absohitely impossible, to give all the 
individual methods of instruotion or the free form of scientific activity at a univer- 
sity f Most assuredly not, for, even if only attempts are made, the way may be cleared 
and the limits of inquiry more clearly defined. 

The development of statistics as a science has convinced statisticians that there is 
only one admissible method of giving facts, viz, the comparative method, the results 
of which gain all the more trustworthiness the wider the range from which facts 
have been gathered. 

The question as to whether there can be any educational statistics naturally leads 
to the question of the possibility of international educational statistics. 

It cannot be denied that the best and noblest blossom on the tree of human culture, 
the development of the intellect and of morals, blooms in every count rj' on its owu 
ground and under peculiar conditions. The educational system of a nation beni*H, 
therefore, in every country its own distinctive impress, to understand which thoroughly 
would require a retrospective view as well as* a study of the pres4^nt condition. The 
same difierence observable in the financial, military, or commercial state of nations 
may also be seen in their different educational systems. 

The way in which education develops itself in a country will be the only sure stand- 
ard of measuring the intellectual development of its inhabitants. The gathering and 
exhibiting of the facts which express this development are therefore synonymous with 
the statistics of a nation's most cherished treasure, its intellectual development. And 
as there is only one true intellectual development, though showing itselr in different 
forms, thus there can also be only one way of statistically representing it. Eduen- 
tional statistics must, therefore, besides schools, in the proper sense of the word, also 
include all other institutions for the promotion of science and art. 

International educational statistics must therefore have regard to institutions 
which may exist in one and not in another state, where, it may be, education has not 
yet reached a sufficiently high degree of development or where peculiar circumstances 
prevent the establishment of certain institutions of learning; provided only that such 
facts form really essential points in the educational s^'stem of a nation — for educa- 
tional statistics are not t^ be a mere curiosity shop. Since there is no doubt, then, :is 
to the feasibility of exhibiting the educational statistics of a couutry, it will much less 
be doubted that such an exhibit will exercise a beneficial infiuence on education itself. 



XVI 



BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONEB OP EDUCATION. 



Here, also, as in so many other respects, it proves true that p^ood statistics are the com- 
mon property of the whole nation. Napoleon I said : ^' Statistics mean the keeping an 
exact account of a nation^s affairs, and without such an account there is no safety." 
And Ga3thc said : '* I do not know whether figures govern the world, but this I do 
know — they show haw it is governed." 

Good educational statistics will show the present generation occupied with carina 
for a future one ; it will faithfully depict a nation's hopes and fears connected with 
this care, and will thereby enable states and individuals to preserve the intellectual 
heritage of centuries long gone by, and transmit it to the coming generations. Edu- 
cational statistics alone can show the way out of the bewildering maze of different 
educational systems ; they will be of more than ordinary importance in a state occu- 
pied with a reform of its educational system. All SHch reforms would build on a very 
unsafe foundation if they had not been preceded and were not constantly accompanied 
by most exhaustive educational statistics. 

Dr. Engel, the eminent director of the Prussian Bureau of Statistics, under the head 
of methods of exhibiting the results of statistical inquiry, enumerates (1) descriptive 
exhibit, (2) tabular exhibit, and (3) graphic exhibit. 

In preparing these reports I have not been unmindful of this threefold presentation 
of results, but the means at the command of the Office have not ]>ermitted that use of 
graphics which I have desired. A few, however, of an inexx^ensive character, are in- 
troduced in connection with the summaries which follow. 

Table I; — Part 1. — Summary {A) of school age, population, enrolment, attendance, ^-c. 



States and Territories. 



Alabama 7-21 

A rkansas 6-21 

Califomia 5-17 

Colorado 6-21 

Connecticut 4-16 

Delaware 5-21 

Florida 4-21 

freor^ 6-18 

Illinois 6-21 

Indiana 6-2l 

Iowa 6-21 

Kansas - 6-21 

Kcntncky j d6-20 

Louisiana 6-21 

Maine 4-21 

Maryland 5-20 

Massachusetts 5-15 

Michigan 5-20 

Minnesota 5-21 

Mississippi 5-21 

Missouri 6-20 

Nebraska 5-21 

Xevada... 6-18 

New Hampshire -'. 4-21 

New Jersey 5-18 

"New York 5-21 

North Carolina ft-21 

Ohio 6-21 

a Number between 5 and 17. 

b For the winter; 68,588 for the summer. 

c In 1873. 



1 

.a 



I 

0* 

1 
I 



I i * 



^ 



t 



g 

s 



% 

Pi 



309,447 
190, 282 
200,. 068 

21,612 
137, 099 

35,649 
e74»828 
894,037 
992,354 
694,706 
568^026 
232,861 
612,808 
266,033 
217,417 
276,120 
297,202 
469,444 
238,362 
324,989 
725, 72g 

92,161 
8,475. 

73, 418 

318, 378 

1, 586, 2S4 

408,296 

1, 027, 248 



0200,066 
U4,24& 



521, 030 
865,493 
135,750 



75T, 440 



141, 230 

31,150 
147, 863 

14,085 
119, 208 

24,061 

26,052 
179, 405 
694,489 
498,726 
421, 163 
157, 919 
248,000 

85,000 
155, 428 
150,276 
307,832 
857,139 
162, 551 
160,528 
39y, o4o 

66,. 774 
5,521 

68,035 

198.709 

1, 023,^715 

201,459 

722,240 







JS, >* 

'§5 

El 



101, 676 



82 



16,720 
115. 121 
420, 031 
298, 324 
251, 372 
118, 612 
160,000 

54,390 
104. 318 

75,726 
222,704 
210,000 




3.832 
47, 921 
107, 961 
559,537 
104, 173 
448,100 



d For colore<l population the school age is from 6 
In the counties.; in the cities,. 200 days. 



128 
145 
108 
110 
135 
117 
184 
176 
148 

82 
«77 

60 
127 
142.8 

92 
184 
178.5 

60 
160 

tola. 



SCHOOL STATIflTICS OP STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



XVII 



Table I. — Part 1. — Summary (A) of school age^ popuUitum, ^c. — Continued. 



Stateii and Territories. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . 
Khode Island .. 
Sooth Carolina . 

Tennpswee 

Tc*ia« 

Vermont 

Tirginki 

Wwt Virgin iii . 
WisroDsin 



• 

:3 
1 

5 


1 

"3 

1 
1 

5 


4-20 


50, 649 


C-21 


«1. 200, 000 


5-15 


653, 310 


6-16 


228, 128 


6-18 


442, 458 


8-14 


127, 085 


5-20 


92. 925 


5-21 


482, 789 


0-21 


184. 7C0 


4-20 


478. '^^^ 



s « tc 

SOS 



II 

S i, 

9 S* 



228, 128 



307, 230 



907, 412 
43,098 
102,396 
227, 643 
100. 052 
72.900 
204,974 
123,504 
291,270 



Tot;il 14,mtt.778 2, 62!), 380 8,881,848 



Arizona 

Daljota 

I>i<«trict of Colnmbia. 

Idaho 

Montana 

Xew Mexico 

Utah 



Washington . . 

Wyoming .... 

Indbn : 

Chenikies 

Creeks 

Choctaws . 
Seminole* . 



t>-21 
5-21 
6-17 
5-18 
4-21 
7-18 
0-16 
4-21 
7-21 

7-21 

10-18 

6-20 



Total 

Grand total 



a In 1873. 

b Census of 1875. 

c In the oonntieH; in the cities, 193 days. 

E — II 



2, 055 
11.046 
</3l,671 
2,777 
4,892 
f/29,312 1 
30,792 I 
12,997 I 



<'29, 133 



30, 792 



4,041 
716 

2,300 
471 



6,431 
21, 264 
2,724 
4.507 
5, 151 
19, 779 
5, 385 
1,690 

2.800 
610 

1,133 
157 



a 

II 

> 



30,389 

575, 597 

29,276 

142, 266 

45, 318 

117,843 

72, 278 

4. 886, 289 
580 






a -3 



148.04 
181 

60 

70 

06 

112 
95.04 
rl49 



10. 318 



190 
75. 6 
188 



13. 420 



132 
146 

i:;o 



1,500 
448 
745 
108 



200 



168 
180 



133, 970 



59, 925 



r2,630 



14,227.748 2,689,311 i 8,954,478 



33,119 
4, 919, 408 



d United States oensns of 1870. 
e In 1870. 



XVIII 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Diugrinn No. 1, showing the different school ages in the States and Tiiritories du 



School 


Xumber of yenvrs in each school age. 


veurs. 

* 


1 1 

( 

1 


7. IG. 16. 15. 15. 1 


4. 14. 13. 1 


2. 12. 12. 11. 11. 10. 10. 8. G. 


4 

r. 


1 

1 


1 

1 


1 , 1 




! ' 


1 ......... 




1 


i ' ^ i 


^ 



let 

11 

IJ 

r; 

14 

ir> 

if> 


1 

1 ' 1 

1 1 

... ., .... -.. i- -- 




1 

1 

1 
1 

! i 




i 

1 

1 
( » 


17 

IS 

19 

20 

21 




1 , i 

, 1 ' 

. ' ; 1 

! 1 

! 


1 i 
t 1 

1 ' ' 


' 

1 


MhS)Uge«^' ^ ^ ^ * ^ ® " ® 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 



The above diagram shows that there are seventeen diflfereiit school ages in t 
and Territories, of which the longest, from the fourth to the twenty-first yeai 
over .seventeen years. The shortest, from the eighth to the fourteenth year, 
period of six years only. 

The first is practically too long for any public school system which does no 
suiHirior instruction, and the last is as evidently too short to allow the ti 
elfoetual training which every child should receive. The period of ten years 
the sixth and the sixteenth year, which is approved by many of our best edu 
the most suitable for public elementary and secondary education, is indicate 
dotted lines which cross the diagram horizpntally. 

Diagram No. 2 shows on the left what percentage of the population of leg 
age in the several States and Territories was in daily average attendance ; ai 
right what percentage of said jjopulation was enrolled in the public schools, 
that the school age varies widely in difterent States not only partially ace 
the relative positions of the States indicated in the table, but also explains ] 
that in Massachusetts more than 100 per cent, of the children of school age are 
ciinilled. 

The percentage of c'aily average attendance is not given in the States of A 
Delaware, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin, an 
Teivitories of Dakota, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Washington, and Wyon 



2 



I 



SCHOOL STATISTICS OF &TATES AND TERRITORIES. 



XIX 



Table I. — Part 1. — Summary (B) of the number of teachers employed in the public schooUy 
and the average salary of teachers per months in the respective States and Territories. 



States and Territuries. 



Alabama 

Ariiuuuas 

CaliforoiA 

Colorado 

C<mnecticat 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

lUisoUi 

Indiana 

lon-a 

Kaiiim^ ...... ... 

EcBtackj 

LoDisiaaa 

Maine 

Karvlaod 

IbMachuaetts . . 

Michigan 

MinneeotA 

MiMiraippi 

Mijiiiouri 

Nebradca 

Xevada 

New Hampahire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pt-nnaylvania . . . 
Bbode Island . . . 
South Carolina.. 

Tenofssee 

TeX;Ui 

Vjrrmont 

Virginia 

W.^t Virginia.. 
Wisconsin 



Total number of teachers in States 



Arizfina 

Dakota 

I>i«iri<:t of Columbia. 
Idaho 



Number of 
teachers em- 
ployed in pub- 
lic schools. 


Average sal- 
ary of teachers 
per month. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


■ 1 
(4,145) 


$22 65 


$22 65 


630 


187 


50 00 


40 00 


1,184 


1,983 


83 78 


09 68 


183 


250 


56 10 


51 45 


753 


2,354 


64 55 


36 20 


270 


231 


(30 75) 


375 

03,267 

9.162 


182 
al.633 
12,836 










46 17 


32 23 


8,109 


5,465 


61 27 


39 20 


7,348 


12,518 


34 88 


28 00 


2,772 


3,270 


33 19 


29 82 


1.000 


2,700 


40 00 


35 00 


767 


740 


45 00 


35 00 


2,253 


4,543 


41 84 


25 64 


1.243 


1,663 


41 95 


41 95 


1,118 


7.390 


75 64 


33 04 


3,781 


9.220 


42 54 


27 45 


1.711 


3.031 


36 75 


28 31 


(4,1 


25) 


29 19| 


29 19| 


5,004 


3.747 


(30 00) 


1.571 


2,158 


35 46 


31 80 


36 


77 


112 63 


85 20 


501 


2,955 


38 37 


24 71 


054 


2,356 


63 78 


37 04 


7,850 


22, 311 






1.728 


651 


30 00 


30 00 


10. 855 


12, 148 






720 


502 


50 00 


35 00 


0,(»06 


11.556 


37 38 


32 liO 


6291 


6987 


80 69 


45 91 


1.039 


1.035 


28 32 


26 87 


3.741 


1.260 


28 53 


28 53 


c(3, 


100) 


c(.>3 


00) 


720 


3,008 


34 44 


21 60 


2,9(»7 


1,773 


33 10 


27 37 


2,707 


896 


34 89 


32 09 


(9,« 


158) 


d40 48 


(226 35 


(257, 


454) 


1 
.......1........ 


1 


6 


25 


100 00 


50 00 


100 
31 


154 
299 






96 17 


71 21 



a These items, compilod from later returns, were inserted after the completion of the table in the 
apIX'odix. 
& Includes teachers in evening schools, 
e In 1875. 
d In the counties ; in the cities the average salaries are : of men, $108.20 { of women, 135.08. 



I 



XX 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table I. — Part 1. — Summary (B) of ike number of teachers employed in thcpuhit 

ifc. — Continued. 



StAtes Mid Territories. 



Montmia 

Xew Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

"Wy omin g 

Indian: 

Cherokees 

Creeks 

Choctaws 

Sominolos 

Total number of teachers in Territories 
Grand total 



Number of 
teachers em- 
ployed in pub- 
lic schools. 


i Ar^ 
\ ary c»- 

per- 

1 


Male. 


Female. 


1 Male 


36 




64 


($^ 


132 




15 




232 




238 


$45 OO 


134 




Ifo 


40 QO 


21 




27 


(T 


(93) 




42 80 


10 


18 


40 00 


{."i7) 




26 00 


4 


1 


! 50 00 


(1.842) 


i - 


(259 


,29 


6) 


, , 



Table I. — Part 2. — Summary (A) of annual income and cxpeftditnre, tf-c. 



States and Territo- 
ries. 



Annual expenditure. 



a 
o 



a 
a 



a . 

a ee . 

-'^ M -*^ 

5 -i 

- ^ ft. 



x 



V 



x « 



a 






$417, 243 
212, 000 

3, 610, 162 
198,975 

1, 506, 219 

216, 225 

94,104 

434,046 

9, 640, 340 

4, 873, 131 
5, 349, 029 
1, 570, 755 
1, 827, 575 

467.368 

1, 067, 104 

1, 637, 583 

b5, 481, 598 



$221,. 539 

49.365 

181, 760 



14,639 




X 
1 



s 
o 



r 



s 



598, 755 
611, 739 
906, 523 

5,000 

62.766 
251, 339 

4,787 
339, 230 



$384,993 

73,166 

2, 149, 436 

140, 780 

1, 058, 682 

114,027 

74,628 



$378, 754 

25, 111 

234.781 

102. 198 

5, 707 



75,922 



(a) 

20,000 
25,000 

8,000 
30,814 
28,250 
•)4, "o4 



5,000,000 
3, 049. 094 
2, 953, 645 



1,713,919 
1. 012, 933 
1, 337, 2.58 



$392,493 

119, 403 

2, 749, 7-29 

215,256 

1, 510, 223 

218,025 

101, 722 

WOO. 153 

7. 388, 596 

4, 673, 766 

5, 197, 426 



% 



824,966 I I cl, 328,376 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan I 3,792,122 

a Included in teachers' salaries. 

6 These items were inserted in this summary after the completion of the table in the t 
The income reported for Massachusetts is only an approximation made by the secretary of 
board of education, the expenditure for Waahington Territory is an estimate made by this Bn 
the expenditures for Georgia and Utah are from later returns. 

e Items not all reported. 

d Only a partial report. 



1, 000, 000 

295,504 

951, 877 

1,085,063 

d871, 857 

1, 941, 338 



100,000 
06,325 
12.5, 211 
272, 931 
430,255 
907,345 



1,130,000 
369.829 
1,170,668 
1,637,583 
5, 582, 519 
3, 187, 913 



" 



3 






SCHOOL STATISTICS OF STATES AND TEBRITORIES. 



XXI 



iLE I. — Part 2.— Summary (A) of annual income and expendiiure, tj-v. — Coutiuued. 



Aimmil cxpeuditure. 



2 2 



and Territo- 
ries. 



o 






C X 

S 



* 3 C 5 



X 









0. 



? 



•I 



o 
a 

2 






>ota 

>»PPi 

Ti 

ika 

1 

ampshire . 

sraey 

ork 

Carolina. . 



Ivania . 
Island. . 
'arolina 
8e« 



It 



irginia. 



»m 



$1, 1«1, y27 
496,S)87 

1, 773. 4W 
633, 211 
195. 535 
609,679 

2, 079, 907 

12. 110, 904 

406,447 

7, 875, 901 
308.373 

8,500,000 
730, 422 
189.353 
718. 423 
500.000 

1, 102, 112 

860,644 

2, 74;j. 343 



$18, 025 $791, 679 



$187, 5a'> 

48,862 

89.680 

394.068 

1.001,071 

11, 506 

947,399 

25,346 

1,276,579 

224, 259 

6, 101 

46. 381 



22,038 

15,086 I 

26,704 j 

127.000 ! 

I 

I 

143.724 I 

100.000 
11.418 I 

t 

I 18, 422 



457. 049 I 

101,016 

429.021 

1,481,124 { 

7,915,634 . 
263.524 

4,957,254 
190,922 , 

4,817,563 I 
412, 543 
212,582 
565,651 



$104, 612 
12,882 
70,867 
28,006 
1. 332, 529 
15,760 

1, 362, 091 

25,625 

2, 389. 237 

77. 742 

7,338 

37,930 



60,884 
100,625 
126, 689 
274,204 



46,361 
14,096 



420, 826 

778,883 

531,545 

1, 563, 038 



55,443 
124, 477 
120,942 
328,391 



a$l, 181, 327 
I 481, 215 
' 2,374.960 

861, 264 
I 162, 760 

004,654 
I 1, 929. 902 
I 10,976,234 

290,790 
7,411,068 

241,803 
I 8.583,379 

725,962 

226.021 
0099, 513 

490, 083 

537,153 
I 1,050,346 

793, 272 
2, 249, 638 



• o 

o ^ 
2 a 

« se 2 

■Sgr 

*• •"* "S 

08 -d 9 



$2,999,424 



1.862,38« 

165,801 

2.357,405 

6,518,504 

225,000 
1 21,145,127 
I 450.500 

; 25,400,762 

I 2, 044, 541 

I 

I 1. 090, 814 



909,317 
1, 600, 407 
5.183,902 



al ; 85,959,8^4 8,068,661 837,492 i 47,858,910 i 12,897,200 | 79,251,114 j 137,802,903 



of Columbia. 



•xico. 



gton. 
Off --■ 



20.708 
37,668 

370.996 
36,214 
37.092 
25, 473 

210. 062 
49,765 



44,436 

5,704 

27,191 



24,000 
30, 717 



1,100 I 
, I 

12,370 : 

1 

4,300 i 

' t 

1,500 I 



10,400 
15,630 

239,854 
14,376 
25,804 
15,432 

127,480 



6,907 

4,988 

91,581 

2,214 



3,458 



rokees. 

eks 

>ctaw8 . 
linoles . 



72,298 
13,000 I 
29,022 
4,000 



9,959 



2,500 



250 



16,400 

43,075 

11,200 

12,000 

2,250 



62,843 
27,362 

370,996 

16,590 

54,104 

18.800 

6210, 062 

MO, 705 
16,400 



1, 100, 014 
80,000 



54,576 
1,800 



700 



110, 110 

13,000 

20,022 

3,200 



165,000 



Total. 



906,298 



nd total. 



142,007 



22,020 



533,910 



166,224 



982,344 ; 1,414.614 



86, 806, 162 18. 810. 668 943, 517 j 48, 392, 820 13, 003, 424 



80.233,458 139,217,007 



la not all reported. 

96 items were Inaerted in thin aummary after the completion of the table in the appendix, 
ome reported for Maasachuaetta ia only an approximation made by the secretary of the State 
' education, the expenditure- for Washington Territory is an estimate made by this Bureau, and 
i-nditun'S fin- (ioor^ria and Utah are from later returns. 



XXII 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table I. — Part 2. — Summary (B) of per capita expenditure. 



States and Tenitoriea. 



Cherokees (Indian Territory) 

Maasachnsetts 

California 

Choctaws (Indian Territory^ . 

Montana 

District of Colnmbia 

Kbode Island 

Colorado 

Iowa 

Nebraska 

Illinois 

Ohio 



Michigan 

Indiana 

Vermont 

Kansas 

Xew Jersey — 

Maine 

Maryhuid 

Oregon 

Washington 

Kentucky 

Virginia 

Tennessee 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Xorth Carolina . . 

Arizona 

Delaware 

New Hampshire. 



cl. a, 

♦J CO 

.S 2 



3 'S 



$24 78 

15 26 

13 74 

12 62 

11 05 

10 90 

&9 00 

7 95 

7 00 

7 51 

7 45 

7 21 

05 
5 90 
5 81 
5 70 
5 30 
5 11 
5 07 
4 77 
3 82 
2 00 

1 98 
1 58 
1 10 
1 02 

68i 



u p 

c8 a 
>i <^ 

S » K 

•3 "* •"* 

"^ ft g 

.3 p 

p so 

-'go 

ft 
H 



3.S 



$35 76 
14 62 
18 59 
25 62 



16 24 
612 13 
12 20 
10 67 
12 19 
10 63 
10 70 
10 80 
8 23 

7 34 

8 41 

8 49 
7 15 

9 32 
5 32 
9 24 
4 00 
4 66 
3 70 
2 42 
2 72 
1 39 

20 38 
9 65 
7 34 



ft s 

S "S "5 

>-. 
d 

.a 






Cm 

o 



'^ 






ft 



^ ** 

5 r 



=9^ 

q .^ © 

ft R a 

K O 36 



t4 ■ 

o o 

^ a . 
^ ft2 
fl 2 

® a 

^ tM S 
= © m 

^ 5 s 

a ^ *> 

£ O, « 

ft « ^ 



$62 76 I 
19 85 
28 19 
38 96 



21 16 

617 59 

21 10 

17 87 



17 23 
13 52 
13 76 
11 85 
11 19 
15 64 
10 65 

18 50 
7 96 



a$13 74 



11 85 



ft -^ -S « 

* e s ? 

- ft;; o S 
•S it: *j o 

b --^ = § 2 

- ^ o ^ ft 
r -a i: a, © 

ft c« 5 s o 

X w «. .a 00 



rt$H 04 



U 26 



12 29 



8 46 



5 00 
8 11 
4 91 
3 77 
3 08 
2 69 
31 73 



7 87 
9 78i 



3 11 



14 05 



10 12 
9 18 



3 30 



14 40 



a Per capita of population between 5 and 17. b Current expenditure only used in thciie calcuktions. 
OENERALIZATION8 BY YEARS AND BY TOPICS WITHOUT REFEREN'CK TO STATES. 

Statistical summary showing the school population , enrolment j attendance j income^ expenditure, 
t|*c., for 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, and 1877, as collected by the United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation, 



School population. 





Number report- 






Tear. 
1873 


ing. 


In Stntes. 


In Territo- 


States. 
37 


Territo. 
ries. 


lies. 


11 


13, 324. 797 


134. IL'8 


1674 


37 


11 


13,735,672 


139. ,378 


1875 


36 


8 


13. 889, 837 


117.685 


1876 


37 


8 


14, 121, 520 


101.405 


1877 


38 


9 


14, 093^ 778 


133,970 



SCHOOL STATISTICS OF STATES AND TERRITORIES. XXIII 

Staihstieal aummary showing the school population^ <fc — Continued. 



Xnmb^r enrolled in public schools ^ 



Nomber in dnilv attendance 



Number of pupils in private iH-hools 



Number of male teachers. 



Number of female teachers 



Public school income 



PermaDent Rchool fund 



Total number of teachers > 



Public school expenditures ^ 



' Number report-' 
Tear. \ In States. 



1873 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1877 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1877* 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1877 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1878 
1877 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 

:S73 

1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1877 



States. 

.35 
34 
37 
30 

38 

31 
30 
29 
27 
31 

22 
13 
13 
14 
12 

35 
35 
30 
37 
37 

28 
28 
31 
32 
33 

28 
28 
31 
32 
33 

35 
37 
37 
38 
37 

36 
35 
34 
36 
37 

28 
28 
28 
30 
20 



Territo- 

i riet*. 



10 
11 
11 
10 
10 

m 

o 
4 

5 

.5 

I 

4 

5 
5 



5 



3 
4 


8 
9 
9 


5 
7 
8 
9 
9 



5 



7 
8 
9 
9 

10 

10 

8 

9 



10 
9 
9 

10 

« 

1 

3 

o 



7, 80.'.. 028 

H, 030, 772 

»<, 678, 737 

' 8, 293, 563 

, 8,881,848 
I 

4, 100, 002 

4, 488, 075 

4, 215, 380 

I 4, 032, 632 

4, 886, 289 

472, 483 
352, 460 
186,385 
228,867 
203, 082 

! 215, 210 
239, 153 
247, 423 
247, 557 
257, 454 

75, 321 

87,395 

97,798 

; 95. 483 

{ 97,838 

103. 734 
' 129, 049 
I 132, 185 
I 135.644 

138, 228 

$80,081,583 
81,277,686 
87, 527, 278 
86, 632, 067 
8.'., 959, 804 

77.780,018 
74,169,217 

80, 9.50, 33:{ 
«{. 078. ,'i90 
79. 2.'»1.114 

77. 870, 887 
7.'), 2r.l,008 

81, 480, 158 
97, 227. 909 

rtlOO. 1-7. H05 



In Tenito- 
ries. 



':>'.\ 988 
•>!'. 209 
77. f'22 
70. 175 
72. <kJO 

n3, 077 
•X\, 4.S9 
30,428 
.34, 216 
33,119 

7,859 

10,128 

13,237 

9,137 

0,088 

1,511 
1,427 
1.839 
1,726 

1,842 

529 
499 
050 
678 
708 

#86 
731 
963 
898 
988 

^44,688 

881.219 

1,121,672 

717,418 

906,298 

!»9.\ 423 
SU.->. 121 
9M2, 621 
920, 737 
f>)^2, 344 

i:{7, 507 

:',::\. 236 
i,:.jc, 901 
2. 100. 1 01 



aThe aggregate of the school funds as prepared from Table I tif the uppeutlix i.s 1^90,019.019: tliis 
bowerer, docs not include the funds of lUinoiH, I^>iiiHiana, New HHiupshire, aiul Ohio, not reported in 
1S77. which amounted in 1876 to $10,108,246. Inelnding th«'«»»' lundu as reported last year we li:»ve \\\» 
f ^re pven above. 



\ 



XXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

BRIKF SUMMARY OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONDITION OF THE STATES. 

The conipariscnis made undor this head an;, as a rule, between the school years 
1875-76 aud 1876-77. 

NEW ENGLAND STATICS — .MAINE. 

Here, oiiee agaiu, we find a considerable deci-ease in the reported number of youth 
of school age, with a like decrease in the number registered in summer schools; but 
the average attendance in these summer schools was 1,876 greater than in the pre^ied- 
ing year, while in winter schools there were 2,962 more enrolled and 1,677 wore in 
average atti^ndance. Then, notwithstanding diminished receij^ts for schools and con- 
sequent diminution in the pay of teachers, the number engaged in t<"a<.*hing was greater 
than in 1875-76, and more of them were graduat<?s of normal schools, an indication of 
improving quality. The number of such normal graduates engaged, it appears, might 
have been considerably greater had not a mistaken parsimony led to the engagement 
of poor teachers at low rates in preference to giving more skilled teachers reasonable 



wages. 



NEW HAMPSHlltK. 



According to returns from the selectmen in this State, the youth between 5 and lo 
api)ear to be 12, 159 less than at the last report, while there were 1,336 more enrolled in 
public schools, 246 more in private schools, and 26(5 fewer attending no school. Male 
teachers were more numerous and the proportion of teachers trained in normal schools 
was greater; while the number of schools increased by 64, one of them a town high 
school. Fewer school-houses wei*e reported unlit for use and the number supplied with 
blackboards was 10 greater. At other points there was a decline : smaller average 
attendance in the schools, smaller number in the higher branches, 34 fewer graded 
schools, slight decrease in the average term of schools, diminution of teachers' wages, 
and falling off in receipts and expenditures. 

^•ERMo^T. 

With 152 fewer youth of school age (5-20) we yet find 695 more of that ago in public 
schools, an increase of 2,028 in the total enrolment and of 5,844 in average daily at- 
tendance — a most creditable record. With 26 more public schools, the average school 
term was increased by one day and a tenth, and a larger proportion of male t^iachers 
was employed in the schools ; there were also greater receipts for the support of the 
school system — an unusual thing in these hard times. With the exception of the 
number of children of school age, the only falling off was in the number of female 
teachers (largely made up by the increase of males), in the wages paid teachers, and 
in the general expenditures on the schools. 

MABSACni HETTb. 

Advance in most respects continues to be the order of the day. Notwithstanding a 
de'crease of 4,459 in the number of her youth of school age, Massachusetts enrolled 
2,056 more in public day schools and had 3,801 more in average attendance than in 
1875-76 ; accommodating this increased enrolment and attendance in 14 more ordinary 
daj' schools and 4 more public high schools; although, from some cause unexplained, 
there were 131 fewer teachera reported in the day schools than in the previous year.* 
The evening schools were fewer by 22, and yet had 81 more teachers and 2,192 more 
jiupils than in 187.5-76. The unincorporated private schools increased by 44, and 
the estimated average attendance on them by 715; but the incorporated academies 
seem to have lost in number of schools as the othei*8 gained, and to have had upon 
their toWb 1,837 fewer pupils; the tuition fees of both classes of these private schools 
fell off very considerably. 

•Tbe number that bad beeu trained in normal schools wus, however, 618 ijreater; so that there wa« 
proportionately greMer teaching skill, even with fewer teachers. 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. XXV 



UUODE ISLAND. 

AUvauce here too is apparent, the public schools enrolling 6iU uiorg i)upils and 
havinj^ 541 more in average attendance, besi<les higher i>roportionate increase in the 
enrolment and attendance in evening schools. There were also 1*2 more school build- 
ings. 31 more public day schools (30 of them graded), 24 more teachers in the day 
schools and 27 more in evening schools, with only a slight falling off in wages, and, 
what is unusual in these times, an increase in the expenditure on the schools notwith- 
standing a slight decrease in the income. 

CONXECTICLT. • 

Connecticut had 1,910 more youth of school age, 102 more of them enrolled in imblic 
day !5<hools and 3G4 more in other schools, 1 more public school, 7 more graded schools, 
39 more school-bouses in good condition, 20 more teachei-s in winter and 21 more in 
samnier. with 124 more continued in the same school ; the only diminutions were in 
teailurs^ wages and in the receii)ts and expenditures for public schools. 

MIDDL& ATLANTIC STATES — XEW YOUK. 

With a slight increase in the school population, we are met here by an apparent 
decrease of 43,484 in the enrolment in public schools, due to the omission of duplicate 
enrolments in the New York City schools. Allowing for this change, the enrolment is 
increased instead of being lessened, and the average daily attendance was 17,927 
greater than in 1875-70. In most other respects there is comparatively little change, 
this great State holding well its previous stand as to the number of schools and of 
teachers, and somewhat lengthening the average school term, notwithstanding a 
mnch smaller income for the support of schools and consequent decrease of teachers* 
wages. A strong effort to bring about a change from the existing district system to a 
town system, which faih?d for the year, will still be lirmly advocated. 

NEW JKKSEV. 

Tlie children of school age numbered 3,552 more than in 1875-76, the public school 
em-olment 2,457 more, the average daily attendance 4,441 more, outrunning the in- 
crease of school population. The increase of public schools was 14 ; of departments 
in them, 35; of sittings for pupils, 2,601; while private and church schools fell oft' 
considerably in number, though the enrolment in those remaining was increased. 
Fewer teachers for public schools were licensed in the year because a higher standard 
was maintained, an improvement in quality being justly held more impoitant than 
an iiicreiise of numbers. As elsewhere, diminished receipts for schools compelled an 
unfortunate reduction in the pay of teachers, though the decrease was not very great. 

rEXXSYLVASlA. 

There being no arrangements in this State for an annual school census, the number 
of school age cannot be determined from year to year. As to enrolment and attend- 
ance in the public schools for 1876-^77, the record seems to indicate some arrest of the 
great jirogress which preceded the centennial year, for although the enrolment reached 
5,067 more than in 1875-76, it fell short by 7,305 of the increase in that year over the 
preceding one; while the average attendance, 3,121 less than in 1875-76, forms a 
marked conti-ast with the increase in that item (2(5,870) which appeared in 1875-76 
over 1874-75. The pupils in private schools also fell off 1,325, when the previous year 
had shown an increase of 1,058. Of course, in view of the hard times, there were 
smaller i-eceipts and exj»enditures fur school purposes and much of the cutting down 
of t4*athers* wages noted elsewhere. Other things indicate gratifying progress : 286 
more public schools, 333 more of them gra<led, 331 more with uniform text books, 
1,.532 more in which drawing is taught, 494 more in which vocal music forms a study, 
and 185 moi"C in which some higher branches ai*e taught, with 460 more public school 
teachers. 



M 



XXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

PELAWAKE. 

The public sihot)l reports in this State beiii<; biennial and none being due till the 
close of 187*!^, the information respecting the schools in 1877 is limited. The facts pre- 
sented show, however, an iucre:vsc of '2,474 pupils in the public schools and of 71 
h^achei's. The items of income and expenditure for the schools and of pay for teach- 
ers are nearly the same as in the previous year. 

MAKYLAXP. 

Ilore, as in Pennsylvania, from the want of a school census, wo can tell nothiii^ iis 
to growth or decrease in the population of school age; but the report for lK7(j-'77 
shows 4,078 more pupils in the public schools, 2,657 more in daily average attendance. 
84 more schools for whites and 20 more for colored youth ; to meet this increase, .'o 
more teachers to instruct new classes formed, 2 days^ more time for teaching, and (an 
exception to the rule during the year) an increase, although not a large one, in both 
receipts and expenditures for State school purj^oses, the teachers suflTering only the 
slight reduction of 30 cents in their average monthly salaries. 

VIUCIMA, 

Here there was an increase of 5,118 in number of pupils enrolled, of 2,600 in average 
daily attendance, of 134 in number of schools taught, and of 120 in that of teachers 
employed, with a decrease of $19,332 in expenditures for public schools, of si. ^,"3 in 
the average monthly pay of men, and of .|3 in that of women. 

SOUTIIKUX ATLANTIC 8TATK9— XORTU CAUOLIXA. 

In North Carolina there has been an inci*ease of 13,807 in school population and of 
2,699 in enrolment; a decrease of 512 in the number of teachers employed, of $y4..'»<»l 
in receipts for public schools, and of §46,450 in expenditures. 

SOUTH CAROUXA. 

In South Carolina the iigui*es show a decrease in all important points since l>^'-'76. 
The number of youth of school age is less by 9,843; that of enrolment in public 
schools, by 20,689; that of public schools taught, by 293 ; that of teachers employed, 
by 394 ; the public school receipts fell off |267,907 and the expenditures |197,850. 

r.KORGTA. 

Greorgia makes no report for 1877 as to the condition of public schools, the educa- 
tional reports there being biennial. A letter from Superintendent Oir, however, 
states, in general terms, that the public school system is steadily gaining ground. 

FLORIDA. 

Since the printing of the abstract for this State the statistics for 1876-'77 have come 
in. 'J'hey show a decrease of 1,843 in the youth of school age ; an increase of 5,0S1 in 
the enrolment in public schools, of 5,152 in the average attendance, of 271 in the num- 
ber of teachers employed, of 216 in the nundter of public schools, and of $37,61 r*' in the 
expenditure for them — an encouraging record. 

GILF STATES— ALABAMA. 

The school statistics from Alabama show an encouraging advance in 1877. ' There 
is an apparent decrease of 35,779 in school population, but this results chiefly from a 
change in the legal school age, which now includes youth from 7 to 21, instead of 
from 5 to 20, as formerly. There is an increase of 14,337 in the number enrolled in 
public schools, of 1,012 in the number of schools reported, of 2 days in length of term, 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. XXVII 

of 374 in thc^ number of teachers employe*!, of 05 cents in their averaj^e monthly pay, 
off79,966 in the receipts for school pnq^oses, and of ^'o/ilT in the exi)en(li tares. 

Mis8is8n*ri. 

In Mississippi there was a decrease reported of :U>,0:>0 in sihool population, of 
14,024 in colored yonth attending public schools, of 14,207 in average enrolment, of 
3 days in the average term of country schools, and of ^10.67^ in the average monthly 
salary paid teachers. There were, on the other liand, 8,348 more white yonth in 
the schools than last year, 25 more days of school term in cities, and 0% more white 
teachers and 454 more colored teachers employed. There was, too, a reported in- 
crease in the public school income of §55,5G4 and in expenditure of $53,45.'). 

In Louisiana, with an increase of 10,693 in public school enrohnent, of 2,075 in .ivor- 
age attendance, of 38 days in the school term, of $14 in the monthly pay of men teach- 
ing and of $4 in that of women, there was a decrease of 8,655 in school population, 
of 108 in the number of teachers employed, of $308,641 in the receipts for school ]»nr- 
poses, and of $406,180 in the expenditures. 

TEXAS. 

In Texas the figure* show a decrease from 1875, the date of the last report, of t;3,>;:]7 
in school population (largely if not wholly due to a change in the school age from (VIS 
to 8-14), of 15,515 in enrolment, of $230,153 in expenditure, and of 12 days in the school 
term. The only it«ms which offset the^e are those of public schools reported and of 
the expenditure on each pupil enrolled, the schools numbering 389 more than in the 
year 1875-*76 and the expenditure for each pupil increasing by 23 cents. 

XORTHRRN CEXTRAL STATES— NEDRA8KA. 

Nebraska has for some years past printed no school report, and luis had to 8trug;;;le 
with the impovorishment from drought and locusts which in 1874 and 1875 put a snd- 
den check to her previously swift advance. The Legislature, from this impoverish- 
ment, cut down the school tax in 1875 from 2 mills to 1 mill on the dollar, and made 
other changes which greatly reduced the resources of the public schools. The State 
superintendent thinks, however, that in 1877 the aspect of school affairs was bright- 
ening, and that there are the beginnings of a fair progress upward and onward in 
the schools. 

MINNESOTA. 

Minnesota reports an additional enrolment in the schotds which exceeds the 10,000 
increase of school population, 22 more school-houses, a school term longer on an aver- 
age by 4 days, 339 more teachers in public schools, an increase of the pay of men 
teachers, with an average decrease in that of women of 79 cents a month. The re- 
timis from local officers are not sufficiently full and accurate to determine whether 
income and expenditure for public schools increased or decreased, bnt there socms to 
have b«?en some decrease. 

WI8C0X8IX. 

Wisconsin reports an increa.se of 3,577 children of school age, of 8,1>72 in the public 
school enrolment of these, besides 112 above or under age. There wvvo, too, 21 more 
State school-houses, 40 more of bri<k or stone, 127 more with good outbuildings, more 
gnuled schools, more that supplied textbooks to their pupils, larger valuation of 
school property, and larger receipts and expenditures for schools. There was liardly 
any falling ott" except in the length of the school term, the pay of women tea^ h«Ts in 
the cities, the general pay in county schools, and the attendance in private schools. 



XXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



MICH 10 AX. 



The figures here shuw a large proportionate iuerease, for, although the i>opulation 
of school ago was only 469,444 in l-^TG-'TT, that was an advance of 9,636 on the num- 
ber for 1^75-76, while the additional enrolment in the public schools (12,043) and the 
additional average attendance in them (10,000) more than overtook the advance in 
tljr tensus of school children. Then, too, though there were 8 fewer graded schools 
rti)urted, the number of ungraded ones increased by 1*21, the number of school-houses 
by 147, the sittings in them by 5,096, and the teachers numbered 167 moi-e, with a 
larger proportion of them men than in the year before. This, moreover, does not 
include private schools, of which there were 11 mor^ reported, with an increase of 10 
teachei-s and of 925 pupils. The i>ay of men teacliing in the public schools, however, 
fell otF §5.96 a month on an average and that of women 83 cents a mouth, wliile school 
rcct'ipts throughout the State decreased by |275,680 and the expenditures by $277, 884.^ 



IOWA. 



This vigorous young State of the West plucks the palm for 1876-77 from the hands 
of the greatest eastern ones, showing an increase over 1875-76 of 13,939 youth of 
school age, of 22,338 registered in public schools, of 22,057 in average attendance, of 
565 public schools, of 9 days in the average length of the school term, of 388 publio 
school-houses, of 814 teachers, and of $908,844 expenditure for schools. A diminution 
of $38^495 in the receipts for public schools seems as nothing in comparison with 
these gi'eat gains, and so does the slight decreiise of 473 in the attendance on private 
schools. The male teachers had their i)ay cut down $2.49 on an average a month ; 
women's pay was raised about 60 cents a month, a necessarily smaller rate because 
thev are much more numerous. 



ILLOOIB. 



In Illinois there are biennial reports in even years, so that full statistics cannot be 
had for the odd one. But the few given show steady progress: 18,765 more children 
of school age, 27,043 more enrolled in public schools, 10,000 more in i>rivato schools, 
public school-houses increased by 390 and the receipts for the support of such schools 
by $1,191,873; the only falling off was in the number and pay of teachers (this last 
not going so far as in many other States), in the expenditures for schools, and in the 
estimated value of school property, put lower probably to correspond with the shrink- 



age of values in general. 



INDIANA. 



The full statistics of this State are presented only in the alternate, even years, a 
brief abstract of them going to the governor in the odd years. Those for 1877, com- 
pared with the fuller ones of 1876, seem to show decrease in important points. Thus, 
though the youth of school age numbered 15,476 more and the teachers employed 1C3 
more, there were 17,544 fewer pupils reported as enrolled in the State schools and 
15,844 fewer in average daily attendance, with a decline of $210,196 in school income 
and of $247,319 in school expenditure, the wages of male teachers dimiuishmg on an 
average $1.93 a month and those of women $2.20. These showings form a ti*ying con- 
trast to those of the year before, when, except in the pay of male teachers, there was 
a large advance at all these points. 

I The statiiitica of public high schools for this State will not be found in their j>lace in the abstract. 
They are, as derived from the tables of Superintendent Taxbell's report for 1876-77, schools with at 
Icn^t one class in high s<:bool studies, 85; pupils in such studies, 5,852. The studies include arithmetic, 
algt>bni. geometry, drawing, composition, grammar, general history, the natural sciences, government, 
rhetoric, English literature, French or Gorman, and in many cases Latin and Grei'k. For statistics of 
comm<>rcial and business colleges, private academic schools, and preparatory deimrtments of colleges in 
thf State, see Tables lY, VI, and IX of the api>endix following, and the summaries of them in this part 
of the report. 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. XXIX 

OHIO. 

The statistics of 1876-^77 show that the school population of Ohio (1,027,248) in- 
creased only 1,613 over that of the preceding year, her enrolment fell off" 723, and the 
average attendance in her 15,000 public schools did not keep pace with that in her much 
less numerous private schools. There was an increase in some other things, but a pro- 
portionately small one; 36 more public school-houses, 553 more public school rooms, 157 
more teachers, and 185 more permanently employed; the tciwihers siifteretl. however, 
on the whole, a considerable apparent decrease in their salaries, and, as in other large 
States, the receipts and expenditures for schools fell off, to the extent of $729,*23r> in 
receipts and $426,136 in expenditures. 

SOUTHEKN CENTRAL 8TATF8— WEST VIRGINIA. 

West Virginia shows an increase of 4,8ft$ in school ]io])ulation, of 8,204 in pu}iil8 
enrolled, of |107,167 in school income, and of $78,112 in expenditure. There were 110 
more public schools in operation than the previous year and 2^J2 more t-eachers. The 
average attendance, on the other hand, was 4,190 less; the average monthly pay of 
men teaching was decreased by 14 cents and that of women by .^1.32. 

KKXTICKV. 

In this State there was an increase of 13,777 in school population, with u decrease 
of 17,6(^7 in average attendance and of 59 in the number of school-houses built. The 
income for public school purposes was greater by ^313,786 and the estimated vjiliie of 
school property by $330,000. 

TKXNK8SEE. 

Here there has been an increase of 8,327 in scholastic population, of 33,4i>3 in enrol- 
ment, of 16,.358 jn average daily attendance, of 707 in the number of public schools, 
of 141,870 in the valuation of school property, and of 791 in number of teachers em- 
ployed, with a decrease of $3.65 in their average monthly pay. Receipts for schools 
fell off $120,312 and cxpenilitures $:{7,148. 

MISf»OtRI. 

The failure ot the Legislature to provide for the ])rinting of the aniuial State rrjmrt 
for 1877 deprives us of the opportunity to compare the educational condition with 
that of the preceding year. Hannibal, Kansas City, St. Joseph, and St. Louis send 
statistics and printed statements whi(;h indicate educational ;u*tivity and progress, 
St. Louis particularly, with her excellent school system, almost retleeming by her 
.steadfastness of advance the comparative sluggishness in s<liool affairs of some other 
portions of the State. 

KANSAS. 

» 

In 1877 there was an increase of 19,884 in youth of school age, of 10,695 in the enrol- 
ment in public schools, and of 28,716 in the average daily attend.auce.i There were 
also 127 more school-houses, 475 more teachers, 4.5 more days in the average school 
term, an increase of $2.79 in the average monthly pay of women, and a reiluction of 
only 47 cents in that of men. Income for schools was $32t),067 larger, expenditure for 
them $129,939 greater than in the preceding year; and almost everything indicates 
advance, except that the available and the estimated permanent school funds show a 
decrease. 

ARKANSAS. 

Statistics from Arkansas, received since the abstract for that State went to press, in- 
dicate an increase for 1876-77 of 14,437 in the number of youth of school age, of 17.480 

'The large increase here noted was based on a M-ritten return made to this Office by the State Hiipt^r- 
intendent. From the printed biennial report, however, reccive<l since this matter was pnt in tyi>o, it 
would appear that the increase in averaj;e attendance is 4.113 instead of 28,716. 



XXX 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



ill tin* furoliiicnt in public schools, of 365 in the number of teachers employed, and 
of >«i3,y'28 iu the expenditures for the school system; but a decliin* of 1,015 in the 
inr.iiber of school-houses reported, of $194,892 iu the cost of these, and of ^118,009 iu 
The receipts for school purposes. 

STATES ox THE PACIFIC SLOPK — CALIKOKNIA- 

In Ciilifomia there was an iucivase during the year of 15,280 in youth of school 
age. of 9,115 iu public school enrolment, of G,148 in average daily attendance, and of 
Til' enrolled in private schools. The number not attending any school wjis gre»t4?r by 
0,012, while that of Mongolian chihben in school has decreased by 117. There was an 
increase of 187 in the number of schools taught, of one day and four-tentlii» iu their 
average length, of 23 in the number of school-houses erected, of 185 in that of teach- 
ers employed, and of 84 who were normal school graduates. The average monthly^ 
pay of men shows a decrease of ^1.22 and that of women an increase of $1.53. The 
total receipts for school purposes were $^^7,^^59 greater thau the previous year, while 
the expenditure was ^108,871 less. 

NEVADA. 

The school statistics for Nevada show progress in all impoitant resi»eets except in 
that of the length of school term, which was decreased by 14 days. There was an 
increase in school population of 937, iu public school enrolment of 439, in average 
daily attendance of 546, in attendance on private schools of 231, with a decrease of 69 
not attending any school. The monthly wages paid teachers was $3.71 greater, and 
the receipts for public schools were incivased by $7,418 and the exjienditures for them 
by 11^1,462. 

OKEdOX. 

Here the ligures show an increase in all points. While the school i>opulation is only 
2.176 more than in 1876, the enrolment iii public schools has increased by 18,158, the 
avi'iage daily attendance by 14,824, the receijits for public schools by $;W,551, exiH-ndi- 
tiiH's by ^,980, and the niunber of teachers employed by 196. 

10L01JAL»0. 

Colorado presents only brief statistics of its schools for 1877. These seem to show 
decline in school population, enrolment, income and expenditure, and pay of men 
teaching, with some increase of average attendance in the schools and a considerable 
one (:^.45) in the average monthly pay of women. But the statistics, as the sujKTin- 
tcndent says, are not complete from the Mexican counties of the State, and he very 
projH'rly declines to piece them out by any guessing. 

KDUCATIOXAL CONDITION' OF THi: TI.KIIITOIIIKS. 



187^'70. 



187(>-77. 



Arizouu 

Dakota 

District of Columbia. 

Idaho 

Montana 

2s ew Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



S^'hool ,, , I Average 

population' ^'"^'»^^°^""^- att. mlanco 



2,955 

10,396 

31,071 

2,777 

4,238 



30,900 
11,000 



1,213 
5,410 
19,029 
2,?24 
2,734 



900 



19,880 
7,500 



14, 907 
2,000 



13,608 



School : ,, , Avfra;i«! 
l»oi>uhi. ion. l'^"^^l"^^'"^!attendmico. 



11, 040 ; 
31,671 



903 

0, 4.J1 

21, 204 



4,892 



30,792 
12,997 



4,597 



19,779 
5,385 



580 
10. 318 



13,420 



PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONDITION. XXXI 

Ftoiu the above comparisou, it appears that Dakota, the District of Columbia, and 
Montana had a larger number of children in school in 1877 than in the previons year, 
while ill Arizona, Utah, and Washington Temtories the attendance was smaller. 
Wa^hiii^on, however, with a greater school population and fewer children enrolled, 
rejKirts an increase in the number of schools and teachers and in the length of school 
term. New Mexico and Wyoming furnish no information upon which a comparison 
of school statistics for the two years can be based. A statement, however, has been 
received from the governor of Wyoming, Hon. J. W. Iloyt, giving a very encouraging 
account of the condition and efficiencv of the schools there. 

lUSTIlICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Iq the District of Columbia, notwithstanding serious obstacles, there has been a 
subistantial advance. As shown by the above figures, there- was an increase of 1,635 
in the number of children enrolled and of 1,411 in average attendance. There were also 
1,4S3 more seats provided than the previous year. Some of the buildings occupied by 
schools are entirely unfit for school puri>oses, hindering the success of the teachers and 
imperilling the health of the children. The good of the schools and the honor of the 
coQQtry imperatively demand at the capital of the nation appropriate buildings suffi- 
cient for the education of aU the children entitled to attend. The advance in the 
qnaliiications of teachers is gratifying, and has been specially promoted by the estab- 
lishment of a normal school for girls. The addition of high schools to the present 
grades of instruction would gi'eatly increase their efficiency and supply oppoi*t unities 
specially needed by the youth of the District. 

ALASKA. 

.Uthough the jieople of Alaska so far as not " uncivilized" are guaranteed by treaty 
the rights of American citizens, the Territory remains altogether without the applica- 
tion of law in the protection of life, i>erson, or i^rojierty, or provisions for the organi- 
zation of society^ save so far as the revenue laws of the United States have been 
extended to it. Two schools arc maintained according to contract among the Aleuts 
engaged in the seal fisheries; beyond this no Government provision is made for educa- 
tion. The following letter deserves special attention: 

Office of the Rocky Mountain pREsnYTEinAN 

AND Home Missions for the Tekritoihes, 

Denver, Colo., DccemlHr 27, 1677. 

Dear Sir: Knowing your interest in everything that [»ertains to the education of 
the masses, permit me to call your attention to Alaska. 

On the aiOth of March, 1867, Alaska was purchased from Russia for $7,2(H),0(X). On 
the 28th of May the purchase was ratified by the United States Senate, and on the 
liiJth of October the coimtry became a portion of the United States. 

Ah it is the latest of our territorial acquisitions, so it is the least known. Indeed, 
theiuterior re^^ions of the country away from the Yukcm River are as unknown as any 
jwrtion of Africa. The coast and island section has been explored somewhat by the 
United States Coast Survey and the Yukon River by the scientific corps of the West- 
em Union Telegraph exixidition of 18(34 to 1807. 

The explore<l portions of the country have been found to be ricl. in fur, lumber, 
coal, copiK?r, sulphur, petroleum, amber, silver, and gold. It has also valuable fish- 
eries. During the coining year capitalists are expected to esiablish a cannery for 
sahnon at Clawock at an expense of $100,000. Other {larties are interested in estab- 
U.>hing a stamp mill for the reduction of gold at Sitka, and still others in developing 
valuable copper mines on Karta Bay. Thus the resources of the oauntry are com- 
uieucing to attract attention. 

The native {mpulation of Alaska is variously estimated, from 26,000 to 70,000. In 
thfc northern and central secticm of the country they are evidently of Esquimau de- 
scent ; in the southern and island regions, of Indian descent. They are, however, 
in civilization, far in advance of the lilanketed Sioux of Dakota. In the northern 
country they reside in jKinnanent underground houses called topeks. On the southern 
coast thej^ have large plank baiTdbora, or houses above ground. They have also, to 
«ome extent, adopted EuroiK'an styles of dress. Many [laint their faces with oil and 
lampblack, which gives them a repulsive api>earance. Polygamy is common among 



XXXTI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

the rich. Feasts are given on the erection of a new house, marriages, births, naming 
of children, deaths, &c. These feasts consist of dancing, singins, and feasting. A 
summary cure for crying babies is to hold them in the sea until they cease criing. 
Children on the coast are bathed in the sea daily, and learn to swim about as soon as 
they lea.m to walk. The incurable sick and old* are sometimes kille<l. They have a 
j^reat variety of household utensils made from the horns of mountain sheep and goats, 
trom the fossil ivory of their country, and fi'om wo(k1. Some of these are elaboi-ately 
carved. 

Kussia gfive them government, schools, and the Greek religion, but when the coun- 
try passecT from their possession they withdrew their nilei-s, priests, and teachers, 
while the United .States did not send any others to take their places. Alaska, t onlay, 
has neither courts, rulers, ministers, nor teachers. The only thing the Unit4?d St;ttes 
have done for them has been to introduce whisky. So that the Alaskan can answer 
a-s it is said a Chippewa did when asked if he was a rhristian Indian, **No, I wi>hky 
Injen." 

The firat school was established by ShelikofF on the iKland <>f Kodiak, the jnipils 
receiving instruction in the Russian language, arithmetic, and religion. Tliis was 
about 1792. A few vears later one was established in Sitka. In 1841 an r'cclesi.istical 
school was opened in Sitka, which in 1H4.5 was raised to the rank of a seiuiuary. 
Little was taught in the schools besides the rites of the Greek Church and the art of 
reading the ecclesiastical characters. In 18G0 a colonial school was o]»ened with 12 
students. In 1862 it contained 27 students, onlv 1 of whom was a native. In 18^59 
a girls' school was established for orphans and children <»f the employes of t Ik* Fur 
Company; in 1862 it had 22 pupils. In 18-i.^> a school was established on I iialaska 
Island for natives ; in 18(50 it ha<l 30 boys and 43 girls. A school at AmUa Island, in 
1860, had 30 pupils. A school-house was built on the Lower Yukon, but had no ])npils. 
Since the American occupation these schools have been broken up. On the Seal Isl- 
ands, over a thous.and miles from Kodiak. the Alaska Commercial C<nupany has 
maintained schools at St. G<M)rge with an average attendance of 18 scholars and at 
St. Paul with an average of 20 jiupils. The great nuuss of the population were left, 
however, without any educational advantages, an«l were rapiilly losing what they ba<l 
gained in the Russian schools. 

Last summer I visited the southern coast of Alasku in the int«irests of the Presliy- 
terian Board of Home Missions, and ]>lace(l Mi-s. A. K. McFarland in charge of a 
school commenced by the natives tluiiis<'lves at Fort Wrangell. I met among ilie 
natives many indications of a great <lesire for schools. Early next year we <xj)ect to 
send Rev. J.*G. Brady and Miss Kellogg to Sitka to establish a school there, and. if 
possible, also Rev. S. Hall Young to assist in the work at Fort Wran gel 1. Ahvady rho 
attendance at Fort Wrangell is excellent, and we have every assurance of suece.v; at 
both places, and ail invitation to open scliools at (»ther points. At Wrangell, which 
is a central place for many miles iq» an<l tlown the coast, then; should be an indus- 
trial school, and we ex]>ect soon to connnence it in a small way. Indeed, it 'is abso- 
lutely necessary in order to give shelter to the young school girls, who would other- 
wise be sold by their mothei*s lor purpos<'s of prostitution. 

Several points should be s])ecially notetl: 

(1) We lind here the practice of jtarents selling their daughters at the age of 12 or 
14 years for puii^oses of prostitution. 

(2) The belief in witchcraft is all prevalent, and our t-eachei's have ha<l to interfere 
to save the lives of those accused, ami who were actually lieing tortured to death. 

Surely it is appalling to find such practices existing in our land ami exciting so 
little attention. This leads me to say — 

(3) That there is no law in Alaska, as the jurisdiction of the courts has not been 
extended over that country. 

(4) It should be constantly kept in mind that these people, oven in their i>resent 
ignorance and degradation, are self-supporting; that they do not need from the (Tcneral 
Government food, clothing, or annuities, but only guidance and aid in securing 
schools, improving their industries, and acquiring the arts and customs of civilized 
life. 

(.^)) It is of interest to those engaged in promoting Indian civilization and who have 
encountered the embarrassments ot tribal relations to know that then^ is no necessity 
for recognizing these relations. 

Please do what you can to awaken an interest in behalf of that portion of our 
conntrv. I hope to make another trip there as earlv as circumstances will ])erniit. 

SHELDON JACKSON, 
SnpcrintaKhni of Prcshiffey'mn MitinionH hi Ihr Territories, 
Hon. .loiix Eatox, 

( 'oininif<Hioiivr of Education. 



EDUCATION OF THE COLORED BACE. XXXIII 

SCHOOLS FOR THE COLORED RACE. 

In order to comprehend the difficulties encountered by the friends of universal in- 
Btraetion in the States where slavery has been more recently abolished, certain facts 
should be remembered : 

(1) That the interests of slavery did not i>ermit the instruction of the colored 
people. 

(2) That during the existence of slavery the universal 'education of the whites was 
felt to be in some sense a source of danger to the progress of slavery. 

(3) That as a consequence the philosophy of education in its comprehensiveness was 
not understood; the facts which illustrated the benefit of universal education could 
not and did not exist for those communities. 

(4) When, therefore, slavery passed away and the several States where it had ex- 
isted attempted to establish universal education, there was (a) a lack of its methods, 
(b) of its philosophy, and (o) of its results, either upon individuals or upon society, as 
regards its advantages in promoting virtue and social order or in producing wealth. 

(5) All the questions that arose were complicated by the influence of race prejudice. 
This is nothing new ; it is only what has occurred in other lands, and, indeed, else- 
where in our own country, as, for example, will be found in studying the history of the 
efforts to educate the colored people in New York City. 

(6) The colored people on their part entertain erroneous anticipations of what 
education is and what it was to do for them ; and not a few intelligent whites were 
influenced by the idea that education as offered to the negro would destroy him as a 
laborer. Indeed, they were not familiar with the effect of education upon the laborers 
of any race. 

(7) Added to all these was the feeling of extreme poverty. ^ 

(8) The progress noted in the summaries given should be studied in the light of 
these fsLcis, It is plain that those results could not have been accomplished without 
a change of position on the part of many leading minds. Indeed, it has been true that 
an honest study of the facts has been followed with the approval of the great principle 
which underlies the most successful system in the country. 

The many questions of race discussed among us render qf peculiar interest all facts 
in regard to the progress of education among the colored people. Special attention is 
invited to the following tables: 

> The attitiide of the straggle is well illustrated by the discussion between Hon. W. H. RufDner, super- 
intendent of public instruction for the State of Virginia, and Rev. Dr. R. L. Babney, an eminent citixen 
of tliat State. Dr. Dabney having published an article against negro education and the school system 
genorally in a Virginia newspaper, a discossion ensued in the course of which Mr. Ruflher maintained, 
firsts that *' Unless we propose to abolish education wholly we must employ the public system, because 
we are too poor to do without it; " secondly, Dr. Dabney errs in holding that "If our civilization is to 
eontimae there must be at the bottom of the social &bric a class who must work and not read," since 
the history of prominent industrial nations points to a different conclusion ; Virginia's greatest states* 
AMD, moreover, have persistently urged the policy of widespread popular education; thirdly, admitting 
reUgioas instruction to be necessary to the proper development of the child and conceding that the 
State has no right to teach anything of a sectarian character, yet the State "may formally teach the 
reoognixed morality of the country ; " fourthly, illiteracy is not so prevalent in countries having sy»- 
teaui ot popular education as in those without such a system; fifthly, ignoranoerand crime are closely 
related; sixthly, the hope of prosperity in the South is to be baaed on the negro's elevation and devel. 
opme&t and not on his extermination. 



XXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Tdblt showing the camparaUve papulation and enrolment of the white and colored races in tibe 

public schools of the recent slave States for 1870-77. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

^orth Carolina , 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

District of Columbia 

Total 





Whits. 






Colored. 




• 

School population. 




1 

a 


Percentage of the 
school popula- 
tion enrolled. 


• 

1 

1 

1 


a 

s 


Percentage of tho 
school popula- 
tion enrolled. 


a23«,520 


86,485 


87 


al68,706 


54,745 


S2 


143,949 


ei23,895 


17 


43.518 


67,255 


17 


31,849 


22.398 


70 


3,800 


1,663 


44 


40,006 


M4,948 


37 


42,001 


616, 185 


89 


218,733 


107, 010 


49 


175,304 


48,643 


28 


e459,253 


228,000 


50 


e53,126 


19, 107 


86 


d88,567 


645,000 


61 


dl08,548 


640,000 


87 


«213,069 


125, 737 


59 


e63,591 


24,539 


39 


150,504 


84,374 


56 


174,485 


76,154 


44 


602,818 


381, 074 


55 


32,910 


13,774 


42 


267,265 


128,289 


48 


141,^1 


73, 170 


52 


83.813 


46,444 


55 


144. 315 


55,952 


39 


330, 035 


171,535 


52 


111,523 


43.043 


39 


/ 135, 430 


85.620 


63 


/30,587 


23, 432 


77 


280,149 


140, 363 


50 


202,640 


65,043 


32 


al78, 780 


al20, 657 


a67 


05,980 


o2,847 


a48 


20,671 


15, 310 


74 


11,000 


5,954 


54 


3,573,511 


1, 827, 139 


k 
.•••••••«••. 


1, 513, 065 


571.506 







a For 1875-76. 
6 Estimated by the Bureau. 

cFor whites the school age is 6-20; for colored, 6-16. 
d Exclusive of that of New Orleans. 
e Census of 1870. 

/The school age in Texas at our last report was 6-18; 
the school population. 



it has been made 8-14, considerably lessening 



Statistics of institutions for the instruction of the colored race for 1877. 



Name and class of institution. 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Sust Normal Institute 

State Normal School for Colored Students... 

Lincoln Normal University 

Emerson Institute 

State Normal School forColore<l Students... 
Normal department of Atlanta University . . 

Lewis High School 

Haven Normal School 

Peabody Normal School 

Baltimore Normal School for Colored Pupils. 

Ccnt<*nary Biblical Institute 

Tougaloo University and Normal School . . . 



Location. 



Huntsville, Ala . . 
Huntsvillc, Ala ; . 

Marion, Ala 

Mobile, Ala 

Pino Bluflf, Ark . . 

Atlanta, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Waynesboro', Qtk 
New Orleans, La. 
Baltimore, Md . . . 
Baltimore, Md . . . 
Tougaloo, Miss . . 



SI 

o o 



Mcth 



Cong- 



Presb 
Cong . 
Meth 



Meth 
Cong 



00 

o 
o 

s 

oc 



3 
4 
2 



a 

4 
5 
3 

4 
8 



s 

GO 



60 

81 
120 
147 

83 
168 

89 
125 

95 
134 

77 
106 



EDUCATION OP THE COLORED BACE. 



XXXV 



StatUiicB ofiMtiiuUoms for the insiructkm of the colored race for 1877 — Continued. 



Name and claas of institatioii. 



lincofai Xormal Inatitate 

State Normal School for Colored Studenta 

fieonett Seminary 

St Aognatine'a Normal School 

Shaw UniT-eraity 

Avery Normal Inatitate 

Fairfield Normal Inatitate 

Freedman*s Normal Inatitate 

L<» Moyne Normal and Commercial School 

Hampton Normal and Agricnltaral Inatitate. . . 

Richmond Inatitate 

BIrhmmid Normal School for Colored Papila . . . 

Miner Normal School 

Xormal department of Howard University 

Normal department of Wayland Seminary 

Total 



DCBTTTtrnOXS FOB BKCOKDABT E(STRUCT10X. 



Trinity School 

Talladega College 

Cookman Inatitote 

Clark Univeraity 

St Angnatine'a School ^, 

La T#che Seminary 

St Francea Academy for Colored Girla 

Scotia Seminary 

St Angnatine'a School 

Williaton Academy and Normal School 

Albany Enterprise Academy 

High School for Colored Paplls 

Wallingford Academy 

Bninerd Inatitate 

Benedict Inatitate 

Brrwer Normal School 

Claflin University 

Canfield School 

Xaahville Inatitate 

Wiley University 

St Stephen's School 

St PhiHp's School 

8t Mary's School 

Total , 



UXIVKRSmES A3n> COLLRGB8. 



Atlanta University 

Berea College 

Leland University 

Straight University 

New Orleans University 
Shaw Univeraity 



Location. 



Jefferson, Mo 

Fayetteville, N. C 
Greensboro', N. C . 

Raleigh, N.C 

Boleigh^N.C 

Charleston, S. C . . 
Winnsboro', S.C.. 
Maryville, Tenn . . 
Memphia, Tenn... 

Hampton, Y a 

Bichmond, Ta 

Bichmond, Va.... 
Waahington, D. C 
Washington, D. C 
Washhigton, D. C 



Athena, Ala 

Talladega, Ala.... 
JacksonviUe, Fla . 

Atlanta, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Baldwin, La 

Baltimore, Md.... 
Concord, N. C . -•. . 
New Berne, N. C . . 
Wilmington, N. C 

Albany, Ohio 

Charleaton, S. C . . 
Charleston, S. C .. 

Chester, S.C 

Colombia, S. C... 
Greenwood, S. C. . 
Orangebarg, S. C . 
Memphis, Tenn .. 
NashviUo, Tenn . . 

MarshaU, Tex 

Petersbnrg, Va . . - 

Kichmond, Ta 

Washington, B. C 



Atlanta, Ga 

Berea,Ky 

New Orleans, La 

New Orleans, La 

New Orleans, La.... 
Holly Springs, Miss. 



i| 



Meth... 

P. E 

Baptist . 
Cong ... 
Presh-. 
Friends . . 
Cong . . . . 
Cong a. . 
Baptist . 



Non-sect. 
Baptist . . 



Cong ... 

Cong 

Meth... 

M.E 

P.E 

Meth.... 

R.C 

Preah .. . 

P.E 

Cong ... 
Noo-sect 

P.E 

Presh -. , 
Presh .. . 
Baptist . . 
Cong ... 
M.E.... 

P.E 

Baptist . . 

M.E 

P.E 

P.E 

P.E 



Cong . . 
Cong . . 
Baptist 
Cong . . 
Meth.. 
Meth.. 



i 

S 



6 
3 
2 
4 
5 
8 



13 
8 

14 
5 
6 
2 
3 
(b) 



10 
8 

4 
3 



8 
2 
5 



3 
4 



4 
1 
6 
2 
5 
2 



S 

B 



122 

71 

75 

127 

240 

316 

340 

204 

296 

274 

104 

232 

27 

74 

(6) 



110 3, 785 



139 
286 

02 
110 

75 



85 
128 
224 

84 

23 
224 
220 
277 
117 

48 
120 
100 
106 

S3 
150 

86 

40 



66 I 2,807 



5 
el3 

4 

7 
el2 

6 



33 
129 
4 
223 
110 
180 



• In addition to the aid given hy Amcrii-an Mlhslonury AsiMiclatiun, this institute has on appropri* 
ition Ihmi the State. b Keported under schools of theology. e For all tiepartmenta. 



XXXVI 



HEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Statisiios of inaUtutUmsfor the insirucHon of the colored race for 1877 — CoBtinned. 



Kame and class of institation. 



Alcorn Uniyersity 

Biddle IJniyenity 

"Wilberforce UniTwsity . . . 

Lincoln University 

Central Tennessee College 

Flak University 

Howard University b 

Total..... 



SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY. 

Bust Biblical and Normal Institate 

Theological department of Talladega College . . 

Institate for the Education of Colored Ministers . 

Augusta Institate 

Theological department of Leland University. . 

Thompson Biblical Institute CSew Orleans 
University). 

Theological department of Straight University. 

Centenary Biblical Institate 

Theological department of Biddle University. . 

Theological dei>artment of Shaw University. . . 

Theological Seminary of Wilberfbrce University 

Theological dejiartment of Lincoln University. 

Baker Theological Seminary (Claflin Univer- 
sity). 

Theological coarse in Fisk University 

Theological department of Central fTezmessee 
College. 

Theological department of Howard University. 

TTayland Seminary 



Location. 



Bodney.Miss 

Charlotte, N. C 

Xenia, Ohio 

Oxford, Pa , 

Nashville, Tenn.... 
Nashville, Tenn... 
Washington, B. C . 



Huntsville, Ala . . 
Talladega, Ala... 
Tuscaloosa, Ala. . 

Augusta, Ga 

New Orleans, La . 
New Orleans, La . 



Total 



SCHOOLS OF LAW. 

Law dei>artment of Straight University. 
Law department of Howard University. 

Total 



SCHOOLS OF lUEOICIXK. 

Medical department of New Orleans University 
Meharry Medical Department of Central Ten- 
nessee College. 
Medical department of Howard University... 

Total 



SCHOOLS FOB THS DBAF AND DUMB AHD THE 

BLIXD. 

Institution for the Colored Blind and Deaf- 

Mutes. 
North Carolina Institation for the Deaf and 

Dumb and the Blind (colored department). 

Total 



New Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Charlotte, N.C 

IUleigh,N.C 

Xenia, Ohio 

Oxford, Pa 

Orangeburg, Si^ 



Nashville, Tenn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 



Washington, D. C 
Washington, D. C 



New Orleans, La . , 
Washington, D.C. 



New Orleans, La 
Nashville, Tenn. . 



Washington, D. C 



Baltimore, Md 
Raleigh, N.C. 



4j 



Non-sect. 
Presb.... 

ME 

Px«sb.... 

MB 

Cong 

Non-sect. 



I 

m 



5 
al 
16 
9 
8 
» 
7 



108 



Meth.. 
Cong . . 
Presb.. 
Baptist 
Baptist 
ME... 



Cong . . 
ME... 
Presb.. 
Baptist 
ME... 
Presb.. 
Meth .. 



CoBg 
ME. 



Non-seot. 
Baptist . . 



2 
2 



5 
3 
2 

6 
6 



2 
5 

4 
6 



44 



4 
2 



6 



13 



ell 



•14 



I 



■*» 

CO 



126 

145 

134 

24 

6B 
57 



1,2T0 



18 



85 
28 
18 

14 
24 

9 
50 

8 
20 



83 
35 

32 
88 



402 



8 
6 



14 



8 
18 

48 



74 



31 



25 



a For all departments. 

h This institution is open to both races, and the numbers given are known to indnde some whites. 

e Includes other employes. 



EDUCATION OP THE COLORED BACE, 



XXXVII 



Summary of 8ta^Hc8 of institaiiona for the instruction of the eolortd race for 1877. 



Florida. 

Georgia , 

Kentnckj 

Ixwiiidana 

Harjland 

MiaBiaaippi 

Minonri..^.... 
Kortii Curoliaa 

Obio 

South Carolina. 



Texas 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

District of Columbia 



Total 



Public schools. 



I 
1 



Normal schools. 



168,706 

43,518 
3,800 

42,001 
175,304 

53,126 
108,548 

63,501 
174,485 

82,910 
141,031 



144,315 
111,523 

80,587 

202,640 

6,080 

11,000 



1,513,065 



i 



64,745 
7,255 
1,663 
16,185 
48,643 
10,107 
40,000 
24,530 
76,154 
18,774 
73,170 



55,062 
43,043 
23,432 
65,043 
2,847 
6.054 



571,506 



i 



4 
1 



1 
2 
1 
1 

4 



2 
2 



3 
3 



• 




2 



5 
7 
8 
6 
14 





22 



25 
6 



InstitutioDS for sec- 
ondary instruction. 






408 
83 



382 



05 
211 
106 
122 
513 



666 
400 



610 



101 



27 



110 



3,785 



i 

t 



1 

2 



1 
1 



3 
1 
6 
2 
1 
2 



23 






10 



3 
7 



16 



15 
7 
2 
7 



66 






375 



62 
185 



05 



436 

23 

1,007 

205 
53 

236 



40 



2,807 





Universities and 
colleges. 


Schools of theol- 
ogy- 


3 

Schools of kfcw. 


States. 


4 


i 

1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 


i 


i 

(5 


Alabama -..........^r... 








3 
1 


2 
2 


18 
85 








Georgia ......................... ....... 


1 
1 
3 


6 
13 
23 


33 
120 
337 








TK*ntacky ,r--^ ^,,,,r^.-^-^,^,,,,,...,.,,. 










8 

1 


2 
5 


60 
24 


1 


4 


8 


Mnr\ Ismi 




KississiDDi 


2 

1 
1 

1 


11 
7 

16 



216 
126 
145 
134 








North Carolina 


2 
1 
1 

1 
2 
2 


5 
6 
5 


69 

8 

20 








Ohio 








PRnnit\ 1 vaniA .T^rT--..«..»*.*«*<^*>.,,.'rT-rr 








South C»ToHn» 








TennMsee 


2 

1 


17 

7 


93 
57 


7 
10 


68 
120 








I>istri4!rt of Columb**- r --- 


1 


2 


8 






Total. ,. ,..„,--,,--,,--,- 


13 


108 


1,270 


17 


44 


462 


2 


6 


14 







XXXmi BEPOBT OF THE COUHISSIONER OF EDDCATIOH. 
Sutimtary of itatitlicg ofiiulitiitiontfortbeintlrwsUonoflheaoloTed root for 1877 — Cont'd. 





ScbDoli cj medl- 


School* for tho 
dear uul dumb 
■nd th« blind. 


8tat«. 


i 

1 


! 


! 


1 


1 


* 


Loulaiaio 




G 


e 








Manljiiul 


I 




















...... 


« 





















12 

















Table ikoaing Oie mmbtr of lokooU for U« eolorod raet tutd enrotinent in then ig «ulit«- 
Umu iritboHf r^nvncc to StaUa. 





Schools. 


E.r„h-™., 




alO,TM 
27 
23 


05T BM 








1.80T 
1.270 






Schuol f Uw 


















10, na 






' 



aTo th«e ouy b« uldul KIS schoola, harlDg ui curolineDt of ie,SU, in rcpDKlnK free Suiee. 
total nnmber of colored public Bchoola 11.107 imd toUlmrohnent In lh«in Sgg.OM; llwlU be el 
that thliitognienU the total Dumber of KbooU above given by 31G and theenrDlmeDtby lfl,!>4S. 
the total Dumbec of schools, lu br lu npocled to (u, It.lM, and total uximbcr of the toloivd nc 
iDttrnctlon In them, 598,5«5 -. this, however, does not inelude the colun-d public •chools of tbuee SUl. 
In which no aeparat« reports are mode. 



idgr 



Table »how<*g On rniumnt a»d ditpontio* of tht nmt dithuned from the Feahodg find from 
1866 to 1977, ioclnntir. 



* 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


} 




i 


1 


f 


1 

I 


^ 




k 








1 








■«< 








mm 


11, 7M 


12,700 
0,350 


»3,560 
7,800 


W.502 
B,000 




5,700 


tl mir 


88,700 
10,500 






•4,800 




I3i400 
>0.00« 


1M9 


n.850 


0,000 




84,300 


110,800 




10,301 


7,050 


3, MO 


8.000 


0.B50 


5,B50 


5,000 


5.000 






IS. 050 


13,00. 


90.000 


IBTl 


15,05. 


8,75« 


2.500 


8.800 


8,550 


6,800 


a. 260 


12,400 




B.M0 


22,05* 


0,15.100,000 




29.701 


8,250 




0,000 


8.a» 


B,MO 


<,M0 


11,500 








17,0«130.»0 




36. 7W 


B.730 
H,30* 










8,800 
8,700 












1874 


20D 


6,500 


0,000 


0,700 


2,750 


1,000 


3,000 


.13,100 


15, loo IH 600 




2S,ja 


miMw 


10« 


0,750 


1.801 


2,200 


6.40(1 


1,000 










1S7B 


17,801 


8,0m 


4,]5<l 


3,700 


1,000 


5,500 


9.96(1 


2,000 


4.45C 


1,00« 


10,101 


8.800 78,300 


1817 


18, 2M 


*,»00 


4,aoo 


4,000 


^600 


3.70O 


5.990 


2,000 


10.800 


6,300115,850 


0.810 68.400 


Totd 


»1,2S(I 


"•"•l"'" 


71,082 


48,450 


M.4MiO«,67B 


5i.K0 118,800 00,8001181,050 


107,710 081.450 



STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS — ^^FREE TEXT BOOKS. XXXIX^ 

This nnparalleled benefaction, administered by the tmstees through their agent, 
Rev. Bamas Sears, D. d., ll. D., continues its great ^ork of aiding those cities and 
towns that help themselves to educational privileges for their youth. The above 
figures, covering a period of ten years, are most suggestive ot the vast good accom- 
plished.* 

TOWNSHIP SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

TTie oldest American educational idea was that of Massachusetts, which looked to 
an elementary school in every town containing 50 householders, with a grammar 
school where there were 50 more householders. A somewhat more recent but more 
widely spread idea was to have ordinary schools for every township, a higher 
school for every county, and a college or university for every State. The township 
was the unit of the whole school system, and many thoughtful men are question- 
ing whether it ought not to be restored to that position, instead of being broken into 
incohesive fragments called school districts, as is conunon now. Some arguments for 
such a restoration are as follows : 

1. The present district system involves almost necessarily numerous poor school- 
houses, because the few people in a district cannot generally afford a good one. The 
population being scanty, schools are small, with imperfect classification of the pupils 
and recitations too numerous and too short for fair results. Poor teaching is inevitable, 
from, the need of getting for each little school the cheapest teacher to be had ; and yet 
a gTea,t proportionate exx>ense is incurred on the whole, since in the case of every two 
school-houses where one would satisfy all real wants, there must be two teachers, 
two fires, and two sets of furniture, besides the cost of the unnecessary building. With 
all this, too, there is frequent uncertainty as to ill surveyed and ill marked district 
bonndaries, involving uncertainty as to which district is to collect the tax and edu- 
cate the children, and great liability to disputes and bickerings on this account. 
And then there is perfect certainty of often having in the district board men unfit to 
supervise and help a school. 

2. The township system, on the other hand, providing boundaries settled by indis- 
putable surveys, removes all ground for disputes on that point; it affords an opportu- 
nity to obtain for the township a school board of intelligent and good men, and 
through such a board better management of school funds, better choice of teachers, 
better arrangement and gradation of the schools, and wiser supervision of them. 

These being the invariable characteristics and results of the two systems, a number 
of the States are endeavoring to get rid of the district and substitute the township 
system. The voice of the State sui>erintendents is believed to be uniformly in favor of 
the change.' 

FREE TEXT BOOKS IN FREE SCHOOLS. 

From a desire to extend to every child the full advantages of public instruction, the 
laws of thirteen of our States make provision for supplying indigent pupils with the 
needful text books free of charge. These books are understood to be held by the chil- 

1 Tbe report of the State Normal College at Xashville, Tenn., for the year ending Soptember 1, 1877, 
showH that the second year has been much more aacoeflsful than its most sanguine fHouds anticipated 
it would be — a result largely due to the amount appropriated by the Peabody education fund for its 
Mxpijort, which was $9,000 for 1877 ; the State contributed nothing. The first annual commencement 
was held May 30, 1877, and was very largely attended by prominent educators and citizens. After q^ 
address by ex-Govemor Keill S. Brown, the degree of licentiate of instruction was conferred upon 
tlie graduates. 

* As bearing on this point, the opinion of an intelligent and clear-sighted foreigner may not be with- 
out interest : "The district is a territorial unit not only too narrow but too variable to serve either as 
the basis for a wise distribution of school funds or for efficient supervision of the schoobi. Chance, 
caprice^ sometime the interest of a single family, or an insignificant village rivalry, sometimes, also, 
the pn^udioes or carelessness of a single man, may determine the fate of a locality, either burdening it 
trith useless taxes, depriving it of any school whatever, or giving it a very poor one. The district sys- 
tem has been tried ; it is not liberty, but chaos. Those who are engaged in elementary instruction with 
one Toice demand its repeal."— (M. F. Bnisson, Kapport snr rinstruction primaire h I'Exposition Uni- 
Tcnelle de Philadelphie.) 



XL REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

dren as a loaiif to be retnmed in the best condition possible to the school boards after 
use, and to be passed on from session to session and from child to child. The benefits 
derived from this arrangement have been so many and so various as to give rise to con- 
siderable discussion of the question whether the system of a free supply of books by 
school boards would not better be made universal, instead of partial and discriminat- 
ing, as it is. 

The advocates of a system of free supply urge in favor of it that it saves expense, 
the books being purchased at wholesale; that it saves time, enough books for ever^" 
scholar being thus available at the opening of each term ; that it secures for a district 
a desirable uniformity of text books, making the work of teachers greatly easier and 
more effective than in other cases ; that it thus promotes better classification of pupils, 
so that more time can be given to each class ; that it increases the attendance on the 
schools; and, finally, tlxat it prevents expense and annoyance when a pupil goes from 
one district to another. 

In view of these advantages, our two largest cities, New York and Philadelphia, 
have for a long time furnished free books, and smaller cities, such as Bath and Lewis- 
ton in Maine, Fall River in Massachusetts, Newark and Paterson in New Jersey, have 
followed their example, with the happiest results. Four of the States, too, now 
explicitly provide for allowing the system of free supply. Maine, Massachusetts, and 
Wisconsin leave the matter to be decided by district or town meetings and city coun- 
cils and the local school boards ; and New York authorizes city boards to furnish 
books to pupils out of any money provided for the purpose. In most of the remaining 
States the laws are silent on this point, except, 03 before mentioned, where a supply 
for poor pupils is allowed. But in California, Iowa, Michigan, New Jersey, and Penn- 
sylvania the State superintendents express themselves as decidedly in favor of furnish- 
ing free all the books needed. Superintendent Carr, of California, further ventures 
the opinion that in the silence of the law there is no obstacle in the way of the adop- 
tion by any district of the free plan; and probably, in almost any State, districts 
would be allowed to decide the matter for themselves, provided that proper notice be 
given beforehand to the people of the intention to discuss and determine the question 
at a specified time. 

DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERVISION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS. 

History constantly affirms the necessity of education to the permanence and prog- 
ress of every administrative system. The Christian church, it is well known, insti- 
tuted a formal organization for the training of its officers in their respective duties, 
and, as long as its supremacy over the state was allowed, assumed also the education 
of the officers of government. The University of Paris, the University of Vienna, the 
schools and colleges of the Jesuits, were instances of the church's exercise of this 
inestimable power. Gradually, states recognized that education is one of the chief 
forces in their possession, and resolved to apply it to the whole people. These succes- 
sive aims, ecclesiastical, political, popular, were combined in the educational system of 
Prussia. 

The power which the church had derived from education, Frederick the Great di- 
rected to the general good and glory of the state ; the salient provisions of his system 
wsre, on the one hand, the beginning of normal schools supplying special training for 
officials, and, on the other, compulsory education insuring an intellectual training to 
every individual. Step by step, the other states of the Old World are adopting the 
efficient system out of which came the present supremacy of Northern Germany in 
European affairs. 

In the history of our own country, education presents an impressive reconl. 
Says President Quincy in his History of Har\'ard College: "The first necessities of 
civilized man, food, raiment, and shelter, had scarcely been provided ; civil govern- 
ment and the worship of God had alone been instituted, when the great interests of 
education engaged the attention of the colonists of Massachusetts. '' 



SCHOOL SUPERVISION. XLI 

The PTO0& of this immediate concern are the colonial laws of 1642 and 1647, form* 
ally enacting what had already been practically establiBhod, and making Harvard 
College the expressiye crown of a well ordered system of public instruction. 

Like the Hebrew, the Puritan syllabled his XMitriotism and his adoration in a single 
expression, ^' If I forget thee, O Jerusalem t'' Schools and college were in his concep- 
tion the common nursery of state and church, developing by the same process the 
citizen and the christian, since in a community where the privilege of electing officers 
and holding office was vested exclusively in freemen, and where none could be lYeemen 
but church members, the two characters were comprehended in one. Education formed 
Beeessarily an inherent element of the administrative policy. To these early move- 
ments in our colonies may be traced the educational ideals that pervade our history. 

In the complete separation of chiv^h and state, however, while the provisions for 
education continue and multiply, its aimrf and its control have been involved in sin- 
gular confusion ; nevertheless, in the irregular development throughout the States, 
the tendency to efficient supervision has maintained itself in continuous life, some- 
times obscured by opposition, sometimes firmly marked, but always traceable. 

At first the only distinct and separate officer in the affairs of church and state set 
apart to education was, under the clergy, the teacher. Afterward, as education devel- 
oped in towns, it came under the control of the same committee or officers as other 
civil affairs of the town. 

By degrees the school came to be recognized as so imi>ortant in itself, so distinct in 
its objects from other branches of administration, that the necessity to the state of 
setting apart for school government a class of officers especially fitted for educational 
responsibilities was fully admitted; the town school committees followed. 

As the duties of school supervision increased and forced themselves upon the at- 
tention of the State, for a time they were treated as subordinate and committed to some 
one of the State officers who had other duties, as, for example, the secretary of state ; 
bot these experiments invariably proved detrimental to education and unsatisfactory 
to the x>eople ; and it is generally a disadvantage for a man to advocate a return to such 
provisions. To-day the State that should aboUsh or cripple separate State supervision 
of education and commit it to another officer of the State would be universally con- 
denmed among educators as going backward. The development of this important 
principle can be better understood by the particular account of the successive move- 
ments in New York. 

In 1795, Governor George Clinton reconunended to the Legislature the establishment 
of common schools throughout the State, in pursuance of which recommendation an 
act was framed and approved April 9, 1795, entitled ''An act for the encouragement of 
schools.'' This act appropriated (50,000 a year for five years, for fostering and main- 
tuning schools in. the several cities and towns of the State; made explicit provision 
for the division of funds and for treasurer's certificates, and for the supervision of the 
schoola under local commissioners and trustees ; it also directed reports as to the de- 
tails of the schools to be transmitted to the secretary of state, to be by him laid before 
the Legislature. Thus, in the first legislative action in New York after the Revolution 
toward organizing a common school system, the importance of supervision in educa- 
tion was distinctly recognized. ** On the basis of this simple organization," says Mr. 
Randall, ''the foundations of our present school system were originally laid." Seven- 
teen years later, in 1812, occurred the first legislation contemplating a permanent 
system of common schools. Then the office of State superintendent of common schools 
was created. Each town was required to elect three commissioners of common schools 
and frx>m one to six inspectors, who with the commissioners were to have supervision 
of the schools and to conduct the examinations of teachers ; at the same time the 
offices of trustees, clerk, and collector were created for each school district. 

The following year, 1813, the office of superintendent was bestowed by the council 
of appointment upon Mr. Gideon Hawley, who served till 1821, and to whom must be 
ascribed the honor of having thoroughly organized the common school system of the 



XLn REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

State. He was remoYed on purely i>olitical gronndS) and a }>eTBon wanting in the 
requisite qualifications of a sux>erintendent of schools was appointed in his stead; this 
led to a notable change respecting State supervision. A law or clause of a law was 
enacted that the secretary of state should, ex officio^ be the superintendent of common 
schools. 

This law remained unchanged till 1854, but not without strong recommendations from 
time to time on the part of the secretaries of state and others in favor of a separate 
and distinct department of school superintendence. 

The constant agitation of the subject is indicated by a series of acts : thus, the act 
of 1841 created the office of deputy superintendent ; that of 1843 abolished the office 
of town commissioner of schools and inspector of schools and created the office of 
town superintendent; and the act of 1847 abolished the office of county superintend- 
ent and ordered the returns of town superintendents to be made to county clerks. 

The great interests involved in the educational administration were now so 'distinctly 
recognized that in 1851 the assembly, by resolution, authorized the governor to ap- 
point a commission to report to the legislature at its next session a common school 
code for the State. Hon. S. S. Randall, the commissioner under the resolution, recom- 
mended, as one of the permanent changes required, in the then existing law, 'Hhe 
separation of the office of State superintendent of common schools from that of secre- 
tary of state and its creation into a separate and'distinct department.'' Governor 
Horatio Seymour strongly recommended such separate organization of the department 
in his message to the legislature in 1854, and accordingly an act for the purpose was 
passed the March ensuing. '^This important measure," says Mr. Randall, from whose 
History of the Common School System of New York the above facts are mainly derived, 
**wa8 warmly supi>orted by Hon. E. W. Leavenworth, then secretary of state, chiefly 
on the ground of the incompatibility of the duties pertaining to the office of superin- 
tendent with those required of the secretary of state." 

Thus, aft«r a period of more than thirty years, the State of New York returned, in 
1854, to the system of a separate department for common school superintendence, which 
has been coutinued to the present time. 

The development of the same system in Maine is also pertinent to the present inter- 
est in the general subject. The first school law in this State was passed in 1821, one 
year after the separation from Massachusetts. With respect to school supervision, 
this law provided for the election at annual town meetings of a superintending school 
commissioner for each town and plantation, whose duty it should be to examine teach- 
ers, select school books, visit and inspect the schools, &c. It also provided for the 
choosing of a district agent for each district, whose duty it should be to hire teachers 
for the district and to provide the necessary utensils and fuel for the schools. No pio- 
vimon was made in the law for any reports concerning the schools to either town or 
State officers. 

The act of 1821 was so amended by the act of 1825 as to make it the duty of select- 
men to present returns to the secretary of state, once in three years, as to the number 
of school districts, the number of scholars in each, the number of scholars usually 
attending school, the length of school sessions, and the amount of money exx>ended 
for the same. The law was inadequate to the results desired, and the returns secured 
were of little or no value. 

These partial acts accelerated the grand movement, and in 1843 vigorous efforts 
were made by the friends of education in the legislature to improve the schools by 
a State organization. A bill was immediately introduced to establish a board of 
school commissioners, which, however, failed to become a law ; a bill introduced in 
ld45 by Stephen H. Chase, of Fryeburg, providing for school commissioners to be 
appointed by the governor and council also failed to become a law. Notwithstanding 
these failures, the public will was moving steadily toward an efficient supervision of 
schools. In accoixlance with a memorial to the legislature drawn up by a convention 
of teachers and friends of education, Hon. £. M. Thurston introduced a bill to estub- 



SCHOOL SUPERVISION. XLHI 

lidi a State board of education, "which became a law July 27, 1846. The board was 
to consist of one member firom each county, to bo chosen annually by the superin- 
tending school committees of the seyeral towns and the clerks of the several plan- 
tations in each county ; it was required to elect, each year, one person, to be styled 
the secretary of the board of education. A x>enalty was imposed on towns for neglect- 
ing to make school returns and teachers were ordered to keep registers. ** The estab- 
lishment of the board of education," says Mr. Corthell in his review of the school 
legislation of Maine, ''marks the era of reform and advance in school work." 

The new system was variously modified by the acts of 1850 and 1851, and in 1852 
the ^* board of education " and the '' secretary of the board " were abolished, and a law 
was enacted making it the duty of the governor and council annually to appoint a 
eonmiissioner of common schools for each county, who was charged with the super- 
vision of the schools of his own county. 

In 1854 an act was passed establishing the office of State superintendent of common 
schools, and by an act of 1868 the powers and duties of the superintendent were fully 
defined and his office was fixed at the seat of government. Thus, after various 
experiments, ranging through a history of forty-seven years, efficient school super- 
vision was made the law of the State. 

The development of common school supervision in the various States has been sub- 
stantially the same as in New York and Maine. The correctness of the principle, the 
necessity of its application, are now universally admitted; it is in active operation in 
every State of the Union, Oregon and Delaware having been the last to adopt it. 

Following is a list of the designations of State educational officers in the sevei*al 
States and Territories, with their mode of election or appointment and term of service. 



XLiy BEPORT OF THE C0MMI8SI0KEB OF EDUCATION. 



Official Utle, mode of appointment, and term of Bervioe of State and territorial $uperintemdemt^. 



AlAbama — 
ArkaoBM . . • 
California. . . 
Colorado . . . 
Conneoticiit 



Delaware.. 
Florida.... 
Creorgia . . . . 
Illinois.... 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas — 
Kentucky . 
Looisiana . 
Maine 



Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey , 



New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . 

lUiode Island . . 

• 

South Carolina. 
Tennessee 



Texas 



Vermont , 

Virginia 

Wi'st Virginia. 
Wisconsin 



Designation of officer. 



BTATE SUFSBIXTENDKim. 



State superintendent of education 

State superintendent of public instmetion 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
SecretacyofStato board of education 



State superintendent of free schools 

State superintendent of public instruction 

State school commissioner 

State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of publio education. . 
State superintendent of common schools . . 



Alaska 



State superintendent of public instruction a. 



Secretary of State board of education 



State superintendent of public 
State superintendent of public 
State superintendent of public 
State superintendent of public 
State superintendent of public 
State superintendent of public 
State superintendent of publio 
State superintendent of publio 



instruction 
instruction 
education.. 

schools 

instruction 
instruction 
instruction 
instruction 



State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of publio instruction 

State commissioner of common schools 

State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 



State con^missioner of public schools. 



State superintendent of education 

State superintendent of public schools 

Secretary of State board of education 



State superintendent of education 

State superintendent of publio instruction 

State superintendent of free schools 

State supermtendent of public instruction 

TEBBITOBIAL 8UPKBINTKKDKNTB. 



Elected or ap> 
pointed by 
the— 



People 

People 

People 

People 

State board of 
edaeatioiL 

Governor 

Governor 

Crovemor 

People 



People 

People 

People 

People 

People 

Governor and 
connciL 

State board of 
education. 

State board of 
education. 

People 

Governor 

People 

People 

People 

People 

Governor 

State board of 
education. 

Legislature... 

People 

People 

People 

Governor Kud 
senate. 

State board of 
education. 

People 

Governor and 
senate. 

Board of edu- 
cation. 

Genl assembly 

Genl assembly 

People 

People 



Tetm of serrioe. 



2 

2 yean. 

4yeara. 



During pleMnre 
of board. 



lye 

4 years. 

2 years. 

4 years. 

2 years. 

2 years. 

2 years. 

4 years. 

4yearB. 

8 years, ordnring 
pleasure of ex* 
ecutive. 

During pleasure 
of board. 

No express lim- 
itation. 

2 years. 

2 years. 

4 years. 

4 years. 

2 years. 

4 years. 

2 years. 

3 years. 

3 years. 

4 years. 

3 yean. 

4 years. 
4 years. 

lyear. 

4 years. 
2 years. 

During pleasure 

of board. 
2 years. 
4 years. 
4 years. 
2 years. 



a Ex officio, as principal of State Normal School. 



SCHOOL SUPESYISION. 



XLV 



OJUial tUUy wu>de ^ ojipoHiteiciif, aii<i (erm of $ervice of State and territorial ntperitUend' 

ernte — Continued. 







Elected or ap- 
pointed by 
the— 


Term of seryioe. 


ArisaoA 




Pres.ofF. S-. 
GrOTcnior and 

connciL 
Diatrict com- 

miaaionera. 
Goyemor 


ITot giyen. 
2 years. 

During pleaanre 

of comm*r& 
Not given. 


Dakote 


Territorial soperintendent of pablic InBtraction. 

(a) 


I>istofColiimbU. 
T4iiIm> 


Tndl^n 


SuDerlntendeiit of schools of the Fire Nations . . 


Montftiui 


Territorial saperinteDdent of pablic instmction. 
Secretary of Territory, ex officio 


Goyemor 

Prea. ofF. 8.. 

People 

Goyemor 

Goyemor ..... 


8 years. 


New Mexico 


T7t»h 


Territorial snperintendent of diatrict schbols 

Territorial snperintendent of public inatmction. 
Territorial librarian, ex officio 


2yean. 
SyearsL 


WMhingtoA 

Wjoming 









•There are two anperintendenta : The title of the first ia superintendent of schools for white obU- 
dren in Waahington and Georgetown and of the county achools ; of the second, superintendent of 
ackools for oolored childxeB in Waahington and Georgetown. 



XL VI 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Summary of Bchool aiaiistice of 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

10 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

20 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

30 

40 



Cities. 



Little Rock, Ark 

San Francisco, Cal — 

San Joa6,Cal* 

Stockton, Cal 

Denver, Colo 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Hartford, Conn 

New Britain, Conn*. . . 

New Haren, Conn 

New London, Conn . . . 

Norwalk, Conn* 

Wilmington, Del 

Atlanta, Ga 

Anga8ta,Ga 

Columbus, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Alton, lU 

Belleville, HI 

Bloomington, 111 

Chicago, 111 

Decatur, 111 

Freei>ort, HI 

Galesbnrg, HI 

Jacksonville, HI 

JoUet,Hl 

Peoria, HI 

Quincy,Ill 

Rockford,H] 

Rock Island, in 

Springfield, HI* 

Fort "Wayne, Ind 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jeffersonville, Ind — 

La&yette, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Madison, Ind* 

Richmond, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Terre Haute, Ind 



17,000 
301,020 
16,000 
15,000 
21.000 
25,000 
41,600 
12,000 
58,675 
10,000 
13,000 
40,000 
35,000 
23,768 
0,000 
15,000 
28,000 
10,500 
12,000 
25,000 
450,000 
10,000 
12,000 
14,000 
12,000 
14,000 
82,000 
82,000 
14.000 
11,100 
25,000 
28,400 
100, 000 
10,000 
22,000 
15,000 
12,500 
14,000 
15,000 
21,000 



8) 



1 

« 

a 
>3 



6-21 
5-17 
5-17 
5-17 
6-21 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
6-21 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 



9 

I 

1 



6,462 
51,889 
3,074 
8,011 
2,481 
6,376 
9,621 
3,176 
12,964 
2,101 
3,254 
9,178 
10,362 
4,912 
2,463 
3.442 
6,919 
3,164 
4,467 
7,292 
110, 184 
3,094 
2,852 
4,127 
3,689 
3,557 
8,881 
8,511 
4,901 
3,567 
10,722 
10,588 
22,806 
2,723 
6,020 
3,788 
4,652 
4,236 
3,138 
7,101 






9 
1 



.a 

a 



5 
3 
11 
64 
6 
6 



9 
56 

9 
10 

4 
17 
16 
10 
21 

9 
12 
18' 

9 
16 

6 

8 



• 

1 

& 

p 

i 


teachers. 


i 
s 

e 

1 


o 


O 

1 


m 

6 

8 
170 


6 


7 


1,528 


27 




618 


209 




42 


198 


1,003 


34 


196 


1,615 


87 


195 


4,009 


84 


196 




160 


197 


2,250 


40 


198 


8,897 


213 


200 


1,800 


51 


200 


3,200 


49 


203 


5,364 


106 


199 


2,630 


53 


202 




35 


186 


920 


20 


187 


1,052 


24 


140 


3,000 


58 


180 




21 


196 


2,000 


40 


198 


2,670 


65 


177 


41,500 


800 


197 


1,728 


29 


177 


1,600 


29 


196 


2,100 


34 


178 


1,600 


33 


187 


1,692 


36 


197 


3,115 


67 


188 


2,950 


55 


195 




50 


195 


2,000 


36 


178 


2,200 


41 


180 


3,790 


84 


195 


11,087 


185 


195 




26 


188 


1,900 


50 


195 


1,480 


31 


197 




38 


200 


1,975 


45 


180 


1,700 


28 


178 


3,737 


78 


107| 



Pupils. 



* From Report of the Commissioner 

a Assessed valuation. 

b Includes cost of supervision. 



8 

8 

9 

9 
10 

6 

5 

9 
23 

5 

6 
12 

6 



7 
12 

of Education for 1876. 







10 




CITY SCHOOLS. 
eities containing 7,500 inhabitants and over. 



XLVII 



PvpOa. 



|3 
•I 8 
"I 
S 

> 



S3 
O 



S 






K - 


11 


300 



400 

120 

100 

450 

•1,337 

97 

1,500 

40 

100 



800 

soo 

250 
100 
350 

aoo 

700 



20,000 
200 
200 



1,000 

004 

1,600 

1,800 

475 

450 



2.300 

1,340 

300 

1,000 



276 
565 
230 
300 



I 

M 

o w 

O 9 

9 ja 
S 



K 



1*J 



a$5.270,4d0 

a260. 262, 343 

9,000,000 

5,000,000 

16, 000, 000 

17, 000, 000 

♦a47, 1C2, 324 

a4, 592, 952 

65, 852, 000 

10, 000, 000 

9,000,000 

25,399,000 

20,000,000 

12, 336, 700 

4,000,000 

7,500,000 



5,000,000 
5,000,000 
8,500,000 
al48, 400, 087 
9, 114, 756 



5,500,000 
2,778,789 
3, 249, 080 
16,000,000 
20,000,000 
12. 000, 000 
12,000,000 



12.294,460 
73,822,993 
a2, GOO, 000 
14, 000, 000 
a5, 666, 055 
a4, 400, 000 



I 

o d 

I- 
I* 

h 



13 



al3, 841, 060 



$60,715 
2, 574, 000 
152,000 
142.900 
186,540 
144.500 
♦1, 755, 269 

99,500 
532.722 

87,500 
111,000 
265,339 

96,000 



26,500 

24,500 

96.500 

75,500 

104,600 

230, 471 

2,436,056 

95,600 

57,300 

112, 815 

150.900 

65,650 

157,300 

217,000 

120,000 

112,600 

150,000 

224,650 

883,986 

60,000 

193,000 

180,000 

60,000 

81,000 



215,471 



8 u 

H 

V St 



I 



is 

SI 



14 



5 

2.1 

2 

1.5 

7.5 

3.25 



15.25 
2.7 



2.5 
2.12 



2.25 



4.4 

11.5 
14.5 

2.92 

9 



5 

3 

7 

7 

4.5 

5 

6.5 

5 

4.6 

2 

4 

3.5 

5 

3 



3.4 






3 

5 



15 



$942, 616 
66,666 
50,701 
59.061 
62,410 
101,066 
37,050 
228,284 
26,547 
69,861 



35,709 

e32,706 
12,145 

<16, 457 
42,505 
20,685 
40,024 
66,292 

849. 757 
40,109 
84,577 
32,079 
46,948 
25,001 
77,500 
54,130 
43,623 
23,872 
32,100 
99,361 

311,456 
23,003 



48,575 
26,450 
72,710 
44.494 
95,046 



Expenditures. 



► 
p 5 

g 



16 



$4,120 

22,279 

21.612 

924 

4,417 

6,725 



12,700 

29,637 

255 

1,573 



800 



140 



1,404 

1,101 

136 



2,742 
106 



i 

B 

a 



IT 



18 



6$17,308 
537,389 
27,700 
28.920 
27,728 
42,950 
80,192 
19,695 
132,963 
19.546 
24,700 



28,788 



7,557 
350 



15,502 

28,203 

154 



5,306 
3,154 



12.625 



6.917 

7,046 

34.723 

11.075 

21.672 

26.500 

M51,053 

15.385 

614,968 

13, 710 

17,070 

616,330 

33,100 

27,326 



17,477 
24,954 
37,065 
121.319 
12, 918 



13, 539 



20,686 
11,207 
41,308 



$21,429 

800,709 
65,248 
38,044 
60,060 
62,336 

194,962 
40,601 

206,436 
26,547 
36,700 



35,662 
20,221 
11,933 
12,337 
42, 181 
15, 078 
35,043 
65,530 

684,534 
29,910 
34,508 
20.813 
48,530 
20,650 
76,794 
54,323 
37,517 
25.433 
83,751 
71,642 

215, 410 
19, 126 



ATerage expen- 
ses per capita of 
dally aT. att in 
public schools. 



§ § 
s t 

a 



10 



$15 33 
24 00 
20 39 



22 49 



12 00 
18 41 
14 64 

13 50 



12 78 



02 

12 51 

13 00 

10 10 
13 02 

11 57 

12 13 

13 10 



10 18 



41,888 
15,872 
34.158 
17,093 
66,440 



10 88 

11 02 



13 77 
13 73 
16 08 



13 04 



16 30 



e These statistics are for seven-eighths of the city only. 
cT This nfonbe*.* excludes duplicate enrolments. 
€ These receipts ore for the whole county. 



M 



U 





20 



$3 40 
4 80 
9 81 



6 11 



3 50 
5 84 



2 25 



2 02 



2 21 
1 20 



2 60 

2 22 

3 97 

4 05 
3 31 



3 41 



2 80 

3 61 



3 60 

3 G4 

4 14 



8 46 



3 49 



1 
2 
3 

4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
10 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
87 
36 
30 
40 



XLVin BEPORT OF THE C0MMI8SI0NES OF EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Summary of $chool 



41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
50 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
60 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 



Cities. 



Barling^ton, Iowa 

Coimcil BlaflB, lowft. . 

Daveni>ort, Iowa 

Des Moines (w. side), la 

Dubuque, Iowa* 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Atchison, Kan^ 

Lawrence, Kans. . . — 
Leavenworth, Kans* . . 

Covington, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Louisville, Ky* 

Newport, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Now Orleans, La 

Bangor, Me 

Biddeford, Me 

Lewiston, Me 

Portland, Me 

Baltimore, Md 

Adams, Mass 

Boston, Mass* 

Cambridge, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass* 

Fall River, Mass* 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass* 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Marlboro*, Mass 

Milford, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass* . . . 
Newbnryport, Mass*.. 

Newton, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass* 

Salem, Mass* 

Springfield, Mass 



i 

I 

a 



I 



28,000 

al0,020 

*24,000 
14,000 

li24,000 
15,000 
12,000 
08,320 

al7,873 
35,000 
15,000 

125,000 
18,500 
10,000 

203,430 

*18,500 
12,000 

♦20,000 
36,000 

350,000 

<15,765 
1 341, 019 

t47, 838 
10,000 
45,160 
12,000 

1 14. 628 
18,500 
53,000 
32,600 
8,581 
00,800 
27,000 
13,000 
16,700 
12,255 

626,000 
81,000 



1 



5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-18 
(26-20 
6-20 
6-20 
6-20 
6-21 
4-2] 
4-21 
4-21 
5-21 
6-18 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 



I 
I 

I 
1 



& 



5,063 
3,128 



3,502 
8,806 
5,732 
3,000 
2,652 
5,660 
0,800 
5,080 
/45,000 
6.500 
1,016 



5,586 
3,451 
6,470 

11,300 

77,000 

3, 171 18 2, 462 

58, 636 146 56, 111 

*8,218 28 8,866 

1, 070 11 1, 400 

7, 000 30 6. 856 

2,170 10 3,253 

2, 608 28 3, 211 

2, 523 11 2, 268 

7,540 41 

5, 700 32 6, 132 

1,086 11 1,771 
2.223 

4, 002 21 4, 000 

2, 743 20 2, 680 

2, 853 16 3, 280 

2,558 2,260 

4, 430 17 4, 307 

5, 375 20 5, 000 

* From Keport of the Commissioner of Education for 1876. 

a Census of 1870. 

b From Rei>ort of the Commissioner of Education for 1875. 

e Assessed valuation. 

dThe legal age for colored children is tnm. 6 to 16. 

e These statistics are for white schools only. 



I 

1 

.a 



I 



10 


11 

4 










I 



p^ 



3,850 
1,590 
4,618 
2,100 



AX 


2,500 


5 




12 




6 


2,720 







27 


■ 


5 




13 


810 


60 




35 




21 


2,072 


20 




12 


4,100 



i 

% 



e 



"A 



71 
20 
04 
36 
73 
52 
23 
28 
40 
C5 
clO 
820 
40 
14 
430 
75 
88 
68 
114 
764 
53 
1,306 
216 
30 
127 
67 
80 
57 
100 
111 
36 



-a 

£ 

I 

c 



^ 



8 



102 
108 
101 
188 



180 
180 



108 
200 
192 
202 
200 
215 
172 
182 
106 
184 
200 
186 
100 
224 
200 



105 

62 

74 

54 

103 

124 



102 
101 
194 
103 
105 
205 
W75 



203 
255 
197 
170 
200 
107 



PupOa. 



d 



^ 







8,356 

1,545 

4,710 

2,2U 

2,867 

2,500 

1,210 

1,440 

2,048 

3,500 

«1,232 

17.533 

2,674 

700 

23,156 

p3,700 

flr2,002 

3,560 

6,161 



173,374 

55,417 

10,323 

1,147 

7,537 

2,768 

2,632 

2,550 

j 10, 305 

5,578 

2,047 



3,822 
2,218 
8,471 
2,070 
4,704 
6,280 






« 
te 

§ 



•s 



10 



2,003 
020 

3.269 
1,300 
2,365 
2,100 
1.130 
1.210 
1.042 
2,420 
e884 
11.051 
1,969 



16,505 
"3,226 



3,200 
4,225 



1,022 
42,645 
7,000 
891 
4.150 
1,004 
2,003 
1,578 
5^250 
4,400 
1,536 



3^622 
1,850 
2,462 



3.284 
4»472 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



XLIX 



gtaUa^c* of HHetf ^c — Continued. 



PnpflA. 



g a! 

•^ > 



Jl 



1,000 
250 



400 



500 

300 



822 
500 



320 
12,000 



1,500 



It 

000 

1,000 

20 

40 

1,100 

550 

100 



75 
3S0 

80 
320 
191 
725 



h 

o » 

Is 
s 

:3 



19 



$12,000,000 

5, 472, 145 

16,000,000 

7,033,000 



9,000,000 

4,800,000 

e2. 551, 630 

e4, 367, 544 

20,000,000 

e4, 928.750 

c71, 849, 772 

06,200,000 

6,000.000 

088.973,030 

<;0,906,100 

10, 000, 000 

11, 873. 558 
30,892,845 



11, 141, 767 

0748, 878. 100 

c55, 755, 000 



051, 401, 467 
010, 668, 319 
12.500,000 
19, 275. 964 
50,000,000 
24, 995, 339 
03,439,025 



13 



$250,000 

85.600 

273,100 

225,400 



125,000 

64,100 

100,000 

203,512 

196,000 

40.000 

833.390 

153,500 

23,000 

629.500 

75,000 

40,000 

108,700 

376,500 



156,200 

8,500,000 

582.000 



I 



1,230.000 
182,496 
284,500 
120,090 
476,402 
471, 200 
59.500 



282,000 
105,100 
443,000 
01,400 
341,500 
554,500 



14 



6 

&5 
12 
13 

&5 

9 
13 
10 
10 

2.5 

1.5 

4.5 

2 

2 



2.33 
2.47 



4.31 
2.21 
3 






I 



15 



2, 



1.8 

3.52 

5.13 

2.2 

3.5 

4.7 

5.2 



$87,925 
52,355 

117,390 
55,216 
54,075 
40,370 
93 
25,975 
55,070 
68,000 
15,112 

274.132 

31,282 

0.897 

262.949 
36,200 
22,130 
33,705 
70.442 

625,813 
20,483 

036.087 

188,504 



97,101 
37.508 
53,507 
27.376 
163,185 
106.652 
18,410 



■I' 



3.66: 

3.33; 

2.79' 

2.3 

2.1 

2.03 



85,825 
35.450 
87,416 
20,366 
82,786 
90,257 



Expenditnres. 



AverAgectpen- 
soapercar'^cif 
daily av. att. in 
public schoolB. 



16 



$3,215 

845 

3.530 



3,090 
150 
162 

3.008 
27,500 



13,028 




3,554 



528 



4,880 
104,225 



IT 



$33,450 
15,362 
49,409 
20,795 
33,230 
28,089 
9.35U 
13. 435 
23.881 
35,000 



106.501 
17,273 

7,r>o 

206,914 



16,938 

24, 780 

57, 98,'> 

A449, 113 



307.094 1,228,338 



2,921 



5,500 



431 

14.938 

5,704 

78 



151, 574 



82,543 
28,2iO 
42,354 
19.242 
99,152 
68,843 
15,535 



92,500 



18,084 
1,493 



60,0C0 
25.060 
62,025 
20,460 
58,001 
72,138 



i 

1 

1 

5 



18 



$60,535 
30,081 
71, 500 
49.184 
45,987 
35,340 
13,640 
29,474 
53.031 
68,800 
17,987 

285,302 

29,645 

9,C46 

262,948 
41. 512 
21,309 
38,010 
76.357 

000.514 



2, 015, 580 
188,564 



107,683 
37,508 
54,652 
26,220 
407.009 
106,652 
20,030 



182, 775 
35,450 
83,456 
45,343 
82,786 
92,429 



3 



E 5- 



I 



to 



90 



$17 06 


$5 93 


18 45 


6 37 


17 05 


3 05 


15 96 


8 00 



12 09 
12 29 
14 70 



16 46 
9 40 

12 51 

13 50 



5 65 
3 00 
2 28 



6 32 

2 38 
8 00 



(11 88) 



11 26 
14 31 



5 46 
2 62 



(15 34) 
25 94 ' 10 21 



20 95 



4 86 



10 84 I 
15 07 i 
19 89 I 
13 21 ! 



4 77 
8 74 

5 40 
3 13 



15 91 
10 39 



4 92 
2 61 



14 50 
14 40 
20 37 



4 50 
2 41 
7 63 



21 38 I 
10 84 I 



6 20 

3 82 



34,850,000 

9,000,000 
28,500,000 

8,177.606 

27. 216, 000 

030, 602, 776 

/Estimated. 

g This nnmber exclades duplicnto enrolments. 

h Includes eont of supervisiou. 

{ Census of 1875. 

j Tlus is exduMivo of tlie evening schgols, in wbicli there is a total enrohnent of 1,27& 

IrFor grammar and high schools; for primary, 155. 

B— IV 



4\ 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

50' 

60 

61 

62r 

63 

64 

C5 

60 

07 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73- 

74 

75 

76 

77 

7» 



BEPORT OF THE C0MMI8SI0NEB OF EDUCATION. 



Tablb IL^Summaty of ttdiool 



to 

80 
81 
82 
88 
•84 
85 
86 
R7 
88 
80 
90 

in 

92 

98 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

108 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

Ul 

112 

113 

114 

116 

116 

117 



Cities. 



TaontoD, Maas 

Weymouth, Haas* . . . 

WobnrDf Maaa 

Worceater, Maaa 

Adrian, Mich* 

Aim Arbor, Mich . . . . 

JXayCity.Mich 

Detroit, Mich 

Saat Saginaw, Mich . . 
Orand Rapida, Mich . . 

Saginaw, Mich 

Minneapolia, Minn c ■ . 

St Paul, Minn 

Natchez, Misa* 

Yicksburg, Misa 

Hannibal, Mo 

Eanaaa City, Mo 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St Louia,Mo 

Omaha, Nebr 

Manchoater, N*. H 

Naahua.K.H 

Portamouth, N. H 

Camden, N. J* 

EUwibeth,N.J* 

Jeraey City, N". J 

Newark, N.J* 

New Brunawick, N. J. 

Orange, N.J 

Pateraon, N. J 

Trenton,N. J 

Anbnm, N. Y 

Binghamton, N. Y* . . . 

BuflWo.N.Y* 

Cohoea,N.Y 

Elmira,N.Y 

Ithaca,N.Y 

Kingston, N. Yj^ 

Lockport^N.Y 



19,000 
9,810 
10, 106 
52,000 
10,000 
7,500 
18,000 

►110,000 
17,600 
30,000 
10,500 
35.000 
40,000 
9,000 
11,000 
12,000 
42,000 
25.000 

500,000 
22,000 
25,000 
11.6(A) 
10,000 
40,000 
25,000 

120,000 

120,000 
18,000 
U,300 
39,500 
26,031 
18,500 
10,500 

143,594 
22,000 
22,000 
10,100 
•8,000 
13,000 



a 

1 

c 

& 

V5 



5-15 

5-15 

5-16 

5-15 

5-20 

5-20 

5-20 

5-20 

&-20 

5-20 

6-20 

5-21 

5-21 

6-21 

5-21 

6-20 

6-20 

6-20 

6-20 

5-21 

5-15 

&-16 

5- 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 



d 

o 

•mm 

3 

P 

& 

1 



3,413 
1,930 

ol,055 
9,097 
2,824 
2,419 
4.278 

35,739 
5,117 
9,129 
2,835 



11,134 

2,400 

3,306 

8,303 

6,822 

146,000 

4,753 

3,065 

2,307 

2,154 

10,842 

0,817 

37,482 

37,206 

/5,496 

3.513 

13.103 

9,040 

5,162 

4,509 

/40,000 

9.207 

5,752 

2,601 



4,185 



.2 



o 

a 

'A 



36 

21 

14 

85 

5 

7 

7 

27 

10 

13 

6 

9 

14 

4 

3 

8 

9 

18 

73 

10 

23 

16 

13 

11 

15 

20 

43 

6 

6 

10 

13 

10 

8 

42 

8 

9 

12 

6 

6 



4 



a 

m 
tc 

i 

o 

I 
i 



3,821 
2,128 
2,475 
8,522 
1,600 
1,800 
2,320 
12,549 



4,000 
1,430 
3,400 
8,800 
750 
1,090 
1,575 
3,600 
3,022 
38,510 
2,391 
3,380 
2,140 



5,500 
2,588 
12, 810 
12,831 
2,370 
1,184 
5,991 
2,900 
2,871 
2,368 
14,000 
2,000 
3,799 
1,535 
1,477 
2.524 



i 



I 



* l*Yom Beport of the Commiaaioner of £ducation 
a Number between 5 and 16. 
b Includes coat of auperviaion. 
sWeat division. 



81 
44 
43 

203 
29 
82 
40 

228 
49 
87 
28 
78 
77 
12 
23 
28 
58 
64 

870 
45 
82 
48 
40 

103 
60 

804 

282 
44 
81 

100 
72 
52 
64 

420 
67 
79 
81 
27 
43 

for 1876. 



■a 
I 

c 

s 

m 






Pupils. 



8 



195 
196 
200 
192 
193 
200 
106| 
183 
195 
192 
1044 
196 
194 
90 
183 
148 
197 
180 
198 
196 
188 
175 
244 
190 
202 
205 
205 
202 
200 
203 
195 
193 
207 
203 
204 
196 
192 
206 
198 



a 

g'2. 

5 s 
° 2 

o 

o 







3,739 
1,931 
2,127 
9,901 
1,449 
1,864 
2,841 

13,827 
3,177 
6,019 
1,564 
3.607 
4,316 
601 
1,450 
1,877 
4,334 
3,514 

47,676 
2,911 
3; 975 
2,148 
1,964 
5,270 
2.919 



18.970 
2,769 
1,561 
9,374 
2,706 
2,616 
3,187 

20,240 
3,980 
4,496 
1,729 
1,790 
3,014- 






!• 



2,712 
1,653 
1,726 
6,801 
039 
1,337 
1,720 
9,641 
2,224 
8,148 
1,073 
2,380 
2,9C>0 



1.074 
1,299 
2,529 
2,417 
27,681 
1,906 
2,509 
1,531 
1.402 
4,039 
2,298 



10,033 
1,733 
1,035 
4,483 
2.518 
1,043 
2,123 

13,320 
1,038 
S.O.'TF 
1.205 
1,172 
1.866 



CITT SCH00L8. 



LI 



ttati»tie8 of dHes, ^0. — Continned. 



Pupils. 



I' 

13 



11 



100 

1,325 
500 
270 



51,000 

100 

800 

400 

800 

2,500 

290 

300 

300 

1,000 

825 

22,486 

200 

2,000 

90 

50 

1,200 

1.800 

8,000 

7,378 

1,200 

850 

1,400 

2,300 

1,100 

507 

10,000 

875 



48 
297 
500 



13 



120,000,000 
6,586,440 
8, 074, 522 

00.002,200 
5, 014, 005 
4,298,145 
8,800,000 

04, 570, 905 
8,756.545 

80,000,000 
6,125,708 

27, 000, 000 

60,000,000 



4,000,000 

2,780,000 

«8, 400, 000 

12. 000, 000 

287,488,700 

25.600,000 

el5, 605, {>18 

8,900,000 

9, 567, 765 

27,000,000 

80,000,000 

90,500,000 

160.396^666 

12,138,570 

9,000,000 

33, 511, 614 

12,000,000 

12. 160, 000 

10,015,775 



10, 500, 567 

13,730,918 
6,000,000 
4,000,000 

10, 000. 000 



13 



1202,000 
115,000 
193.000 
872,225 
151,500 
130,700 
140,000 
633,716 
125,500 
270,000 
160,000 
321,500 
304,000 



44,250 

80,500 

200,000 

118.606 

2,629.543 

434,975 

278, C75 

234,301 

80,600 



116,500 

764,582 

1,015,000 

150.000 

92,500 
247,500 
138.743 
127, 200. 
223,753 
870,000 

88,500 
805,200 

30,500 
146,500 
102,000 



I 



14 



3.15 

4.18 

8 

3.2 
14 

15.6 
15 



a83 
1 



2.75 

4 

4 

7 

5 

5 

3.19 

3.4 

2.33 

4 

2.68 

2.4 

2 

2 



0.76 
2 
8.26 
8.1 



7.46 
3.21 
4.7 
ia28 
2.92 






3 

o 
H 



15 



$50,067 
24,551 
31,503 

145,058 
36,052 
82,491 
38,798 

806,833 
41, 512 
85,420 
39.885 

117. 611 
21,678 



15,800 
21,579 
81,186 
61,752 
1,265,194 
83,686 
52,155 
28,740 
23,010 
86,750 
43,624 
222,560 
217,037 
41,757 
26,207 
75,988 
51,230 
46,942 
48.734 
282,820 
70,863 
84,907 
26,850 
32,407 
40,815 



ExpenditoTM. 



16 



$11,982 



IT 



10,865 
1,343 
8,518 



28,448 

804 

8,842 

825 

84,179 



600 

224 

2,400 



173,336 

13,784 

2,674 



214 
2,850 



1,000 
1,000 
7,558 
488 
5,924 



8,872 
1,923 



1,496 
1,986 
1,845 
919 
2,193 



$36,866 
20,340 
25,316 
114,046 
11,844 
16,000 
17,464 
6136, :t05 
22,628 
42,808 
12,^19 
47,785 
42.707 



14,240 
10,665 
38,784 
30, 312 
6564, 478 
31,907 
38,119 
19,449 
619. 497 
48,053 
29,635 



131,079 
10,001 
14,327 
49,808 
34,468 
24,450 
27,436 



528,086 
80,870 
15,078 
16,183 
22,838 



I 
I 

3 

o 
H 



18 



$50,067 
40,068 
32,315 

145, 058 
34,112 
31,606 
33,072 

213, 214 
41,060 
72,648 
28,874 

106,470 

d66,440 



1. 



d Expenditures as reiwrted were $70,820 ; but the items given 

e Assessed Talaation. 

/Estimated. 

g These statistics are for the Kingston school district only. 



17,140 
14,047 
81,186 
61, 073 

007,830 
77,036 
62,156 
28,093 
25,005 
86,302 
41,985 

222,550 

208,032 
40,666 
23,001 
75,253 
44,462 
85,051 
30,770 

806,000 
88,812 
66, 296 
24,520 
82,497 
82,012 

amount 



Average expen- 
ses per capitn of 
daily av. att. in 
public schools. 



s 

3 t 



10 



$14 25 
18 16 



17 25 
14 79 
13 46 
11 20 



11 07 



13 62 
20 08 

14 55 



13 51 

8 21 

16 12 

18 48 



19 15 
16 80 
18 22 



12 16 
18 10 



16 00 
12 25 

17 77 

11 74 
14 68 

18 36 

12 35 
23 40 
14 09 

13 80 

14 17 

15 40 
12 67 

to $66,440 



i 



1 



30 



$3 95 
8 68 



897 
2 14 
8 64 
8 37 



6 41 



464 
660 
1 24 



2 70 
2 74 
4 33 
8 98 



4 96 

4 19 

5 12 



507 
497 



4 23 

3 81 

4 07 
4 04 
8 00 
8 16 
2 40 



8 68 
8 98 
4 01 
8 68 
8 05 
only. 



70 

80 

81 

82 

88 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

00 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

no 

111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 



LII 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Summary of 9<A4)ol 



118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
12G 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 



Cities. 



d 

o 

! 






£ 



Long Island City, K. Y. 

Kewburgh, N. T 

X(Bwrork,N.T 

Ogdensborg, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y . . . 

Ilochester, N. Y 

Romo.N.Y* 

Saratoga Springs. X. Y 

Schenectady, N. Y* 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Troy.X.Y* 

Utica,N.Y 

Watertown, N. Y* 

Yonkers, X. Y 

Akron,Ohio 

Canton, Ohio 

ChiUicothe, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Clevcbind, Ohio 

Colombns, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Newark, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

ZanesviUe, Ohio* 

Portland, Oreg 

Allegheny, Pa 

AUentown, Pa 

Altoona,Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Danville, Pa* 

Ea8ton,Pa 

Erie.Pa* 

Harrisbnrg, Pa 



19.000 
17,300 
1, 200, 000 
11,000 
22,400 
20,000 
75,000 
13,000 
♦9,000 
13,000 
59,t)84 
50,000 
35.000 
11,000 
18,500 
17,000 
12,500 
13,000 
267,000 
133,650 
49,381 
85,000 
14,000 
10,000 
11,000 
12,000 
17,000 
20,000 
13,500 
50,000 
18,000 
15,000 
70,000 
15,000 
17,000 
8,500 
14,000 
7,000 
14,000 
27,000 
28,000 






4-21 
6-21 
4-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
4-20 



6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
0-21 



§ 



0« 

s. 
1 



5,170 
5,885 



4,053 

8,831 

6,002 

29,146 

3,305 

2,711 

4,430 

16.824 

dl7.900 

(211,200 

3.123 

6,437 

4,150 

3,675 

8,241 

93,042 

45.429 

14,209 

10,709 

5.546 

2,738 

3,519 

8,968 

6,491 

4,994 

5.036 

18,902 

5,411 

8,807 

dl5,000 



3,280 
2,500 
8.400 



8,402 



a6 
bo 

1 

a 
.a 

1 

o 

1 

S 




1 

c 

«M 

o 
u 

M 
1 

"A 


5 


6 




2.000 




2.842 


*132 


151, 091 


9 


1.400 


15 


3.900 


14 


2,765 


27 




7 


1,501 


11 


1,960 


> • • • • 


1,740 


16 


8,287 


15 




18 


4.'242 


8 


2,080 


5 




11 


2,416 


6 


1,910 


5 


1,850 


42 


28,684 


41 


18,680 


26 




12 


5,718 


6 


1,734 


5 


1,902 


6 




6 


2,000 


12 


•^ •••••• 


6 


2,648 


6 


1,750 


23 


6,500 


18 


3,150 


7 




23 


10,000 


8 


3,420 


15 




7 


••••■••• 


7 


1,874 


9 


1,700 


9 


2,780 


16 


3,126 


21 


6,173 



o 



4i 

p 



c 
1 

m 
ea 



o 
J25 



8 



* From Rei>ort of the Commissioner of Education 
a Excludes duplicate enrolments. 
b Assessed valuation. 



39 

51 

3,251 

27 

71 

42 

228 

29 

33 

31 

1^ 

141 

93 

42 

51 

46 

42 

43 

«583 

350 

143 

114 

30 

33 

38 

41 

47 

48 

35 

129 

64 

34 

198 

52 

41 

20 

41 

26 

48 

78 

96 

for 1876. 



201 
100 
203 
197 
195 
202 
197 
192 
100 
202 
197 
204 
196 
191 

195 

189 

188 

207 

196 

192 

195 

200 

176 

184 

198 

198 

185 

198 

1981 

195 

200 

105 

140 

189 

176 

103 

157 

203 

192 

216 



PnpiU. 



s 



t'i 

:2 



i 

^ 







03,100 

3.415 

205,327 



4,529 
3,989 

11.838 
2,103 
1,793 
2,183 
8.174 
9,282 
5,026 
2,015 

03.276 
2.658 
1.958 
1,758 

81,370 

21,980 
7,111 
5,603 
1,762 
1.764 
1,701 
2,079 
2,290 
2,835 
2,285 
7,636 
2,946 
2,026 
9,672 
3,288 
2,382 
1,879 
2,062 
1,679 
2,316 
4,267 
5,242 



c a 

bJLO 
> 



10 



1,914 
2,196 
125,777 
1,000 
2,896 
2,187 
7,867 
1,174 
1,042 
1,493 
7,261 
5.474 
3,351 
1.267 
1,892 
2,081 
1,308 
1,498 
24,420 
15,146 
5,402 
4,148 
1.343 
1,301 
1,230 
1.571 
1,757 
2,095 
1.751 
4.451 
2.118 
1,527 
8,024 
2.281 
2,024 
1,159 
1.702 
1,127 
1,725 
2,627 
3,287 



CITY 8C!HOOL8. 



Lin 



$taU8iic9 af ctfiM, ^. — Continued. 



Pnpila. 



9j2 



11 



210 

472 

00,000 

1,080 

1,435 

610 



450 

165 

500 

1,786 

2.000 

700 

150 

841 

458 

700 

350 

18,357 

0,564 

1,548 

2,060 

1,000 

300 

263 

300 

1,000 

150 

450 

2,200 

50O 

386 

4.000 

400 

907 

100 

250 

125 

150 

1,300 

550 



3 
I 



•as 

I 

0« 



1 
I 

<3 



13 



$20,000,000 

^20. 000, 000 

61,101,092,003 

b2. 248, 104 

ftlO.711,170 

25,000,000 

50, 200, 775 

5,4-13.534 

15,000.000 



30,603,380 
46,688,702 
69. 913, 032 
12,500,000 
621, 114, 118 
10, 996, 474 



10, 000. 000 

300,000.000 

210. 000, 000 

43,500,000 

25.000.000 

6,188,214 

10,088,000 

63,890,000 

7.000,000 

14. 085, 000 

60, 516, 456 

6,000,000 

619,568,720 

12.000,000 

8,800,728 

655, 020. 811 

610. 000, 000 

6,180,000 

2.500.000 

8.914,973 

3.600,000 

69. 201, 624 

22.430,977 

17,222,268 



% 



13 



$50,000 

191,000 

9, 694, 60q' 

52.000 
175,097 
116^ 015 
539,000 

61,600 

66,000 

75,500 
720,000 
120,000 
438,384 

80,145 
161,000 
109,900 
100,000 
152,650 
1, 853, 178 
1, 608, 074 
603,214 
324,200 
130,000 
•160,500 

95,000 
152,500 
202.600 
150.000 
111.200 
600.600 
171,000 

85,095 
893,031 
400.000 

66,800 

25,000 
100,551 

75,000 
255,300 
299,820 
413,218 



14 



7.5 
7 

3.4 
4 

3 

4 

2.331 
2.2 
12 



2.4 
43 
2.6 

3.151 



6 

7 

5.5 

3.4 

4.5 

4.6 

4.9 

3.75 

4.6 



5.5 

7 

4.5 

5 

5 

5 

2 

4.1(^ 

5 
10 
11 

3.5 
14 

4 

4.5 
13 

e Includes a balance on hand 
ciEatimated. 
# Ayenge nmnber. 



a. 



3 

e 
H 



15 



$38,832 
51,350 
3,553,000 



57,596 

56,017 

201. 714 

23,172 

53,308 

27,359 

110, 617 

144. 310 

88,835 

31,853 

58,151 

102,272 

57,249 

43,638 

604,043 

583,703 

231. 711 
166,086 

69,351 
39,082 
45,681 
40,390 
61,450 
67,064 
57,779 

154. 712 
58,352 
46,378 

261,084 



22,821 
9,266 
29,437 
17,088 
68,702 
97,043 
102,417 



Xxpenditores. 



► 
S 

a ^ 

is 
% s 






10 



$1,961 

12,408 

292,757 

120 

2,354 

1,609 

31,304 

5,417 

11, 107 

3,042 

3,566 

17,317 

2,135 

1,671 

3.437 

6,720 

3,523 

3,679 

69,080 

75,206 

51,077 

26.687 

2,000 

1,700 

9,861 

364 

16,734 

7,345 

2,426 

4,404 

5,714 

13,814 

8,230 



2,404 
1,179 
2,124 



5,706 
17,445 
1,509 
of $120. 



s 

• 



3 

O 

H 



ir 



18 



$25,252 
27,010 
1, 703, 014 
10,035 
33,008 
24,620 

117, 497 
12,366 
17.347 
14, 616 
82,651 
70,341 
47,266 
17,060 
43,155 
22,963 
17,389 
20.236 

461,648 

239,587 
88,180 
81.809 
18,101 
13,356 
15,428 
20,225 
22,677 
28,472 
18,082 
69,788 
34.125 
29,130 

103, 418 
12,841 
14, 328 
6,321 
19, 018 
7,347 
25,222 
31,248 
50,358 



! $38,198 

51,350 

3,316,889 

14,440 

50,882 

35,236 

201,863 

22,475 

84,709 

26,092 

«110,616 

124,698 

60,500 

81,854 



83,178 

41,106 

29,946 

673,036 

897,782 

182,005 

138,556 

48,673 

28,385 

33,871 

29.958 

58,846 

62,601 

37,665 

142, 647 

52,709 

49,440 

266,204 



24,181 
9,743 
29,428 
16,664 
55,204 
80,599 
101,057 



Ayerage expen- 
aea per capita of 
daily av. att. in 
public aohoola. 



■ 

s 
s 



^i 



e 

I 



19 



$13 45 
12 98 
20 81 



11 98 

11 62 

14 93 

12 22 
17 81 

10 62 

11 38 

13 94 
13 70 

15 13 



12 56 
14 15 
16 00 



16 63 

17 24 
20 01 
15 10 
11 65 



14 01 
14 04 
14 45 
11 24 
16 12 
18 06 



13 00 



7 57 

579 

13 67 

6 51 



12 73 
15 77 



30 



$5 73 
4 75 
7 63 



4 49 
4 49 
6 75 
227 

3 89 

4 13 
8 20 

5 67 
2 87 

6 11 



296 



88 



4 66 

4 84 
4 24 
4 95 

3 10 



2 56 

4 27 

5 23 
2 68 
4 25 
4 18 



8 14 



2 68 

1 28 
7 07 

2 01 



522 
4 79 



118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
162 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 « 



XLIV 



BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 



Official title, mode of appointment, and term of service of State and territorial euperintendent^. 



AlAbamft — 
ArkaoBM . . . 
Califomift. . . 
Colorado . . . 
Coimectioat 



DeUware.. 
Floridft .... 
Cr«oreia — 
lUinois.... 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky . 
Louisiana . 
Hoine 



Maryland 

Massachusetts.. 



Michigui 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada , 

Xew Hampshire 
New Jersey 



New York , 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

lUiode Island 

South Carolina.. 
Tennessee 



Texas 



Vermont 

Virginia 

Wrst Virginia. 
Wisconsin 



Alaska 



Designation of officer. 



STATE SUPBRCrrBNIIEmB. 



State superintendent of education 

State sui>erintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
Secretary of State board of education 



State superintendent of free schools 

State superintendent of public instruction 

State school commissioner 

State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public education. . 
State superintendent of common schools . . 



State superintendent of public instruction a. 



Secretary of State board of education 



State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public education. . 

State superintendent of public schools 

State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 

State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State commissioner of common schools — 
State superintendent of public instruction 
State superintendent of public instruction 



State commissioner of public schools. 



State superintendent of education 

State superintendent of public schools 

Secretary of State board of education 



State superintendent of education 

State superintendent of public instruction 

State superintendent of free schools 

State supermtendent of public instruction 

TEBBITOBIAL 8UPKRIKTENDEKTB. 



Elected or ap- 
pointed by 
the— 



People 

People 

People 

People .. « 

State board of 
education. 

Governor 

Governor 

Governor 

People 



People 

People 

People 

People 

People 

Governor and 
council. 

State board of 
education. 

State board of 
education. 

People 

Governor 

People 

People 

People 

People 

Governor 

State board of 
education. 

Legislature . . . 

People 

People 

People 

Governor and 
senate. 

State board of 
education. 

People 

Governor and 
senate. 

Board of edu- 
cation. 

Crenl assembly 

Genl assembly 

People 

People 



Term of service. 



2 

2 yean. 

4 yean. 

2 years. 

During pleaaim 

of board, 
lyear. 
4 years. 
2 years. 
4 years. 
2 years. 
2 years. 

2 years. 
4 years. 
4 years. 

3 years, ordnring 
pl«isure of ex- 
ecu tiva. 

During pleasure 
of board. 

No express lim- 
itation. 

2 years. 

2 years. 

4 years. 
4yearB. 
2 years. 
4 years. 

2 years. 

3 years. 

3 years. 

4 yean. 

3 years. 

4 yean. 
4 years. 

lyear. 

4 years. 
2 years. 

• 

During pleaifore 

of board. 
2 years. 
4 years. 
4 years. 
2 years. 



a Ex officio, as principal of State Normal School. 



SCHOOL SUPESYISION. 



XLV 



Official tUley wu>de ^ a|>paiiitaieiif, aii<i (erm of 9ervioe of State and territorial euperintend- 

ernte — Continued. 





Betigiuition of officer. 


Elected or ap- 
pointed by 
the— 


Term of senrioe. 


ArisooA 


GoTemor. ex officio 


Pres. of F. S-. 
GoTemor and 

council 
District com- 

missioneTS. 
Govenior 


ICot given. 
2 years. 

During pleasure 

of comm'rs. 
Not given. 


Bttkote 


Territorial soperintendent of pnblio instracUon. 

(a) 


Diat-ofColainbia. 
T4aho ... . 


Jiyti^n 


SvDerlntendait of schools of the Fire Nations . . 


Montana 


Territorial superintendent of pnblio instruction. 
Seeretarv of Territorr. ex officio 


Goremor 

Pres. of U. S.. 

People 

GoTemor 

GoTemor 


8 years. 


NewMexioo 


Ft»h 


Territorial superintendent of district schbols — 
Territorial superintendent of public instruction. 
Territorial librarian, ex officio 


2yeara. 
Syears. 


WMhingtOB 

Wjoming 







•There are two superintendents: The title of the first is superintendent of schools for white cbU- 
drea in Washington and Georgetown and of the county schools; of the second, superintendent of 
•ckools for colored childieB in Washington and Georgetown. 



XL VI 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Summary of school siatistice of 



Cities. 



1 Little Rock, Ark.... 

2 SanFmndsoo, Cal... 

3 SanJo86,Cal* 

4 Stockton,Cal 

5 BenTer, Coloc ■ 

Bridgeport, Conn . . . . 

7 Hartford, Conn 

8 New Britain, Conn* . 
New Haven, Conn . . , 

10 New London, Conn . . 

11 Norwalk, Conn* 

12 Wilmington, Del 

13 Atlanta,Ga 

14 Aiigii8ta,6a 

15 Colombus,Ga 

16 Macon, GrA 

17 Sayannah, 6a 

18 Alton.IU 

19 BeUeviUe,!!] 

20 Bloomington, HI 

21 Chlcago,ni 

22 Decatur.Hl 

23 Freeport,Hl 

24 Galesburg, HI 

25 Jackaonville, HI 

26 JoUet,Hl 

27 Peoria,Hl 

28 Qaincy,Hl 

20 Rockford,H] 

30 Rock Island, HI , 

31 Springfield, HI* 

32 Fort Wayne, Ind . . . . 

33 Indianai>olis, Ind . . . . 

34 Jeffersonville, Ind . . . 

35 Lafayette, Ind 

30 Logonsport, Ind 

37 Madiaon, Ind* 

38 Richmond, Ind 

39 Soath Bend, Ind 

40 Terre Haute, Ind. . . . 



I 

I 



I 

m 



17,000 
301,020 
16,000 
15,000 
21,000 
25,000 
41,600 
12,000 
58,675 
10,000 
13,000 
40,000 
35,000 
23,768 
9,000 
15,000 
28,000 
10,500 
12,000 
25,000 
450,000 
10,000 
12,000 
14,000 
12,000 
14,000 
32,000 
32.000 
14,000 
11,100 
25,000 
28,400 
100,000 
10,000 
22,000 
15,000 
12,500 
14,000 
15,000 
21,000 



8) 



1 

m 

a 

>3 



6-21 
5-17 
5-17 
5-17 
6-21 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
4-16 
6-21 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-18 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 



s 

9 

I 
1 



6,462 
51,880 
3,074 
3,011 
2,481 
6,376 
9,621 
3,176 
12,964 
2,101 
3,254 
9,178 
10, 362 
4,912 
2.463 
3,442 
6,919 
3,164 
4,467 
7,292 
110. 184 
3,094 
2,852 
4,127 
3,689 
3,557 
8,881 
8,511 
4,901 
3.567 
10,722 
10,588 
22,806 
2,723 
6,020 
3,788 
4,652 
4,236 
3,138 
7,101 






1 



o 
.a 



^ 



9 
56 

9 
10 

4 
17 
16 
10 
21 

9 
12 
18 

9 
16 

6 

8 



5 
3 
11 
64 
6 
6 



8 
8 
9 
9 

10 
6 
5 


23 
5 
6 

12 
6 

7 

12 



I 

a 



o 
u 



^ 



1,528 



1,693 
1,615 
4,069 



2,250 
8,897 
1,800 
3,200 
5.364 
2,630 



920 
1,052 
3,000 



2,000 
2,670 
41,500 
1,728 
1,600 
2,100 
1,600 
1,692 
3,115 
2,950 

2,000 

2,200 

3,790 

11,087 



1,900 
1,480 



* From Report of the Commissioner 

a Assessed valuation. 

b Includes cost of supervision. 



1,975 
1,700 
3,737 

of Education 



« 



a 

s 

JZ5 



27 

618 
42 
34 
87 
84 

160 
40 

213 
51 
49 

106 
53 
35 
20 
24 
58 
21 
40 
65 

800 
29 
29 
34 
33 
36 
67 
55 
50 
36 
41 
84 

185 
26 
50 
31 
38 
45 
28 



I 

m 
1 

■3 

o 
6 



8 



170 
209 
198 
196 
195 
196 
197 
198 
200 
200 
203 
199 
202 
186 
187 
140 
180 
196 
198 
177 
197 
177 
196 
178 
187 
197 
188 
195 
195 
178 
180 
195 
195 
188 
195 
197 
200 
180 
178 



78 I 197| 
for 1876. 



Pupils. 



t 

a-? 
"1 



9 







1,960 
37,288 
2,374 
1,693 
2,078 
5,167 
7,596 
2,516 
11,804 
((1,915 
2,873 
6,687 
3,280 
2,202 
1,212 
1,227 
8.171 
dl,406 
1.964 
3,486 
56,529 
1,869 
1,640 
2,231 
1,844 
2,606 
4,173 
3,554 
2,100 
1,955 
2,616 
3,558 
12,965 
1,300 
2,705 
1,824 
1,721 
2,094 
1,601 
8,045 



^ I 

« 



10 



1^129 
24,736 
2,256 
1,523 
1.344 
3,194 
5.038 
1,735 
7,554 
1,363 
1,900 
4.158 
2,409 
1,273 
906 
742 
2,774 



2,294 

88,132 

1,321 



1,525 
1,253 
1,500 
2,783 
2,235 
1.900 
1,400 
1,977 
2,653 
8,931 



1,773 
1,191 
1,273 
1,874 
1,080 
2,724 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



XLVII 



cities cont€Unin{f 7,500 inhabitants and over. 



PupOa. 



. 


* Ji 


|i 


1 


il 


5? 





11 



300 



400 

120 

100 

450 

•1,337 

97 

1,500 

40 

100 



aoo 

500 
2S0 
100 
350 
000 
700 



20,000 
200 
200 



1,000 

004 

1,600 

1,800 

475 

450 



2,300 

1,340 

300 

1,000 



276 
565 
250 
300 



.a 

M 

s >. 

o u 
a i3 

•Si? 

!• 



m 



Id 



a$5, 270,480 

0260,362,343 

9,000,000 

5, 000, 000 

16,000,000 

17, 000, 000 

♦€»47. 162, 324 

a4, 592, 952 

65,832,000 

10, 000, 000 

9,000,000 

25,309,000 

20,000,000 

12,336,700 

4.000,000 

7,500,000 



5.000,000 
5,000,000 
8,500,000 
al48, 400, 087 
9, 114, 756 



5,500,000 
2,778,789 
3,240.080 
16,000,000 
20,000,000 
12,000,000 
12,000,000 



12,294,460 
73,822,093 
02,600,000 
14. 000, 000 
a5, 666, 055 
a4, 400, 000 



^ 2. 

o S 
« ft 

§1 



f3 



13 



al3,841,0G0 



$50,715 
2, 574, 000 
152,000 
142,900 
186,540 
144,500 
*1. 755, 260 

99,500 
532,722 

87,500 
111,000 
265,339 

96,000 



26,500 

24,500 

96.500 

75,500 

104,600 

230, 471 

2, 436, 056 

95,600 

57,300 

112, 815 

150,900 

65,650 

157,300 

217,000 

120,000 

112,600 

150,000 

224,650 

883,986 

60,000 

193.000 

180,000 

60,000 

81,000 



215,471 



i| 

« & 

h 

1§ 

5^ 



14 



5 

2.1 

2 

1.5 

7.5 

3.25 



15.25 
2.7 



2.5 
2.12 



2.25 



4.4 

1L5 
14.5 

2.92 

9 



5 

3 

7 

7 

4.5 

5 

6.5 

5 

4.6 

2 

4 

3.5 

S 

3 



3.4 






3 

5 



15 



$942, 616 
66,666 
50,701 
59,061 
62,410 
101,066 
37,059 
228,284 
26,547 
69,361 



35,709 

e32,706 
12,145 

el6,457 
42,505 
20,685 
40.024 
66,292 

840, 757 
40,109 
34,577 
32,079 
46,948 
25,001 
77,500 
54,130 
43,623 
23,872 
32,100 
99,361 

311,456 
23,003 



48,675 
26,450 
72, 716 
44.494 
95,046 



ExpenditnrM. 



> 

S 

p. 

Si 

a S 



16 



$4,120 

22,279 

21,612 

924 

4,417 

0,725 



12,700 

29,637 

255 

1,573 



800 



140 



1.404 

1.101 

136 



2,742 
100 



IT 



i 

B 

3 

e 
H 



Arerage expen- 
ses per capita of 
daily av. ntt. in 
public schools. 



§ 8 









18 



6$17,308 
637,389 
27,700 
28,920 
27,728 
42,950 
80,192 
19,695 
132,983 
19,546 
24,700 



28.788 



7,557 
350 



15,502 

28,203 

154 



5,306 
3,154 



12,625 



6,917 

7,046 

34,723 

11,075 

21,672 

26,500 

M51,053 

15.385 

614, 088 

13. 710 

17. 070 

dl6, 330 

33.100 

27,326 



17, 477 
24,054 
37,065 
121, 319 
12, 018 



13,539 



20,686 
11,207 
41,208 



$21,429 

800,700 
65,248 
38,044 
60,060 
62,336 

194,962 
40,601 

206,436 
26,547 
36,700 



35,662 
20,221 
11,933 
12,337 
42,181 
15, 078 
35,043 
65,539 

684,534 
29, 910 
34,508 
20,813 
48,530 
20,650 
76,794 
54.323 
37.517 
25.433 
83,751 
71,642 

215, 410 
19, 126 



19 



$15 33 
24 00 
20 39 



22 49 



12 00 
18 41 
14 64 

13 50 



12 78 



02 

12 51 

13 00 

10 10 
13 02 

11 57 

12 13 

13 10 



10 18 



10 88 

11 92 



41,888 
15,872 
34,158 
17.093 
66.440 



13 77 
13 73 
16 08 



13 04 



16 39 



e These statistics are for seven-eighths of the city only. 
dThis nfnnbe*.* excludes duplicate enrolments. 
« These receipts are for the whole county. 



9 

3 
S 

o 

a 



20 



$3 40 

4 80 
9 81 



6 11 



3 50 
6 84 



2 25 
2 02 



2 21 
1 26 



2 60 

2 22 

3 97 

4 05 
3 31 



3 41 



2 80 

3 61 



3 60 

3 04 

4 14 



3 46 



3 49 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

10 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

36 

30 

40 



XLVin BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Summary of $ekool 



41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
65 
56 
57 
58 
60 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
60 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 



Cities. 



Barlington, Iowa 

Coimcil Blaffs, lowft. . 

DaveniMrt, Iowa 

Des Moines (w. side), la 

Dubuqne, Iowa* 

Eeoknk, Iowa 

Atchison, Kan^ 

Lawrence, Kans. . . — 
Leavenworth, Kans* .. 

Covington, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Loatsville, Ky* 

Newport, Ky 

Padacah, Ky 

Kew Orleans, La 

Bangor, Me 

Biddeford, Me 

Lewiston, Me 

Portland, Me 

Baltimore, Md.... 

Adams, Mass 

Boston, Mass* 

Cambridge, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass* 

Psll River, Mass* 

Fitohburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass* 

Holyoke, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Marlboro', Mass 

Milford, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass* . . . 
Newburjrport, Mass*.. 

Newton, Mass 

Pittsfleld, Mass* 

Salem, Mass* 

Springfield, Mass 



I 



t 



28,000 

al0,020 

*24,000 
14,000 

624,000 
15,000 
12,000 
08,320 

al7, 873 
35.000 
15,000 

125,000 
18,500 
10,000 

203,430 

*18,600 
12,000 

♦20,000 
36,000 

350,000 

{15,765 
{341, 019 

{47,838 
10,000 
45,160 
12,000 

{14,628 
18,500 
53,000 
32,600 
8,581 
00,890 
27,000 
13,000 
16,700 
12,255 

626,000 
31,000 



s 



5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-18 
(26-20 
6-20 
6-20 
6-20 
6-21 
4-21 
4-21 
4-21 
5-21 
6-18 
6-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 
5-15 



I 
I 

I 



5,063 
8,128 



3,502 
8,806 
5,732 
3,000 
2,652 
5,660 
0,800 
5,080 
/45,000 
6.500 
1,046 



5,586 35 

3, 451 21 2, 072 

6.470 20 

11, 300 12 4, 100 

77,000 

3, 171 18 2, 462 

58, 636 146 56, 111 

8,218 28 8,866 

1, 970 11 1, 400 

7, 000 30 6. 856 

2. 170 10 8, 253 

2, 608 28 3. 211 

2.523 11 2,268 

7.540 41 

5. 700 32 6. 132 

1, 086 11 1, 771 
2,223 

4, 002 21 4, 000 

2, 743 20 2. 680 

2, 853 16 3, 280 

2,558 2,260 

4, 430 17 4, 307 

5, 375 20 5, 900 

* From Keport of the Commissioner of Education for 1876. 

a Census of 1870. 

6 From Rei>ort of the Commissioner of Edncation for 1875. 

e Assessed voAuation. 

dThe legal age for colored children is fi?om 6 to 16. 

e These stati«^cs are for white schools only. 



i, 

d 

I 
I 

1 



*A 



10 


11 

4 
11 



5 
12 



6 


27 
5 

13 



1 






I 



3,850 
1,590 
4,618 
2,100 



2,500 



2,720 



810 



t 






71 
20 
04 
36 
73 
53 
23 
28 
40 
C5 
elO 
820 
40 
14 
430 
75 
88 
68 
114 
764 
53 
1,306 
216 
30 
127 
67 
80 
57 
100 
111 
36 



■a 

a 
£ 



s 

« 



^ 



8 



102 
108 
101 
188 



180 
180 



108 
200 
102 
202 
200 
215 
172 
182 
106 
184 
200 
186 
100 
224 
200 



105 
62 
74 
54 

103 

124 



102 
101 
104 
103 
105 
205 
H75 



203 
255 
107 
176 
200 
107 



Pupils. 



I 










3,356 

1,545 

4,710 

2,211 

2,867 

2,500 

1,210 

1,440 

2,048 

3,500 

«1,232 

17.533 

2,074 

700 

23.156 

y3,700 

y2,002 

3,560 

6,161 



flO,374 

55,417 

10,323 

1,147 

7,537 

2,768 

2,632 

2,550 

j 10, 305 

5,678 

2,047 



3.822 
2,218 
8,471 
2,070 
4,704 
6,286 




te s 



10 



2,003 

020 

3,260 

1,380 

2,365 

2,100 

1,130 

1,210 

1.942 

2,420 

e884 

11,051 

1,080 



16,505 
•3.226 



3,200 
4,225 



1.922 
42,645 
7,000 
801 
4,150 
1,004 
2,003 
1,678 
5^250 
4,400 
1,536 



3,622 
1,850 
2,462 



3,284 
4»472 



CITT SCHOOLS. 



XLIX 



rtaUsHcB of eiHe8f ^e. — Continued. 



Popfls. 



SI 

1^ 



11 



a 

o -3 
Si 

•a- 
|t 

|l 



A 



19 



1,000 
250 



400 



500 

300 



822 
500 



320 
12,000 



1,500 



1,200 

600 

1,000 

20 

40 

1,100 

550 

100 



75 
350 

80 
320 
191 
725 



$12,000,000 

5, 472, 145 

16,000,000 

7.033.000 



9.000,000 

4.800,000 

<^ 551, 630 

e4. 367. 544 

20,000,000 

ei, 928, 7 jO 

«71, 849, 772 

06,200,000 

6,000.000 

£88,973.990 

<;0.906.100 

10. 000. 000 

11.873,558 

30.802,845 



U, 141, 767 

<^48, 878, 100 

e55, 755. 000 



e51. 401, 467 
elO, 668, 319 
12,500.000 
19,275,984 
50,000,000 
24.995.338 
e3, 439, 925 



13 



$250,000 

85.600 

273,100 

225.400 



125,000 

64,100 

100.000 

203.512 

196.000 

40.000 

833.390 

153,500 

23,000 

629,500 

75,000 

40.000 

168.700 

376,500 



156,200 

8.560.000 

582,000 



1,230.000 
182.496 
284.500 
120.090 
476,462 
471.200 
59,500 



14 






I 



ExpenditoTM. 



■ii 
g 



15 



16 



6 

&5 
12 
13 

&5 

9 
13 
10 
10 

2.5 

1.5 

4.5 

2 

2 



2.33 
2.47 



4.31 

2.212, 

3 



282.000 
105.100 
443.000 
61.400 
341.500 
554.500 



1.8 

8.52 

5.13 

2.2 

3.5 

4.7 

5.2 



187,925 
52,355 

117,390 
55,216 
64.075 
40.370 
93 
25.975 
55.070 
68.000 
15. 112 

274.132 

31.282 

9.897 

262,949 
36.200 
22.130 
83,795 
70,442 

625,813 
20,483 

030,007 

188,504 



97.101 
37, 508 
53,507 
27,376 
163,185 
106.652 
18, 410 



8.66 

3.33 

2.79J 

2.3 ! 

2.1 

2.93 



85.825 
35,450 
87.416 
20.366 
82.786 
90. 257 



$3,215 

845 

3.530 



3.090 
150 
102 

3.008 
27.500 



13,023 




3.554 



528 



4,880 



IT 



$33,450 
15,362 
49,409 
20,795 
33,230 
28.089 
9.350 
18.435 
23.881 
35.600 



166.591 
17,273 

7. a-w 

206,914 



16.938 
24. 780 
57, 985 



104. 225 j A449. 113 



307.094 1.228.338 



2,921 



5.500 



431 

14,938 

5,704 

78 



151, 574 



82,543 
28, 2:4) 
42, 3r>4 
19, 242 
99. 152 
68.843 
15,535 



92.500 



18.084 
1.493 



34,850,000 

9,000.000 
28.500.000 

8,177.606 

27.210.000 

030. 692. 776 

/Estimated. 

g This namber exclniles dupUcato cnrolmenta. 

A Includes coflt of supcrvisioiL 

{ Census of 1875. 

j Tikis is excluMivo of the ev«'ning schools, in which 

k Fur in^unmar and high schooh* ; for primary, 155. 

B— IV 



6O.OCO 

25.960 
02,025 
20,460 
58,001 
72,138 



I 
1 

3 

o 
H 



18 



Average expen- 
ses per cac*^ of 
daily ay. att. in 
public schools. 



$50,535 
30.081 
71,500 
49.184 
45,987 
35,340 
18,640 
29,474 
53,031 
68,800 
17,967 

285.302 

29.645 

9.C46 

262,948 
41. 512 
21.309 
38.010 
76.357 

699.514 



1, 015. 580 
188,564 



107,883 
37.508 
54,652 
26,220 
407,009 
106.652 
20.030 






I 



19 



I 



s 
I 



30 



182. 775 
35.450 
83.456 
45,343 
82,788 
92,429 



$17 06 
18 45 
17 65 
15 96 



$5 93 
6 37 
3 05 
8 00 



12 09 
12 29 
14 70 



16 46 
9 40 

12 51 

13 50 



5 65 
3 00 
2 28 



632 



2 38 

3 00 



(11 88) 



11 26 
14 31 



5 46 
2 62 



(15 34) 
25 94 ' 10 21 



20 95 



4 86 



16 84 



there is a total enrolment of 1,278. 




4\ 
42 
43 
44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

66 

67 

58 

59* 

00 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

GfS 

07 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74: 

75 

76 

77 

7ft 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table IL — ^unifiiary of mshool 



M 

81 

82 

88 

•84 

86 

86 

87 

88 

80 

90 

01 

02 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

108 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

100 

110 

111 

112 

113 

114 

116 

110 

117 



CitiM. 



TatmtoB, MaM 

Weymouth, Mass* 

Wobum, Mam 

Worcester, Mass 

Adrian, Mich* 

Anu Arbor, Mich 

^yCity.Mich 

Detroit, Mich 

East Saginaw, Mich . . 
Grand Rapids, Mich . . 

Saginaw, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn a .. 

St Paul, Minn 

Natchez, Miss* 

Yicksburg, Miss 

Hannibal, Mo 

Kansas City, Mo 

St. Joseph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

Omaha, Xebr 

Manchester, N. H , 

Nashua, N.H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Camden, N. J* 

EU«ibcth,N.J* 

Jersey City, N. J 

Newark, N.J* 

New Brunswick, N. J. . 

Orange, N.J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N.J , 

Auburn, N. Y 

Blnghamton, N. Y* . . . , 

Buflailo,N.Y* 

Cohoes,N.Y 

Elmlr%N.Y 

Ithaca,N.Y 

Kingston, N. Y^. 

Lockport,N.Y 



i 

I 



I 



& 



19,000 

9,819 

10,105 

52,000 

10,000 

7,500 

18,000 

*110,000 

17,500 

30,000 

10,500 

3^000 

40,000 

9,000 

11,000 

12,000 

42,000 

25,000 

500.000 
22,000 
25,000 
11.60^ 
10,000 
40,000 
25,000 

120,000 

120,000 
18,000 
11,300 
89,500 
26,031 
18,500 
16,500 

143,594 
22,000 
22,000 
10,100 
*8,000 
13,000 






m 



5-15 

5-15 

5-15 

5-15 

5-20 

5-20 

5-20 

5-20 

5-20 

5-20 

6-20 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

6-20 

6-20 

6-20 

6-20 

5-21 

5-15 

5-16 

5- 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-18 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 



d 

o 

I 
I 
1 



3,413 
1,036 

al.055 
9,097 
2,824 
2,419 
4,278 

85,739 
5,117 
9,129 
2,835 



11,134 

2,400 

3.306 

8,303 

6,822 

146,000 

4,753 

3,065 

2,307 

2,154 

10,842 

0,817 

37,482 

37,206 

/5,496 

3,513 

13,103 

9.040 

5,162 

4,509 

/40,000 

9,207 

5,752 

2,601 



4,185 



2 



o 

S 
'A 



36 

21 

14 

85 

5 

7 

7 

27 

10 

13 

6 

9 

14 

4 

3 

8 

9 

18 

73 

10 

23 

16 

13 

11 

15 

20 

43 

6 

6 

10 

13 

10 

8 

42 

8 

9 

12 

6 

6 



I 

M 

tc 

I 



I 
I 



6 



3,821 
2,128 
2,475 
8,522 
1,600 
1,800 
2,320 
12,549 



4,000 
1,430 
3,400 
3,800 
750 
1,000 
1,575 
3,600 
3,022 
38,510 
2,391 
3,380 
2,140 



6,500 
2,588 
12,810 
12,831 
2,370 
1,184 
5.991 
2,900 
2,871 
2,368 
14,000 
2,000 
3,799 
1.535 
1,477 
2,524 



^ 

^ 



I 

a 



* From Beport of the Commissioaer of Education 
a Number between 5 and 16. 
h Includes cost of superriaion. 
•West division. 



81 
44 

4S 
203 

29 

82 

40 
228 

49 

87 

28 

78 

77 

12 

23 

28 

68 

64 
870 

45 

82 

48 

40 
103 

60 
304 
282 

44 

81 
100 

72 

62 

64 
420 

67 

79 

81 

27 

43 I 198 
for 1876. 



4i 

■a 
I 

e 

S 
I 

O 

6 



Pupils. 



8 



195 
196 
200 
102 
193 
200 
106| 
183 
195 
192 
194| 
196 
104 
00 
183 
148 
107 
180 
108 
106 
188 
175 
244 
100 
202 
205 
205 
202 
200 
203 
105 
103 
207 
203 
204 
105 
102 
206 



%* 

J 



o 



9 



•31 
|1 



lO 



3,730 
1.031 
2,127 
0.001 
1,440 
1,864 
2.841 

18,827 
8,177 
6,010 
1,664 
3,607 
4,316 
601 
1,450 
1,877 
4,334 
3,514 

47.676 
2,011 
3; 075 
2,148 
1,064 
5,270 
2,010 



2.712 
1,653 
1,726 
6,801 
030 
1,837 
1,720 
0.641 
2,224 
3.148 
1,073 
2.380 
2.0CK> 



18.070 
2,700 
1.561 
0.374 
2,706 
2,616 
3,187 

20,240 
3,080 
4.406 
1.720 
1,790 
8,014- 



1,074 
1.299 
2.. 529 
2,417 
27.581 
1.906 
2.509 
1,531 
1,402 
4.039 
2,298 



10.033 
1,733 
1,035 
4,483 
2,618 
1.043 
2,123 

13,320 
1,038 
3.0.77 
1,205 
1,172 
1.866 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



LI 



ttaHiiiea of dtieSy ^c — Continued. 



Pnpfla 



iA 



I* 



s 



11 



20 

100 

1,825 

500 

270 



5,000 

100 

800 

400 

800 

2,500 

290 

300 

300 

1,000 

8Z& 

22,486 

200 

%000 

00 

50 

1,200 

1,800 

8,000 

7,378 

1,200 

<eo 

1,400 
2; 300 
1,100 

507 
10,000 

375 

46 

297 
500 



I 

o 
e 

I 

► 



1 

I 



I 

a 
>* 
t 

t 



13 



120,000,000 
5.586,440 
8. 674, 522 

00,902,206 
5, 014, 605 
4,298,145 
6,800,000 

04, 570, 005 
8.756,545 

80,000,000 
6,125,708 

27, 000, 000 

60,000,000 



4,000,000 

2,780.000 

e8, 400, 000 

12,000,000 

287,488,700 

25,600.000 

el5, 605, 918 

8,900,000 

9,567,765 

27,000,000 

80,000,000 

90,500,000 

100,396,666 

12, 136, 570 

9,000,000 

33, 511, 614 

12,000,000 

12, 160, 000 

10,015,775 



10, 500, 567 

13,730,918 

6,000,000 

4,000.000 

10, 000, 000 



•rl 



(3 



13 



$202,000 
115,000 
193.000 
872,225 
151,500 
180,700 
140,000 
633,710 
125,500 
270,000 
100,000 
321,500 
804,000 



44,250 

30,500 

200,000 

118,606 

2,629,543 

434,975 

278, C75 

231,391 

80.600 



116.500 

764,582 

1, 015, 000 

150,000 

92,500 
247,500 
138,743 
127,200. 
223,753 
870,000 

88,500 
805,200 

30,500 
146.500 
102,000 



§•3 



14 



8.15 

4.18 

3 

3.2 
14 
15.6 
15 



a83 
1 



2.75 

4 

4 

7 

5 

5 

3.10 

3.4 

2.33 

4 

2.68 

2.4 

2 

2 



0.76 
2 
3.26 
3.1 



7.45 
3.21 
4.7 
13.28 
2.92 



i 



I 



15 



150,067 
24.651 
31.503 

145,058 
39.952 
82,491 
38.708 

806,833 
41. 512 
85.420 
39.885 

117, 611 
21,678 



15,800 
21,579 
81,186 
61, 752 
1,265,194 
83,686 
52,155 
28,740 
23.010 
86,750 
43,624 
222,550 
217,037 
41,757 
26,207 
75,988 
51,230 
46,942 
48,734 
282,820 
70,863 
84.907 
26,850 
32,497 
40, 815 



Expend! tnres. 



16 



$11,982 



10,865 
1,343 
3.518 



28.448 

894 

8,842 

825 

84,179 



500 

224 

2,490 



173. 836 

13,784 

2,674 



214 
2,850 



1,000 
1,000 
7,558 
488 
5,924 



3,872 
1,923 



1,495 
1,986 
1.845 
919 
2,193 



IT 



$36,866 
20,340 
25,315 

114,046 
U,844 
16,000 
17,464 
M36, .'(95 
22,628 
42,808 
12,^19 
47,785 
42,707 



14,240 
10,605 
38,784 
30,812 
6564, 478 
31,907 
38,119 
19,449 
610, 407 
48,053 
29.635 



131.079 
19.091 
14.827 
49.308 
34.468 
24.450 
27.436 



623,086 
39.870 
15.078 
16,182 
22,838 



3 
6 



18 



$50,067 
40,068 
32,315 

145,058 
34,112 
31,696 
33,072 

213, 214 
41,060 
72,648 
28,374 

106,479 

<i66,440 



1. 



d ExpenditnrM as reported were $70,820 ; but the items given 

€ Aeaesaed ralnation. 

/Estimated. 

g These statistics are for the Kingston school district only. 



17,140 
14,947 
81,186 
51,073 

007,830 
77,035 
52, 155 
28,093 
25,G95 
86,362 
41,985 

222,550 

208,032 
40,666 
23,001 
75,253 
44,462 
35,051 
39,770 

806,000 
88,812 
66,296 
24,520 
82,407 
32,012 

amount 



Average expen* 
sea per capita of 
daily av. at^. in 
public schools. 



§•2 



19 



$14 25 
18 16 



17 25 
14 79 

18 46 
11 20 



11 07 



13 62 
20 08 

14 55 



13 51 

8 21 

16 12 

18 48 



19 15 
16 30 
13 22 



12 16 
18 10 



16 00 
12 25 

17 77 

11 74 
14 68 

18 36 

12 85 
23 40 
14 09 

13 88 

14 17 

15 49 
12 57 

to $66,440 



20 



$3 95 
8 68 



8 97 
2 14 
8 64 
8 37 



6 41 



4 64 
6 60 
1 24 



2 70 
2 74 
4 33 
8 98 



4 96 
4 19 
6 12 



6 07 
497 



4 23 
2 81 
407 
404 
8 00 
8 15 
2 40 



8 68 
8 08 
4 01 
8 63 
3 05 
only. 



79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

86 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

02 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

106 

106 

107 

108 

100 

110 

111 

112 

113 

114 

116 

116 

117 



LII 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Summary of $ckool 



118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
158 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 



Cities. 



I 



I 



s 



Long Island City, N. Y . 

Newborgh, N. Y 

New York, N.Y 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y . . . 

Itochestor, K. Y 

EomcN.Y* 

Saratoga Springs. N. Y 

Schenectady, X. Y* 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Troy.N.Y* 

Utica,N.Y 

Watertown, N. Y* 

Yonkcrs, W. Y 

Akron,01iio 

Canton, Ohio 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbns, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Newark, Oliio 

Portsmoath, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Steubcnville, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio* 

Portland, Oreg 

Allegheny, Pa 

AUcntown, Pa 

Altoona,Pa 

Carbondale, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Danville, Pa» 

Easton,Pa 

5rie,Pa* 

Harrisborg, Pa 



19.000 
17,300 
1, 200, 000 
11,000 
22, 400 
20,000 
75,000 
13,000 
*9,000 
13,000 
59.1)84 
50,000 
35,000 
11,000 
18,500 
17,000 
12,500 
13,000 
267,000 
133,650 
49.381 
85,000 
14.000 
10,000 
11,000 
12.000 
17,000 
20,000 
13,500 
50,000 
18,000 
15,000 
70,000 
15,000 
17,000 
8,500 
14,000 
7,000 
14.000 
27,000 
28,000 



6 
1 

u 

►3 



4-21 
5-21 
4-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-21 
5-21 
5-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
4-20 



6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
6-21 
ft-21 
6-21 
ft-21 
6-21 



I 

1 



5,170 
5,885 



4.053 

8.831 

6,002 

20,146 

3,305 

2,711 

4,430 

16,824 

dl7,900 

dll, 200 

3,123 

6, 4J7 

4.150 

3,675 

3,241 

93,042 

45,429 

14,209 

10,769 

5,546 

2,738 

3,519 

3,968 

6,491 

4,994 

5,036 

13,992 

5,411 

8,307 

(115, 000 

3,289 
2.500 
3,400 



8,402 









-J 








43 


& 


• 

a 




g 


B 

2 






I 





a 




^ 




• 


•§ 


s 


a 




% 


.a 


s 


Xi 


^ 


^ 


5 


^ 


^ 


«H 


«M 


c 


o 


o 


o 


>» 


>4 


u 


i. 


et 


M 


M 


^ 


^ 

%* 




1 




o 
6 


^ 


^ 


'A 


8 
201 


5 


6 


7 




2,000 


39 




2,842 


51 


190 


*132 


151, 091 


3,251 


203 


9 


1,400 


27 


197 


15 


3,900 


71 


195 


14 


2,705 


42 


202 


27 




228 


197 


7 


1,501 


29 


192 


11 


1,960 


33 


190 


■ • • • • 


1,740 


31 


202 


16 


8,287 


ld6 


197 


15 




141 


204 


18 


4,'242 


93 


196 


8 


2,080 


42 


191 


5 




51 


.... 


11 


2,416 


46 


195 


6 


1,910 


42 


189 


5 


1,850 


43 


188 


42 


28,684 


«583 


207 


41 


18,680 


350 


196 


26 




143 


192 


12 


6,718 


114 


195 


5 


1,734 


30 


200 


5 


1,902 


33 


176 


6 




38 


184 


6 


2,000 


41 


198 


12 


*^ • • • • • 


47 


198 


6 


2,648 


48 


185 


6 


1,750 


35 


198 


23 


6,500 


129 


198i 


18 


3,150 


64 


195 


7 




34 


200 


23 


10,000 


198 


195 


8 


3,420 


52 


140 


15 




41 


189 


7 


•■■••••■ 


20 


176 


7 


1,874 


41 


193 


9 


1,700 


26 


157 


9 


2,780 


48 


203 


16 


3,126 


78 


192 


21 


5,173 


06 


216 



Papils. 



u 

o 

ti 

i 

it 



9 



If 



a3,l00 
3,415 



10 



205,327 


4.529 


3,989 


11,838 


2,103 


1,793 


2,183 


8,174 


9,282 


5,026 


2,015 


a3,276 


2,658 


1.958 


1, 758 


81,370 


21,980 


7,111 


5,603 


1,702 


1,764 


1,701 


2,079 


2,299 


2,835 


2,285 


7.636 


2,946 


2,026 


9,672 


3,288 


2,382 


1,879 


2,062 


1,679 


2,316 


4,267 


5.242 



1,914 
2,196 
125,777 
1,009 
2,896 
2,187 
7,867 
1,174 
1.042 
1,493 
7,261 
5,474 
3,351 
1,267 
1,892 
2,081 
1,308 
1,498 
24,420 
15,146 
5,402 
4,148 
1,343 
1,301 
1,230 
1,571 
1,757 
2,095 
1,751 
4,451 
2,118 
1,527 
8,024 
2,281 
2,024 
1,159 
1.703 
1,127 
1.725 
2.627 
3,287 



* From Beport of the Commissioner of Edaoation for 1876. 
aExclades dnplicate enrolments. 
b Assessed valuation. 



CITY SCHOOLS. 



Lin 



itaii$Hc$ qf cities, ^. — Continned. 



Papila. 



25 



1^ 



11 



210 

472 

00,000 

1,080 

1,435 

610 



450 

165 

500 

1,786 

2,000 

700 

150 

841 

458 

700 

350 

18,357 

9,564 

1,548 

2,080 

1,000 

300 

263 

300 

1,000 

150 

450 

2.200 

500 

395 

4.000 

400 

807 

100 

250 

125 

150 

1,300 

550 



e 

I. 



c 
c 

•3 

m 



9 

t 

I 



13 



$20,000,000 

520.000.000 

I>1,101, 092,093 

52,248.194 

MO, 711, 170 

25,000,000 

50.200,775 

5,413,534 

15.000,000 



30.603,390 
46.689.702 
69, 013, 032 
12,500.000 
621, 114. 118 
10,996^474 



10, 000. 000 

300.000.000 

219,000.000 

43,500,000 

25,000,000 

6, 188, 214 

10,088,000 

53,890,000 

7,000,000 

14,085.000 

59.516,456 

6,000,000 

519, 568, 720 

12,000.000 

8,800.728 

555,020.811 

510, 000. 000 

6,180.000 

2,500,000 

8. 914, 073 

3,600,000 

59.201,624 

22,439,077 

17,222,208 



13 



$50,000 
191,000 
0. 694, 600* 

52,000 
175,097 
116, 015 
539,000 

61,600 

66,000 

75,500 
720,000 
120,000 
438,384 

80,145 
161,000 
109.900 
100.000 
152.650 
1, 853, 178 
1, 608, 074 
603,214 
324,200 
130.000 
160,500 

95,000 
152,500 
202.600 
150,000 
111,200 
600.000 
171,000 

85,095 
803,031 
400,000 

66,800 

2^000 
100.551 

75.000 
255.300 
299,820 
413, 218 



1 



14 



7.5 
7 

3.4 
4 
3 
4 

2.331 
2.2 
12 



Z4 
4.8 
2.6 
3.151 



6 
7 

5.5 
3.4 
4.5 
4 6 
4 9 
a 75 
4.6 



5.5 

7 

4.5 

5 

5 

5 

2 

4.161 

5 
10 
11 

a5 

14 
4 

4.5 
13 

e Includes ft l>alance <m hand 
d Estimated. 
4 Ayenge nnmbeCi 



Pi 



& 



15 



$38,832 

51,350 

3.553,000 



57.506 

56,017 

201. 714 

23,172 

53.308 

27,350 

110, 617 

144, 310 

88,835 

81,853 

58,151 

102,272 

57. 249 

43.638 

694,043 

583,703 

231. 711 

166.086 

69,351 

39.082 

45,681 

40.390 

61.450 

67.064 

57,779 

154,712 

58.352 

46.378 

261,084 



22,821 
9.266 
29,437 
17,088 
68,702 
97,043 
102, 417 



Expenditures. 



4> 

s 

S ^ 

aS 






16 



$1,961 

12,408 

292,757 

120 

2,354 

1,699 

31,304 

6,417 

11, 107 

3,042 

3,566 

17, 317 

2,135 

1.671 

3.437 

6,720 

3.523 

3.679 

69,088 

75.206 

51.077 

26,687 

2,000 

1.700 

9,861 

364 

16,734 

7,345 

2,426 

4,404 

5,714 

13,814 

8,230 



2,404 
1,179 
2.124 



5,706 
17,4*5 
1,590 
of $120. 



3 

O 

H 



IT 



18 



$25,252 
27.010 
1,793.014 
10,035 
33.008 
24.620 

117,497 
12,360 
17,347 
14,016 
82.051 
70,341 
47,266 
17,069 
43,155 
22,963 
17,389 
20.236 

461.648 

239,587 
88,180 
81,809 
18,101 
13.356 
15. 428 
20,225 
22,677 
28,472 
18,082 
69.788 
84,125 
29,130 

103, 418 
12,841 
14,328 
6,821 
10,018 
7,347 
25,222 
31,248 
60,358 



$38,108 
51,350 
3, 316, 889 
14,440 
50,882 
35.236 

201,863 

22,475 

34.709 

26,092 

ellO, 616 

124,698 
60,500 
31,854 



83.178 

41.196 

29.946 

673.036 

397,782 

182, 005 

138,556 

48.673 

28,385 

33,871 

29,958 

58,846 

62,601 

37,665 

142, 647 

52,709 

49,440 

266,204 



24,181 
9,743 
29,428 
16,664 
55,204 
80,500 
101,057 



Average expen- 
ses per capita of 
daily av. att. in 
pabllc schools. 



I 



53 



K 



19 



$13 45 
12 08 
20 81 



11 98 

11 62 

14 03 

12 22 
17 81 

10 62 

11 38 

13 04 
13 70 

15 13 



12 56 
14 15 
16 00 



16 63 

17 24 
20 91 
15 10 
11 65 



14 01 
14 04 
14 45 
11 24 
16 12 
18 06 



13 00 



7 57 

5 79 
18 67 

6 51 



12 73 
15 77 



20 



$5 73 
4 75 
7 63 



4 49 
4 49 
6 75 

2 27 

3 89 

4 13 
8 20 

5 67 
2 87 

6 11 



2 06 



88 



4 66 
4 84 
4 24 
4 95 
3 10 



2 56 

4 27 

5 23 
2 68 
4 25 
4 18 



8 14 



268 

1 28 
7 07 

2 01 



522 
4 79 



118 
110 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
188 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 « 



LIV 



BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONEg OF EDUCATION. 



Table IL — Sfunmary of iehoci 



159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
168 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 

m 

192 
193 
194 
195 



Cities. 



i 

1 

I 

•*» 
a 

g 
p. 



i 



Lancaster, Pa* 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittshurgh, Pa* 

Potts ville. Pa* 

Reading, Pa* 

Scranton, 4thdist., Pa* 

SheBandoah, Pa 

Titnsville, Pa 

WilkesbaiTe,3d dist ,Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

York, Pa 

Kewport, R. I 

Providence, R. I 

Warwick, R I 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Chattanooga, Tenn — 

Elnoxville, Tenn 

Memphis, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Houston, Tex 

Barlington, Vt* 

Rutland, Vt 

Alexandria, Va 

Ljmchburg, Va 

Norfolk, Va 

Portsmouth, Va* 

Richmond, Va 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Fond dn Lac, Wis 

Janesville, Wis 

La Crosse, Wis 

Madison, Wis 

Racine, Wis* 

Georgetown, "D.Cg 

Washington, D. Cg.... 



Total. 



3 



23,000 

9.000 

14,500 

a750,000 

130,000 
15,000 
40.130 
18,000 
8,000 
10.000 
10,000 
22,000 
14,000 

cll4,028 
dlOO.675 
11,614 
14.000 
12.000 
16,000 
50,000 
27.085 
27,000 
15,000 
*7,000 
13,500 
15,000 
23,000 
10.500 
77,500 
28,270 
15,308 
11.000 
17,000 
10,500 
16,000 

{ 106, 000 



9,099,025 



e 
f 

1 



6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

6- 

6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

6-21 

5-15 

5-16 

5-16 

5-16 

6-18 

6-18 

6-20 

6-18 

8-14 

5-20 

5-20 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

5-21 

0-21 

4-20 

4-20 

4-20 

4-20 

4-20 

6-17 



I 

■3 



1 



3 

1 

.3 

s 



I 
i 



2,250 



4,525 



3,300 
2,800 



8,960 
2,807 



3,236 
2,421 
1,949 
9,091 
9,535 
2.890 
3,207 
2,206 
4,447 
4,093 
6,214 
3,899 
20,754 
9,676 
5,846 
3,775 
3,612 
3,926 
4,794 

19,489 



1, 719, 840 



21 

5 

5 

*184 

53 
8 

20 

10 
7 
6 
4 



8 
10 



19 
13 

7 
4 

10 
8 

14 
8 
6 
4 
7 
7 



15 
15 
17 



8 

*9 

7 

47 



B 

o 



6 



1,500 
1,878 



18,000 
2,630 
6,650 
2,750 



1,583 
1,390 



2,200 
2,438 



1,606 



930 
3,780 
3,750 
1,336 



675 
1,150 



1,400 



5,578 
5,000 
3.044 
1,780 
1,748 



1,850 
11,168 



3,035 826,266 






I 



66 

26 

89 

1,979 

435 
55 

133 
61 
21 
80 
31 
64 
44 
51 

283 
29 
28 
23 
22 
63 
74 
25 
30 
16 
18 
23 
26 
13 

124 

105 
47 
35 
33 

*30 
38 

200 



23,830 



.a 

s 

S j 

I 

I 

I 

m 

4 



& 



8 



205 
165 
201 
200 
200 
200 
195 

• * * * 

161 

196 

189 

162i 

168 

195 



196 
193 
165 
192 
170 
191 
167 
194 
190 
195 
184 
203 
204 
179 
198 
200 
187 
195 
180 
200 

168 



Pupils. 



2 

I 



2,813 
1,541 
2,104 
101,924 
21,488 
2,199 
6,252 
3.816 
1.808 
1,665 
1,705 
3,636 
2,324 
2,131 



i 



=2 i 



r3 



J 



9 
► 



10 



2,297 
1.040 
1,398 
88,627 
14,501 
1.976 
4.990 
2,076 
1,067 
1,123 
1,225 
2.694 
1.705 
1,378 



2,078 
1.925 
1,709 
1,415 
3,097 
4,032 
1,583 
1,250 

825 
1,183 
1,388 
1,514 

820 
5,558 
6,397 
2,643 
1,751 
2,047 
♦1,800 
2,262 

18,105 



1,866 
1,147 



725 
2,457 
2.936 
1,319 



1.248,2n 



507 

812 

789 

1,085 

479 

4,696 

3,401 

1,887 



1,403 

1,587 
16,257 



852,802 



* From Rei>ort of the Commissioner of Education for 1876. 
a From Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1875. 
b Assessed valuation, 
cluclndes cost of supervision 
d Census of 1875. 



cm 8CHOOL& 



LV 



tt€Sitie$ ofcitia, ^ — Continued. 



Piipfla 



ll 



11 



810 
500 
600 



11,000 
100 

850 



300 
300 
200 
400 
1,010 



M4 

225 
300 
2,000 
SOU 
350 



350 
6S0 

740 



4,350 
2.000 
500 
450 
800 
500 
480 

6,700 



1 

•§5 

:i 



I 



»3 



19 



$13,194,296 
4, 910, 568 



175,000,000 

12,000.000 

23,320,994 

10, 900. 000 

3,000,000 

6^200,000 

62, 320, 019 

12,000,000 

8,000,000 

29.266.600 



blO, 000, 000 

611,497,502 

H 500. 000 

6b 000, 000 

25.000,000 

13,306,200 

d7, 164, 172 

6,000,000 

4,000,000 

4,000,000 

bl, 202, 180 

1*13,458,421 

3.144,871 

39, 187, 097 

14, 742, 515 

53.285,444 

0^000,000 



10, 000, 000 
87, £00, 770 



1 



13 



$82,000 

43,700 

115,054 

6,280,468 

1,900,000 

192,000 

350,000 

180,000 

50,000 

108,800 

84,000 

122,300 

125,000 

205,006 



143,000 

10,634 

21,600 

139.050 

168.000 

19,711 

87.775 

18,000 

49,450 

38.300 

58,000 

10,000 

245, 247 

236,080 

120,300 

175,000 

58,i;;7 
*i2i, ao 

74,500 
826. C52 



2fM27 J. 292, 944, 187 176, 315, 950 



14 



2.5 
10 
6 



3.5 
6w5 
8 

20 
8 

15 

16 
5.5 
8.5 
1.4 



1.25 

2.5 

2 

1 

4.5 

1.251 

5 

4 

2.8 

1.24 

8.03 

2 



4 
7 
4 



4 
6w3 






I 



15 



$87,217 
15,272 
82,800 
1,675,611 

546,849 
73,739 

124,420 
67,363 
20,491 
41,081 
27,576 
89,169 
28.181 
64,482 



11,542 
21,062 
12,304 
12.957 
51,164 
60,673 
12,562 
20,001 
9,998 
13,542 
15,476 
19,856 
11,189 
80,788 
73,321 
84,108 
24,445 
39,011 
*^.C72 
29,885 

833,766 



BxpenditoTM. 



6 



a 



t g 



16 



$39,021 
626 



14,136 

22,482 

3,500 

214 

6,518 

937 



21,014 
119,530 



819 

881 

257 

540 



1,050 

216 

75 

2,750 

20 



5,591 



3,9G5 

7,938 

11,541 

♦250 

1,070 

3,351 



IT 



$24,637 
8,398 
18,769 
1, 103, 500 

216, 776 
23,602 
51,529 
29^399 
6»372 
14,488 

«18,400 
23,204 
17.823 
29,365 

180,124 

•11,342 
14,069 
10,619 

•10. 091 

42,096 

47. 710 

8.000 

15,056 

7,411 

7,845 

12,213 

14,480 

6,200 

40,030 

38.739 

19,850 

12,690 

17,148 

*15, 105 
18,373 

148,664 



24,471.481 2, 118, 704 13,151,120 



I 



IH 



$71,243 
15.258 
28,790 
1, 611, 169 

433.065 
68.470 

119.403 
61,126 
15,061 
86,264 
26,808 



28,074 
62,381 



25,424 
15,884 
12,367 
61,014 
60.673 
12.643 
19.042 

9.706 
13.595 
15,430 
17.658 

8.683 
80.788 
67.844 
30,523 
24.445 
34,782 
*28,713 
23,307 

i833,766 



22,589.491 



Average ezpen> 
sea per capita of 
daily av. att. in 
public schools. 



g 

3 i 

« i 



I 



19 



$9 33 
13 92 



16 00 
11 94 
10 30 
14 16 

644 
18 94 
14 90 

9 05 



22 03 



844 



12 27 
15 57 
17 37 
17 01 
7 96 



9 96 
16 72 

13 89 

14 19 
13 65 
12 28 



10 00 



11 80 



15 26 



i 

a 

e 

3 



so 



$4 74 

8 41 



10 00 

5 67 
4 10 

6 07 
2 18 
477 
6 80 
2 78 



7 25 



.5 30 
255 
1 13 
7 46 
3 23 
82 



2 31 

3 17 

2 37 
8 93 
234 

3 36 



943 



2 60 
6 49 



159 
L60 
161 

L62 
163 
104 
[65 
166 
167 
168 
L69 
170 

71 
172 
173 

74 
175 
176 
177 
178 

79 
180 
181 
182 
L83 
184 
185 
180 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
L93- 

194 
19& 



• Includes fiieL 
/Includes pay of Janitors. 

y Receipts as reported were $33,184 ; but the items given amoont to $26,672 only. 
h These statistics are for white schools only, 
i Includes $107,274 for colored schools. 



LVI 



REPORT OF THE C0BCMIS8I0NER OF EDUCATION. 



Table II. — Average expenses per capita of daily average aitendanoe in oiiy public schools. 



Cities. 



Newton, Mass 

Boston, Mass 

San Francisco, Cal 

Buflailo,N.Y 

Denver, Colo 

Newport, R. I 

Salem, Mass 

Cambridge, Mass 

Dayton, Ohio 

New York, N.Y 

San Jos6, Cal 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Haverhill, Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

Omaha, Nebr 

CouncU Bluffs, Iowa 

New Haven, Conn 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y 

Orange, N.J 

Davenport, Iowa 

Memphis, Tenn 

Worcester^ Mass 

Columbus, Ohio 

Burlington, Iowa 

Nashville, Tenn 

Fort Wa.>Tic, Ind 

Sprhigfleld, Mass 

L^Tichburg, Va 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Louisville, Ky 

Terr© Haute, Ind 

Manchester, N. H 

Kansas City, Mo 

Toledo, Ohio 

Pitlsbnrgh, Pa 

Newark, N.J 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Des Moines (west side), Iowa 

.Lj'nn, Mass 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

Knox ville, Tenn 

Kingston, N.Y 

Little Rock, Ark 

•Georgetown, D. C > 

Washington, D. C 5 

Watertown, N.Y 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Fitchburg, Mass 



3 


• 


For instruction 
supervision. 


For incidental 
penses. 


$26 37 


|7 63 


25 94 


10 21 


24 00 


4 80 


23 40 




22 40 


6 11 


22 03 


7 25 


21 38 


6 29 


20 95 


4 66 


20 ei 


4 24 


20 81 


7 63 


20 80 


9 81 


20 08 


660 


10 88 


5 40 


10 84 


4 77 


19 15 


4 96 


18 45 


637 


18 41 


5 84 


18 06 


4 13 


17 81 


3 88 


17 77 


4 07 


17 05 


3 05 


17 37 


7 46 


17 25 


3 07 


17 24 


4 84 


17 06 


5 93 


17 01 


3 23 


16 08 


4 14 


16 84 


3 82 


16 72 


8 17 


16 63 


4 66 


16 46 


6 32 


16 39 


8 49 


16 30 


4 19 


* 16 12 


4 33 


16 12 


4 25 


16 00 


10 00 


16 00 


4 23 


16 00 


88 


15 96 


8 00 


15 91 


4 92 


15 77 


4 79 


15 57 


1 13 


15 49 


3 63 


15 33 


3 40 


15 26 


6 49 


15 13 


6 11 


15 10 


4 95 


15 07 


3 74 




Rochester, N. Y 

Wilkes-Barre (3d district), Pa 

Adrian, Mich 

Covington, Ky 

Trenton, N.J 

New London, Conn 

St. Paul, Minn 

New Bedford, Mass 

Springfield, Ohio , 

Ne wbur3'port, Mass 

Portland, Me 

Taunton, Mass 

Portsmouth, Va 

Ithaca, N.Y 

Scranton (4th district), Pa .... 

Canton, Ohio 

Cohoes, N.Y 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Troy, N.Y 

TitusviUe, Pa 

Norristown, Pa 

Elmira, N.Y 

Norfolk, Va 

RocklsUind. HI 

Springfield, HI 

Utica, N. Y 

Chester, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Saginaw, Mich 

Yicksburg, Miss 

New Orleans, La 

Norwalk, Conn 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Long Ishind City, N. Y 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Aubnm, N.Y 

Nashua, N.H 

Holyoke, Mass 

Weymouth, Mass 

Elimbeth, N.J 

Decatur, 111 

Logansport, Ind 

Belleville, 111 

Allegheny, Pa 

Savannah, 6a 

Newburgh, N.Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Erie, Pa 



$14 93 
14 90 
14 79 
14 70 
14 68 
14 64 
14 55 
14 50 
14 45 
14 40 
14 31 
14 25 
14 19 
14 17 
14 16 
14 15 
14 09 
14 04 
14 01 
13 94 
13 94 
13 92 
13 88 
18 88 
18 77 
13 73 
13 70 
13 67 
13 05 
13 62 
13 51 
13 50 
13 50 
13 46 
13 45 
13 43 
13 36 
13 22 
13 21 
13 16 
18 10 
13 10 
13 04 
13 02 
13 00 
13 00 
12 96 
12 78 
12 73 



M 

O 



c 5 






$8 75 
6 80 
2 14 

2 28 

3 00 



1 24 
4 50 
523 

2 41 

2 62 

3 95 
8 93 

4 01 
6 07 



8 68 

4 27 

2 56 

5 67 
4 77 

3 41 
8 96 
2 37 
8 00 
8 64 
2 37 

7 07 
2 34 

4 64 

2 70 

3 00 

2 25 

8 64 
G 73 

3 93 
3 15 

5 12 
8 13 

3 68 

4 97 
8 31 
3 46 
222 
8 14 



4 75 
2 02 
522 



cnr SCHOOLS. 



Lvn 



Table n. — Average expenses per oapUa of daily average attcndaneej ^c. — Continued. 



Citiea. 



Jjockport.'S.Y. 



Akron, Ohio 

Padacah,Ky 

MaeoD.CTa 

BinghamtoD, N. Y 

Leavenworth, Kana . . 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Chattanooga^ Tenn 

Kew Brunswick, N . J 

Borne, KY 

Camden, N.J 

Chicago,!!! .. 

Lawrence, Kans 

Kew Britain, Conn . . 

Oswego. N.Y 

Pottorille, Pa 

Peoria, HI 

Racine, Wis 

Pateraon, N.J 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Pooghkeepsie, N. Y. . 

Bkwmington, III 

Syracuse, N.Y 

Lewiaton, Me 

StenbenTille, Ohio . . . 



I 
I 

c 

a 



i 



I 

• 



$12 57 
12 56 
12 51 
12 51 
12 35 
12 29 
12 28 
12 27 
12 25 
12 22 
12 16 
12 13 
12 09 
12 00 
11 96 
11 94 
11 92 
11 80 
11 74 
11 65 
11 62 
11 57 
11 38 
U 26 
11 24 




$3 05 
2 96 

2 38 

1 26 
240 
8 00 

3 36 

2 55 
2 81 

2 27 
5 07 

4 05 
565 

3 50 

4 49 

5 67 
8 61 

2 60 
4 04 
8 10 
4 49 

3 97 
8 20 
546 
268 



CitiM. 



Bay City, Mich 

East Saginaw, Mich. 

Joliet,!!! 

SchenectMly, N. Y . . 

Marlboro\ Mass 

Reading. Pa 

Galesborg, HI 

Alton, HI 

JanesTille, Wis 

Alexandria, Ya 

Colnmboa, Ga 

Newport, Ky 

Newcastle, Pa 

WilliAmsport, Pa... 

Warwick, R I 

Hannibal, Mo 

Houston, Tex 

Altoona, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Shenandoah, Pa 

Carbondalo, Pa 

Adams, Mass 

Bangor, Me 

Woonsocket, R I . . 



1 



•a g 



$11 20 

11 07 

10 88 

10 62 

10 89 

10 80 

10 18 

10 10 

10 00 

996 

962 

9 40 

9 33 

9 05 

8 44 

8 21 

7 96 

7 57 

6 51 

644 

5 79 

(15 

11 



$3 37 
5 41 
2 80 
4 13 
261 
4 10 
841 
2 60 
243 
2 81 
2 21 



4 74 
2 78 



2 74 
82 
2 68 
2 01 
2 18 
1 23 



84) 
88 



6 30 



The following extracts are from Dr. John D. Philbriok's interesting report of the 
Boston pablic schools for the present year : 

How much is done in city schools T Upon this point Dr. Philbrick says, substan- 
tially : The essential statistical items to be considored are, first, the proportion of school- 
able children educated, and, second, the proportion of the pupils found in different 
grades. The following table exhibits those data for St. Louis and Boston : 



Population (estimated) 

Pnpils bd<mging 

Percentage in lowest year 

Percentage in lowest three years 
Percentage in the highest yMr . . 
Percentage in high schools 



StLonis. 


l^ton. 


450.000 


850,000 


25,896 


46,925 


3a 90 


17.60 


67.94 


42.87 


2.36 


8.18 


3.24 


4.49 



Boston snpporta 26 special schools, namely, 1 Kindergarten, 2 schools for licensed 
minors, 1 for deaf-mutes, 16 elementary CTening schools, 1 evening high school, and 5 
evening drawing schools. The whole number of pupils belonging to these schools was 
3,897, and the average attendance 1,918. The whole number of teachers employed was 



LYin BEPORT OF THE COHMISSIONES OF EDUCATION. 

177, and their salaries amounted to $47,033.07, against 101 teacbeis receiving salaries 
amonnting to $26,526.34 in 1872. 

The evening high school is one of the most valnahle and interesting institntions. Tlie 
average number belonging for the six months ending April, 1877, was 950 ; the average 
attendance for the time was 352, of which number 242 were males and 110 females. 
The nnmber of teachers, including principal, was 11, giving an avenge of 32 scholars 
to a teacher, exclusive of the principal. The course of study, comprising both tech- 
nical and liberal branches, is not subject to such limitations as are applied to the day 
schools, but new branches are added to the curriculum whenever they are desired by 
a sufficient number of pupils to justify the formation of a new class. 

The several evening elementary schools which were in operation from October, 1876^ 
to April, 1877, registered 5,175 pupils. The average number belonging was 2,142, and 
the average attendance 1,205, of whom there were males 851, females 354. The nimi- 
ber of teachers, including principal, was 139, giving an average of 9.8 pupils to each 
teacher, exclusive of the principal. 

In the* evening drawing schools 1,244 pupils were registered; the average nnmber 
belonging was 635, and the average attendance 279, viz, males 235, females 44. The 
instruction was given by 13 teachers. The average number of pupils to each teacher, 
exclusive of the principal, was 23. 

Special schools form an important feature of many city reports. Other cities of 
Massachusetts follow the example of the capital. Thus, Worcester reports 1 evening 
school for boys, 1 for girls, 4 for both sexes, and 5 free evening drawing schools, also for 
both sexes. Philadelphia maintained 51 night schools for 1877, in which were reg- 
istered 14,672 pupils of both sexes. The unusually large attendance of mechanics in 
these schools indicates their practical importance. Pittsburgh reports 65 evening 
schools under the conduct of 27 male and 48 female teachers. The total number of 
pupils registered in these was 4,267 and the average attendance 1,860, of whom 1,500 
were boys and 300 girls. The teachers' salaries amounted to $7,598.95, or a cost per 
pupil per term of 65 nights, reckoned on average attendance, of $4.08. In addition to 
these literary schools there were 65 industrial evening schools, employing 4 male and 
1 female teacher. To these 183 pupils were admitted and the total average attendance 
was: boys, 103; girls, 3. The amoimt of teachers' salaries was $600, or a cost per 
pupil per term of 65 nights, on average attendance, of $5.65. The pupils in these 
schools are mostly young men who are engaged during the day in the shops and found- 
ries of the city, and such is the interest that not a single case of misconduci has been 
reported in any one of the several schools in operation during the last three years. 
Baltimore has 7 evening schools for white and 4 for colored pupils. The Baltimore 
City College crowns the public advantages secured to boys. Cincinnati reports 15 
night schools, 4 of which are for colored pupils. In these were enrolled 3,631 pupils, 
an increase of 14.2 per cent, on the average yearly enrolment from 1869 to 1877. In 
the night high school were registered 703 males and 103 females. The average age of 
pupils in the night schools for whites was 16 years; of those in the schools for colored 
pupils, nearly 25 years. Book-keeping and drawing receive special attention in the 
night high school course. 

Respecting the importance of studying other school systems as weU as our own, Dr. 
Philbrick justly observes: 

Among the means of educational improvement and progress nothing is so useful aa 
the study of other schools and systems. It is only by comparison that we arrive at 
a true estimate of the character of a school system. In times past we have suffered 
from this fault. If we would unlearn old prejudices and learn new excellences we 
must go beyond the smoke of our own chimneys. 

In pursuance of this principle. Dr. Philbrick obtained permission to visit schools in 
other cities, and brought back for the benefit of his own city the results of his careful 
examination. 

The opposite systems of organization which have prevailed in the school boards of 



HTGIENE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. LIX 

oar oonutzy aie fully described in Yns valuable report. On this snbjoot Dr. Philbrick 
writes: 

The system of education in each city \iBited is under the control of a board of 
edacatiou, of which the number of members is not at all proportioned to the |>opu- 
Idtion of the city to which it belongs. The Cincinnati board is the largest in propor- 
tion to its population, and the New York board the smallest. PittHbnrtfh, with a 
population of about one-ninth of that of New York, has a board more than 50 per 
cent, larger; Louisville, with a population less than a third of that of St. Louis, 
has a board of equal size. The boards difl'er, not ouly in the proportion of members^ 
bat also in respect to mode of election and tenure of office. Thus, in Cincinnati, Lou- 
isville, and St. Louis they are elected by the people in the several wards, to serve 
for two years, one-half going[ out of office each year. In New York the members are 
appointed by the mayor, without regard to ward representation, to hold office for 
three years, one-third going out each year: and at Pittsburgh tlie term of office is 
the same, but the members are elected, one lor each subdistrict or ward, by its bpard 
of school directors, which is itself chosen by tbe people. 

The organization of the school boards in western cities presents two types, of which 
the St. Louis and Cincinnati boards are the most characteristic examples. The St. 
Louis board has only twelve standing committees, of which only three have direct 
reference to matters relating to instruction and discipline, the other nine being busi- 
ness committees. The Cincinnati board of education, on the other hand, has twenty- 
five standing committees. In a<ldition to this formidable array of standing commit- 
tees, there are thirty-four subcommittees on districts and schools. Nor does this 
complete the list. The union board, composed in part of members of the board of 
education, which has charge of the hish schools, employs no less than fifteen commit- 
tees, so that the management of the wuole system of schools is shared by seventy-four 
committees. The St. Louis type may be designated the type of simplicity ana cen- 
tralization; the Cincinnati, the type of complexity and decentralization. 

HYGIENE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts for 1877 (pp. 229-251) con- 
tains a paper on the ** Sanitation of public schools in Massachusetts,'' by Dr. D. F. Lin- 
coln, of Boston, ''based on returns from nearly all the school buildings in Boston, the 
total actoally in use being 159, with an attendance of 46,418 ; also from schools not in 
Boston, estimated to number 400, with 40,000 chil<lren, or about one-sixth of the corre- 
QM>udlng school population.'' The results of the inquiries are summarized as follows : 
''The drainage of country school sites is reported as bad in one-seventh of the cases ; 
in Boston, in a few." Complaints are made of " dampness of walls or floors; stagnant 
water in neighborhood ; house originally set too low for drainage ; entire absence of sun- 
Hght in a room." " The ventilation is very generally said to be poor." Complaints are 
made of " misdirection of funds by which exterior ornament is added, to the neglect of 
essential portions of the ventilating apparatus." " Bad location of ventilators in the 
roojn ; coldness of floor, with undue heat of upper air ; inattention to the state of 
tbe atmosphere on the part of teachers, and sudden opening of windows in cold 
weather." "A cellar or basement is absent in a number of country schools." Com- 
plaints concerning closets, both in and out of doors, are almost universal. Offensive 
odors are usually complained of; a very few aggravated cases are given. The Bos- 
ton city board of health, in 1876, said, concerning this evil: "The o<lors escaping 

• *. " pervade the school rooms, causing nausea, compelling the teachers to close 
the doors and windows to exclude the disgusting scent, which even then penetrates 
the rooms, especially when the atmosphere is warm and muggy and the scholars are 
most in need of pure air from without." The diseases mentioned as resulting from 
this are " catarrhs, dyspepsia, debility, diarrhoBa, dysentery, and zymotic disease." 
"The amount of simple ordinary debility due to a slowly acting cause is often very 
hard to estimate. • • • That such debility may be produced by • • * living 
in an air containing fecal odors simply is certain ; and from this debility up to the 
production of headaches, with slight fever, or of violent, even rapidly fatal, cases of 
typhoid, there are all possible gradations. • • • The connection of diphtheria, 
scarlatina, dysentery, and diarrhcea with foul odors and bad drains is now admitted 
to be a fact, though not always a traceable one." 



LX REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

In the report of the Stat© Board of Health of Wisconsin for 1876 (pp. 38-43) wo 
find the following on ventilation : 

Systems of schooling do not fall within our province ; hnt the constmction of edi- 
fices in which the business of training shall be carried on is of paramount importance, 
upon the evidence before us, when we contemplate the physical wrecks wliich have 
result4^d from the continual stress on muscle and nerve lirvol ved in our efforts to ext-end 
the blessing of intellectual culture to the rising generation. • * * Proper ventila- 
tion is impossible unless our buildings are so constructed as to permit of the best proc- 
esses being carried out in their integrity. * * * It is, indeedl too true that in many 
buildings, private as well as public, upon which large sums have been expended, a 
difference of from 129 to 15^ may be found between the heat of the room at (5 feet 
from the floor and that of the floor itsplf. Not long since a teacher said, when speak- 
ing of a very ctostly structure, that the children taught therein must stand upon their 
heads if their feet were to be kept warm and their braius cool during tuition. * * ♦ 
Reference has been made to the necessity for additional floor room in school buiMings. 

* * * Many persons suppose that if the requisite space in cubic feet is given for 
efich individual, it matters not whether it is supplied in height or in breadth. No 
error could be more pernicious. The breathing room of the individual must !)♦» com- 
paratively near to his own level, and unless it is sufiicient to protect him from breath- 
ing the impurities emitted from his own and the neighboring lungs and bodies, he 
cannot fail to be poisoned in a greater or less degree by the noxious efliuvia which 
every animal emits. ♦ ♦ ♦ The most motlerate space assume^l to Ix^ compatible 
with the maintenance of health is 25 feet of floor spa<;e and 300 cubic feet of air space, 
with the ])roper ventilation, for each pupil. » • • When that provision has been 
supplied, the stigma will be removed from our school system, that it causes three- 
fourths of all the cases of lung disease known to prevail among children. 

The same article says : 

Our school system, which is oppressive to both sexes, is specially injurious to girls 
at the age when they are approaching womanhood. * * * It is a fact within the 
knowledge of every expert, that our school buildings appear to have been constructed 
with the express design to superadd physical exhaustion to the other destructive forces 
that threaten the lives of the future mothers of America. 

The report of the same board for 1877 (pp. 42, 43) give^ the results of some analyses 
made by Professor Daniells, of the State university, of the air in some of the school 
buildings in Madison. In one, ^4n 10,000 volumes of air he found carbon dioxide to 
the extent of 7.7 ; • • * in the high school room, • * * in 10,000 volumes of 
air, 8.74 of carbon dioxide ; in the same building, room of second grade, 10,000 volumes 
of air contained 11.9 of carbon dioxide; • • * and the worst result of all, in the 
fifth ward school, in the primary' room, at 3 p. m., on the 22d of March, there being 54 
pupils present, one-fifth less than the whole number in the grade, 10,000 volumes of 
air exhibited 25.6 of carbonic dioxide, or five times the maximum quantity which, 
under natural conditions, may be found in the atmosphere and respired without danger. 
The ill effects which must have resulted, and which doubtless are continuing to result, 
to the constitutions of the children from breathing carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, 
mephitic gases and exhalations, and dead decomposing animal matter, in air largely 
deficient in oxygen, the life sustaining property, cannot be described in any adequate 
degree; but the imagination of the discreet reader will not fail to suggest that the 
largest benefit to be hoped from school training at that age could not offset the terrible 
evils which such an atmosphere must entail." 

The report of the State Board of Health of Louisiana for 1877 (pp. 72, 73) presents 
the following statement from one of the sanitary inspectors of New Orleans: 

I must earnestly direct attention to the fact that in many of the school rooms the 
children are horribly overcrowded. To appreciate the extent of this outrageous treat- 
ment of little children, consider by contrast a properly constructed building, such as 
the McDonogh School, which allows for each pupil 23.02 feet of supei^ficial space and 
345.30 feet cubic space, and some of these marked "bad," which allow to each child 
6.86 superficial feet and 75.43 cubic feet space, and others which give but 4.77 super- 
ficial and 51.79 cubic feet of space, while othei-s finally allow only 3.81 of superficial and 
30.48 cubic feet to each person. It is imiwssible to describe the manner in which these 
poor children are not only crowded, but packed, the ceilings and the openings inade- 
quate to afford such ventilation and light as are indispensable to health and comfort. 

* * * When cold or wet necessitates the closing of doors and windows, the atmoa- 



HYGIENE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. LXI 

phere 18 qnickly converted into snch an intolerable stench as to force a compromise 
with the weather, and these have to be opened partly ; when this is done, the children 
are subjected to irregular currents of cold damp air, a most fruitful source of illness. 
A heated stove in such a room only adds a powerful source of vitiation. 

The president of the State Board of Health of Maryland, in his report for 1B76 and 
1877 (pp. XXV, XX vi), considers* the hygienic condition of schools, especially as affecting 
the eyesight of the pupils. He says : 

That eye diseases are alarmingly on the increase, especially in large cities, is a lamen- 
table fact, which should force itself upon the atteution of the sanitary and educational 
authorities of the State. Many of the eye troubles, especially near-sightedness, uncjue-s- 
tionably originate during school life, and ever afterwards render the eyes ot the 
fofferers more liable to take on destructive diseases. Defective ventilation, imperfect 
lighting, badly arranged desks, crowded school rooms, and over zeal on the part of the 
t^hers in forcing the brain at the expense of other organs are some of the preventable 
causes of eye diseases among our scnool going population. Near-sightedness, when 
thus acquired, not only annoys the individual sufferer for the rest of life, but may be 
transmitted to the next generation by ** hereditary taint," so that our improved civili- 
zation, under educational pressure, will in time ingraft bad eyes upon our whole peo- 
ple. » * * xhe paramount importance of strong eyesight, especially to that class 
of our fellow citizens who, from the inexorable logic of necessity, must either educate 
their childn^n in the public schools or permit them to grow up in absolute ignorance, 
is beyond all question ; and hence it behooves the authorities, both State and munic- 
ipal, not to distribute with the incalculable blessings of education an evil of so serious 
a nature as defective vision. 

Prof. J. J. Chisolm is now engaged in making a scientific examination into the sani- 
tary condition of the eyesight of the pupils in the public schools of Baltimore, and 
will make a full report for the next biennial publication of the State Board of Health. 

Hod. James H. Smart, State superintendent of public instruction for Indiana, 
devotes several pages of his report for 1H76 (pp. 9G-102) to the consideration of the 
subject of school hygiene, remarking emphatically : 

It is utterly impossible to teach a successful school in a poorly warmed and ill 
ventilated house. Pure air is necessary to the ^)roper application of the mind on the 
part of the pupils. Listlessness, peevishness, idleness, and mischief as frequently 
result from impure air as from a bad disposition. Foul air irritates the body and 
stopefies the mind certainly and quickly. A ventilating apparatus constructed in a 
country school-house would pay for itself in less than a week in the increased efficiency 
of the school. * * • A great deal of sickness among children may be traced 
directly to badly warmed and ventilated school-houses. I believe also that the founda- 
tions of {»ermanent diseases which sometimes manifest themselves in after life are not 
infrequently laid in the same places. 

After reconmiending certain methods of heating, ventilating, and lighting, he says: 

It is my duty to call the attention of school officers to the evils here spoken of; it is 
their duty to apply the remedy. If they do not, I think it would- be the duty of the 
Legislature to require them by statutory provision to do so. 

A committee appointed by the Medico-Legal Society to confer with the school au- 
thorities of New York City, " with a view to such legislation as may promote the 
health of school children," addressed to the president of the board of education of 
that city a letter, from which the following are extracts : * 

At the outaet of our inquiries, our attention has been arrested by a report of the 
eommittee on by-laws, &c., of the board of education, under date of March 15, 1876, 
not yet adopted and recommending a continuance or at best only slight modifications 
of conditions which we are convinced are utterly inconsistent with due care for the 
preservation of the health of the children in the public schools. • • • We fii-st 
Dotice the conclusion of your committee in regard to the amount of air space required. 
• • * ** In fixing the sitting capacity of rooms, the following shall be a minimum 
allowance of floor surface and air space per pupil : In the three lower grades of pri- 
mary schools and departments, five square feet and seventy cubic feet ; in the three 
higher grades, six square feet and eighty cubic feet ; in the four lower grades of gram- 
mar schools, seven square feet and ninety cubic feet ; in the four higher grades, nine 
square feet and one nundred cubic feet." • • * Such a capacity of school room 
•pace, though confessedly greater than that which now is and hitherto has been 

> The Sanitarian, voL iv, 1870, pp. 210-213, 506. 



LXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

allowed thonsands of children in the imblic schoolB of Netr York) is not, so far as we 
have been able to learn, consistent with physiological law or with the opinions upon 
this subject of those whose scientific judgment is entitled to deference and respect. 
* * * In regard to the deleterious effects of an excess of carbonic acid alone in the 
air we breathe, there is no difference of opinion among competent authorities. All 
agree that when it reaches the proportion of 1 volume per 1,000, it is dangerous to 
health ; if not immediately, none the less certainly in its cumulative effects, ft creates 
a general indisposition of both body and mind, stunts bodily, and mental development, 
and particularly predisposes to scrofula and consumntion ; and its excess in crowded 
apartments is usually an index of the presence of other deleterious agents due to the 
same cause. 

But, besides these, there are still other gases frightfully abundant in the school- 
houses of New York, due to the emanations from latrines and privies. For example : 
Primary School No. 1, on Ludlow street, one of the newest and best arranged and ap- 
pointed, besides being overcrowded and unventilated, is taiuted throughout the halls, 
and at times by way of the fanlights over the doors in the class rooms, with the odors 
arising from the latrines in the basement, which are emptied onlv ** once or twice a 
week." The seating capacity of this building is given as 1,700; actual register. 
1,440; attendance 1,^)29; square feet in 12 rooms, 3,264; cubic feet in the several 
class rooms varying from 33 to 41 for each child I • • • That the children in our 
public schools should be exposed to poisons generated by means of these foul and dis- 
gusting latrines, only to economize the water needed to keep well constructed water- 
closets iu order, is simply inhuman and ought to be at once amended. 

The habit of wetting coal in bulk in the cellars, which is sometimes practiced, causes 
it to emit poisonous gases deleterious to health, and it should be forbidden. 

Lofty ceilings are regarded by some as a principal means of insuring a sufficient 
measure in cubic feet for each person. Unless ventilation'is secured for the upper por- 
tion of a room, a lofty ceiling only makes that poition of space above the tops of the 
windows a receptacle for foul air, which accumulates and remains to vitiate the stratum 
below. 

In fixing the " sitting capacity," it should be borne in mind that the smaller the 
allowance the greater the necessity for the constant admission and change of air. 
^ * * If the cubic space be small, the means for change of air must be large in the 
inverse ratio. Thus, with a space of 100 cubic feet, in order to maintain the air at 
a healthy standard it must be changed thirty times an hour, which is not practicable 
without exposing the inmates of the room to dangerous currents. * » ♦ Every 
individual actually poisons fifteen cubic feet of air every hour. To prevent this, thirty 
cubic feet, at the least, should be provide*! hourly, which proportion, for five hours* 
daily school session, requires 150 cubic feet as the smallest space compatible with effi- 
cient ventilation without dangerous exposure to draughts. 

The same committee, in a subsequent report, dwells upon the ii\justice of enforcing 
the compulsory law while the school buildings are in their present condition : 

School-houses where young children are herded and forced t^o sit for hours in a viti- 
ated atmosphere, in constrained positions, do not come up to the standard. It would 
be cruelty to animals, not to speak of tender little ones, to add to this torture by in- 
crease of numbers without increased accommodation. The idea of compulsory attend- 
ance under these circumstances is preposterous, and at variance with all wise and 
beneficent law and the commoA rights of humanity. 

At a meeting of the New York Medico-Legal Society, January 3, 1877,' where the 
subject of school hygiene was under discussion. Dr. Agnew said : 

There is a school in one of the most densely populated sections of the city of New 
York, in the tenth ward, where there are on an average about 1,600 children in the 
primary de|>artmcnt, where rooms are so dark that the blackboard exercises could not 
be distinguished by the eye, and the gallery classes so crowded that there is scarcely 
room to move. * * * It would be accounted cruelty to animals to keep them under 
such unsanitary conditions ; how much more is it cruelty to children to keep them 
there for any length of time. 

At another meeting of this society, February 7, 1877, Dr. 0*Sullivan stated :« 

It is but a day or so since I entered one of the new school-houses of this city [New 
York]. ♦ * • I entered the primary class room on the ground floor, and found 
there sixty-nine little ones with tneir teacher. There was a small window facing a 
side wall not more than two feet distant. * * Through this small window they 

»Tlie Sanitarian, March, 1877, pp. 124, 125. »Ibid., May, 1877^ pp. 209, ^lOj, 



HTOIEKfi IK THE PUBLIC SCnOOLS. LXIH 

received all the light they had, and it was admitted so as to strike their hooks imme- 
diatelj over the nght shoulder. When the door was opened it led immediately into 
the playground, and the watercloset was in close proximity to it, so that the effluvinm 
eoald not help but enter with all its freshness into the school room. • • • Thj§ 
was ail the ventilation and Uffht provided. I went into the uppner rooms of the pri- 
mary department, and there f found the teachers in one of the middle rooms, and the 
ehildren seat-ed as close as they could he packed, and I was informed by the principal 
that the gloom was so great on a dark da^ that the little ones could not see the tigures 
on the blackboard. • * * Yet this is one of the recently erected school editices, 
"erected at great expense," because of the " modem improvements," by the great city 
of New York. • • * i went up into the top or highest floor, the male department^ 
* • • and there I found, with but one exception, that the benches were placed in 
a position where the light entered in a manner not according to the laws of hygiene — 
and there was a defect in the sight of the children. And to add to the insalubrious 
BiSLte of affairs, the waterclosets used by the teachers were placed in close proximity 
to the class room, and communicated with it by an open window I And I have been 
informed * * * that there is a new school-house on the west side * • • in 
▼hich there is the same arrangement throughout.* 

The report of the Board of Health of the City of Boston for 1875 (pp. 43-51 and 76, 
?9, and 80) contains the results of the inspection of 111 schools in 10 school-houses of 
that city, *• representing, so far as possible, every variety of distinguishing quality:" 

The time chosen in each instance was the last hour of the morning or of the after- 
noon session, when the room had been occupied at least an hour, and when the air 
would probably be found at its worst. A specimen of the air was obtained from the 
middle of the room, the jar being filled at the level of the scholars' heads. At the 
same time, the temperature of the room was taken at the floor level and at the level 
of the pupils' heads. Finally the condition of the window sashes and of the ventilat- 
iog registers, whether open or shut, was noted ; and a note was also taken of the state 
of the atmosphere to the sense of smell, with the number of desks in the room and tjie 
number of children present. * • • Parkes, the eminent English authority on 
hygiene, * * • has found that the organic products of respiration begin to be 
manifest when the carbonic acid in the air of an inhabited room reaches the proportion 
of ,6 per 1.000. • • » Pettenkofer, who is at the head of German sanitarians, 
makes the limit of purity .7 of carbonic acid in a thousand volumes of air, Iteyona 
which an unwholesome aegree of vitiation begins. 

The smallest amount of carbonic acid found in any of the 111 rooms examined was 
.57, the greatest 3, and the average of all the rooms was 1.18. Concerning the tem- 
perature of the rooms, it is said : 

Some notion of the probable effect upon health of a continued exxK>sure to a super- 
heated atmosphere which is at the same time vitiated by respiration may be ob- 
tained by entering almost any of our school rooms at the latter part of a half day's 
session in midwinter. To a sensitive person leaving the outer air and coming at once 
into such a room, the impression is one not easily forgotten. The blast of hot foul 
air is sickening. The marvel is that children do not more frequently succumb to the 
inevitably depressing influence of such unwholesome conditions. * * * It may be 
set down as a safe standard rule that the temperature of school rooms should range 
between 65° and 68^ Fahrenheit (18.5^ and 20^ centij^rade). It need hardly be stated 
here that the ordinary temperature of school rooms is above 68°, and that a point in 
excess of 70° is very commonly found. • • • if anything is worse than an exces- 
sive degree of artificial heat, it is the quick transition to the opposite extreme. It is 
a frequent thing in school room experience that the teacher, becoming suddenly aware 
that the air is too warm for comfort, directs that the window sashes be opened at the 
top to effect a speedy relief. The consequence is that the inevitable wave of cold out- 
side air sweeps over the uncovered heads of the children, and a fresh accession of cases 

iln the New York Times of Msy29, 1878, we find the following: "At the meethig of the board of 
hMlth yesterday a report wae presented by Dr. Janes and Sanitary Engineer Nealis in relation to the 
eondttionof grammar school No. 48, In WMt Twenty-eighth street, hetween Sixth and Seventh avenoea. 
The report set forth that they foimd the gratings intended for supplying fresh air to the cellar tightly 
covered, preventing the circulation that should keep the air pure. In on^ of the class rooms there was 
s leakage c^gaa from a defective pipe, and it was stated that the leakage had existed since the last 
vantion. In another of the class rooms on the third floor, nsed for instmction in writing, the light is 
imideqnate, and its continned use for that purpose will tend to seriously impair the sight of the pupils. 
The ventilating shafts from the sinks in the yard terminate at the windows of the class rooms on the 
second floor, and discharge foul and deleterious odoA into the class rooms when the windows are open. 
A copy of the report was ordered to be sent to the board of education." 



LXIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

of bronchitis or of more serions pulmonary affections is the result. An instance of 
this thing was observed in the inspection of the Chapman School. A room showed at 
the desk level a temperature of 77° ; three-quarters of an hour later the same room 
was revisited, when the thermometer indicated 61. 7°, a fall of 15.3°! Between the 
two visits the teacher had '^ aired " the room to some purpose ; the air was pure 
enough, surely, and the couching and sneezing of the children gave warning that it 
was cold enough also. If such a sudden change should occur in the outer atmosphere 
it would be considered a fruitful cause of increased sickness in Ihe community. 

The universal testimony of the teachers in the course of the investigation was to 
the effect that they could not rely on the special means provided for the ventilation of 
their rooms. • * • The system of flues and shafts as at present disposed in school- 
house construction must be supplemented by opened doors and windows. 

This report, in conclusion, says : 

It is sometimes said that the matter of school-house ventilation is discussed and 
agitated more than its real importance warrants. » ♦ • The need is not of less 
but of more agitation, not in the direction of impracticable sanitary' speculations, but 
to promote the realization of feasible, indisputable sanitary principles. 

In 1876, the health department of Cincinnati^ ordered a chemical examination to 
be made of the air in some of the public schools in that city and the results are em- 
bodied in their report for that year. A table is given showing " the number of volumes 
of carbonic acid in 100,000 volumes of the air of several rooms in each of the twen- 
ty-six schools examined.'' Concerning this table. Professor Hough, who made the 
examination, says: ''The foregoing figures indicate most conclusively that in a large 
majority of cases the ventilation of our school-rooms is injuriously defective. A very 
large majority of the pupils of our public schools are breathing, for several hours 
each day, an atmosphere containing more than one-t«nth per cent, of carbonic acid. 
In many cases the degree of vitiation reaches nearly if not quite double that amount.'' 
Measurements were made of 265 rooms with a view of ascertaining the amount of 
air space allowed to each pupil. Professor Hough estimates " from 200 to 300 cubic feet 
as the emalletit allowable air space for each pupil under the present methods of ven- 
tilation." Of the 265 rooms measured it was found that "only 29 afford 300 cubio 
feet or more per pupil; 236 afford less than 300 cubic feet per pupil; 166 afford less 
than 200 cubic feet per pupil ; 22 afford less than 108.5 cubic feet per pupil ; and 14 
afford less than 100 cubic feet per pupil." Of these 14, several gave less than 90 cubio 
feet per pupil, and one only 56.7. "The relation of these magnitudes to the neces- 
sary conditions of respiration is fearful." Attention is also called to the imperfect 
lighting of many of the rooms as calculated to permanently u^jure the eyesight of the 
pupils. 

The report of the public schools of the District of Columbia for 1876-'77 (pp. 11, 
12) contains the results of an inspection by the health oflScer of the District of some 
of the public school buildings of the city of Washingt'On, concerning which he says: 

The whole story of the condition of the rooms in8i)ectedmay be epitomized in a very 
few words, viz : Altogether insufficient airspace; practically no ventilation, except 
by windows; unequal distribution of heat; coal gases from sheet iron and cast iron 
stoves, and generally unsuitable character of the building. • • » The average 
air space to each occupant of the rooms inspected is approximately 170 cubic feet, the 
air displaced by the bodies, desks, &c., uot deducted (twenty of the buildings 
averaging much' below those figures, three bein^ below 100 cubio feet), and had the 
average of the rooms been taken, it would quite likely have been found to be, in some 
instances, even below that of the lowest building. With no other than the exhala- 
tions of the occupants, therefore, to vitiate the air, taking the above average, viz, 
170 cubic feet, the whole atmospheric contents of the rooms should be chaugea every 
sixteen and a half minutes. • • • In the absence of definite analysis, we may 
estimate approximately that, by the window and door method, the relative quantity 
of the deadly poisonous .property, carbonic acid gas, constantly present in most of 
these rooms when occupied, is not less than from eight hundredths to fifteen hundredths 

Ser cent. * * * An admixture of 1 per cent, in respired air is sufficient to produce 
eath in a short time, and no person can safely remam any long time in an atmos- 
phere having more than seven hundredths per cent, of this gas. 

> Beport of the Board of Health of Cinciimati, 1876, pp. 148-150. 



HTQIENJB IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. LXY 

Dr. Edward B. Cogswell, in his report on the sanitary condition of Cambridge, 
Jfofis., p. 353, says of the school-houses of that city : 

Id nearly all of them, however, improper hygienic conditions are found. In some, a 
Dromiuent defect is in the method of warming ; in others, the trouble arises from the 
location and condition of the privies and urinals ; while acicqiiate means of ventilation 
are wanting in nearly all. * * * It too often happens • • • that, owing to 
the frequent chances in the members of the city government, the experience gained 
by one boanl in tne building of school-houses is lost to the city when the erection 
of others becomes necessary. The school committee, who have tne exclusive charge 
of the schools, * # • have no authority in the matter of the construction of school- 
booses 

At the meeting of the New York Medico-Legal Society, February 7, 1877, a paper on 
''The inHnence of vitiated air on the eyes" was presented by Dr. Edward G. Loring, 
of Boston, in which he says:' 

I have no doubt in my own mind, and I believe it is universally admitted, that 
Titiated air hoB a direct irritating effect on all mooous membranes'; and I feel ooo- 
Tiuced, from my own observation, that the mucous membrane of the eve is peculiarly 
susceptible to its influence. This is shown by the fact that repeated attacks of in- 
flammation of the mucous membrane of the eye which have occurred in a vitiated 
atmosphere and which have resisted all curative means, are often cured at once and 
prevented from recurring when a wholesome supply of air is obtained, all other con- 
ditions remaining the same. 

I have, then, no doubt in my own mind that bad air alone, acting as the primal 
cause, may set in train a series of morbid processes which may, and often do, affect 
not only the working capacity and integrity of the organ, but which may lead even 
to its total destruction. 

At a meeting of this society January 3, 1877, the results were presented of an exami- 
nation of the eyes of 1,440 school children in Cincinnati, New York, and Brooklyn :* 

In Cincinnati, in the district school, in 209 pupils examined, the rate of near^ight* 
edness was 10 per cent. In the intermediate schools, in 210 pupils, 14 per cent, wero^ 
near-sight^. In the normal and high schools, in 211 scholars, 16 per cent, were near- 
sightecL In the introductory class of the New York College, 29 per cent, were near- 
sighted ; in the freshman class, 40 per cent. ; in the sophomore class, 34.75 per cent. ; 
in the junior class, 53 per cent. In the Polytechnic Institute in Brooklyn, 10 per 
cent, of the students in the academic department were found to be near-sighted ; and 
in the collegiate department, of 158 students examined, 28.5 per cent, were near- 
sighted. There is a striking correspondence between these results and those obtained 
in Germany ; both showing that near-sightedness increases in the advanced grades of 
the public schools.' 

EDUCATION VS. POUCB. 

The expenditure for police in our cities brought into comparison with the expendi- 
tore for education presents many, interesting contrasts. It would naturally be 
thought that all the items necessary for such a comparison could be furnished from the 
ncords of every city annually ; unfortunately this is not so. 

It is universally admitted that education which develops aright the whole man 
most bear a close relation to the evils in human condition, and among them to crime. 
The most enthusiastic would hardly claim that education at its best could perfect 
hunan condition ; they believe, however, in its power to modify and improve. From 
die present imperfect condition of records and statistics a fair mind can hardly reach 
a different conclusion; but a thorough investigator will scarcely be satisfied until 
the data before him shall include a fair statement of all the conditions involved in 
the statement. The police expenditure is but a single item in the cost of crime; there 
is also the destruction of life and property, with the evils arising fh>m their constant 
peril, to which must be added the cost of courts, of Jails, of penitentiaries, and all other 
expenditnre on account of crime. 

1 The Sanitariui, Kay, 1877, p. 204. >Ibid., pp. 122, 123. •Ibid., p. m 



LXVI 



REPOBT OF THE C0MMI8SI0NEB OF EDUCATION. 



Comparison of municipal eaependUure$ for police and education. 



CiUes. 



San Franciaoo, Cal 
JSlew Haven, Conn 

Chicago, HI 

LonisvUle, Ey 

Xew Orleans, La . . 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

))etroit, Mich 

St Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N.J. . 

Xewark,N. J 

Albany,N.Y 

Brooklyn, N.T ... 

BnfRao,K. Y 

KewYork,N.Y.. 
Cincinnati, Ohio . . 
Cleveland, Ohio... 
Philadelphia, Pa.. 
Providence, R I. . . 
Charleston, S.C... 
Memphis, Tenn . ... 
Washington, D. C . 



Year. 



1876 
18T7 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 



187J 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1876 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 



Population. 



272,345 

57,196 

425,000 

125,000 

210,000 

802,839 

341,919 

110,000 

600,000 

120,000 

120,000 

69,422 

896,099 

143,594 

1,200,000 

267,000 

138,044 

750,000 

100,675 

48,956 

40,226 

106,000 



Police expenditure. 



Total 



$238,050 
76,000 
564,308 
168,079 
325,000 
509,110 
833,706 
135,000 
464,584 



155,836 
117,689 
815, 491 
225,000 

8,292,400 
271,627 
163,565 

1,437,546 

227,687 

97,281 

^49,685 

800,000 



Per 
capita. 



10 85 
1 33 
1 32 
1 34 
1 55 

1 97 

2 48 
1 22 

92 



1 29 
1 09 
206 

1 56 

2 74 
1 01 
1 18 
1 91 
226 
1 98 
123 
283 



Educational e^qModU 
ture. 



TotiO. 



1867,107 
206.436 
829,429 
285,302 



699,514 
1, 816, 615 

213, 214 
1,007,830 



al29,125 



8,316,889 
673,036 
397,782 

1,991,364 
202,000 



833,766 



Per 
capita. 



13 IB 
361 
1 96 
228 



280 
5 31 

1 93 

2 01 



2 76 
2 S2 
2 88 
2 f& 
2 00 



3 15 



a Total, including expenditure for buildings, $226,666. 

6 The reduction of more than one-half since 1874 has been accomplished by cutting down salariea. 

In Albany, oat of 6,840 arrests, 1,250 were of persons between 10 and 20 years of age. 

In Cleveland, ont of 7,845 arrests, 59 were of children nnder 10 years of age, 419 fix>m 
10 to 15, and 935 from 15 to 20 ; a total of 1,413 under 20 years of age. 

In Brooklyn, out of 26,857 arrests, 86 were of children under 8 years of age, 1,347 from 
S to 14, and 4,247 from 14 to 21 ; a total of 5,680 minors. 

In St. Louis, out of 19,427 persons arrested, 2,344 were under 20 years of age. 

In Boston, out of 26,683 arrests, 4,915 Avere of minors ; that these were principally 
youth with no homes would seem to be indicated by the fact that 4,711 minors had 
applied for lodging at station houses. 

In Cincinnati, out of 10,647 arrests, 1,696 were of persons between the ages of 10 and 
SlO. Of the whole number arrested, 10,647, only 355 were found unable to read and 
write. 

In Detroit, the whole number of arrests for the year was 4,657. Of these, 701 could 
neither read nor write, and 107 others could read only. The number of arrests under 
20 years of age was 850. The superintendent of police says : "While there is abun- 
dant provision made for boys who commit offenses cognizable by the State statutes 
and institutions have been erected for their detention, schooling, and employment, there 
is only one for the reception of females, viz, the house of correction ; and the courts have 
no other alternative but to send them thither. • • • Some better provision than 
^at now existing should be made for them." 

In Buffalo, in 1877, the whole number of arrests was 8,126. Of these, 89 were of 
children under 10 years of age, 543 from 10 to 15, and 1,221 from 15 to 20 ; making 
1,653 arrests of persons nnder 20 years of age. 



THE WAGES OP JANITORS. 

JAITITORS' WAOB8. 



Lxvn 



The following statement respecting the wages paid to janitors of school buildings 
in certain cities was prepared last year. It illustrates the sort of work often done by 
this Office in response to requests made by school officers. In this case the informal 
tion was desired by General C. £. Hovey, one of the school trostees of the District of 
Colombia, and, having been found useful in many places, it is inserted here for the 
use of a larger constituency. 

In the following replies, the number before each indicates the city to which the cor- 
lesponding number is attached in the list below, viz : 



1. Albany, N. Y. 

2. Allegheny, Pa. 

3. Baltimore, Md. 

4. Chicago, HI. 

5. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

6. Columbus, Ohio. 

7. CoTington, Ky. 

8. I>aTenxK>rt, Iowa. 

9. Denver, -Colo. 

10. Des Moines, Iowa. 



11. Detroit, Mich. 

12. Nashyille, Teun. 

13. Newark, N. J. 

14. New Haven, Conn. 

15. New Orleans, La. 

16. Omaha, Nebr. 

17. Peoria, IlL 

la Pittsburgh, Pa. 

19. Providence, R. I. 

20. Quincy, IlL 



21. Rochester, N. T. 

22. St. Louis, Mo. 

23. San Francisco, CaL 

24. Springfield, Mass. 

25. Utica, N. Y. 

26. Washington, D. C. 

27. Wilmington, Del. 

28. Worcester, Mass. 



Question 1. — What amount is paid per month or per aunum for Janitor*s labor in the 
care of a single isolated school room heated by a stove t 

Answers. — Nos. 1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 13, 20, 22, and 25 have no isolated school rooms. No. 
3, pay regulated by number of classes in a room ; for 3 classes or less, $8 per month ; 4 
classes, ^ ; 5 classes, $10, &c. ; Li) cents per month for each fire. No. 4, $4 per week. 
No. 6, |8 per month, |80 per annum. No. 8, flOO. No. 9, $5 per month (rent'Od rooms). 
Ko. 10, $6 per mouth, when Janitor does not live in the building. No. 11, |8.25 per 
month. No. 14, $50. No. 15, $15 per month. No. 10, $290 per annum. No. 17, $5 per 
month (10 months to the year). No. 18, $48 to $96; local committees fix salaries in 
their districts. No. 19. room of 50 scholars, 50 cents per week ; larger rooms, 75 ceuts ; 
and 50 cents for each nre. No. 21, $8 i)er month, $96 per annum. No. 2a, $10 per 
month, $120 per annum. No. 24, $29 to $50 per annum. Nos. 26 and 27, $48 per annum. 
No. 28, $1 per week, October 1 to May 1 ; 50 cents, May 1 to October 1. 

Question 2. — ^What amount is paid per month or per annum for Janitor's labor in 
the care of two or more school rooms heated by stoves f ' 

Answers. — No. 1, two .rooms, $65 per annum. No. 2, school buildings contain ten to 
twenty rooms each, salaries average $500 to $1,000. No. 3, ten rooms, $17.50 per month 
in winter; in summer, deduction of 50 cents for each stove. Not 4, less than eight 
rooms, $5 to $6 per week each. No. 5, ten rooms, $1.40 per diem, and living rooms ; 
twenty rooms, $2.05 per diem, and living rooms (furnish tnoir own materials). No. 6, 
trvo rooms, $160 per annimi ; four rooms, $416 ; eight rooms, $624. No. 7, twelve rooms, 
|40 per month, $480 per annum. No. 8, five rooms, ^)0 ; eight rooms, $550 ; ten rooms, 
$30U; twelve rooms, $650. Nos. 9 and 25, no rooms heated by stoves. No. 10, ten 
rooms, $40 i>er month, lodging, fiiel, and light. No. 11, two rooms, $10.50 per month. 
No. 12, three rooms, $15 per month ; five rooms, $25 ; six rooms, $30 ; eight rooms, $35 ; 
twenty-two rooms, $55. No. 13, two rooms, $180 per annum ; three rooms, $240 ; four 
rooujsj^ $300 ; five rooms, $360. No. 14, two rooms, C«90. No. 15, six to twelve rooms, 
$11 per month and lodging. No. 16, two rooms, $320 per annum. No. 17, $50 per 
month, $500 per annum, for twelve rooms. No. 18, two rooms, $108 per annum ; three 
romns, $120 to $300 ; four rooms, $140 and $240 ; six rooms, $240 and $iiOO; ten rooms, 
|4K>; twelve rooms, $720; seventeen rooms, with rent Csalaries in each district fixed 
by local committee). No. 19, 50 to 75 cents per week for each room, and 50 cents per 
week for each stove. No. 20, two or more rooms, $3 per month each. No. 21, two 
rooms, $8 jht month ; four rooms, $12 ; six rooms, $18 ; ten rooms, $30 ; fourteen rooms, 
|C5 to $40, twelve months to the year ; salaries varied by amount of sidewalk and 
height of building. No. 22, two rooms, $15 to $20 })er mouth ; four to six rooms, $30 ; 
eight rooms, $55 ; twelve rooms, $75 ; sixteen rooms, $1)5 ; eighteen rooms, $100. No. 
23, two rooms, $15 per month, $180 per annum ; buildings with number of rooms, $5 
per room. No. 24, two rooms, $132 ; three rooms, $212 ; five rooms, $230. No. 26, $36 
per annum for each room. No. 27, six rooms, stoves, $125 per annum. No. 28, 30 cents 
per week for each room, and 30 cents for each lire ; in large buildings, $1 per week 
•xa« for work about yards, ^bc 



LXVin REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Question 3. — ^What Amount is ipaid per month or per annum for janitor's labor 
(whether performed by one or moro than one pe]*8on) in the care of two or more school 
rooms (give number of rooms) at one place^ heated by hot air furnace f 

Answers. — No. 1, six rooms, $150 per annum ; twelve rooms, $250. Nos. 2, 5, and 15, 
no answer. No. 3, two female high schools, ^00 per annum each for cleaning, and 
$400 per annima each for fireman ; four other school buildings, each $20 per month for 
ilreman. No. 4, eight rooms, $50 per month ; twelve rooms, $70 per month. No. 6y 
two rooms, $1()0 per annum ; four rooms, $416 ; eight rooms, $024. Nos. 7 and 10, no 
furnaces. No. 8, eight roopis, $400 ; twelve rooms, $600. No. y, eight rooms, 2 fur- 
naces, $50 per month ; eight rooms, 4 furnaces, $50 per month, including rooms for 
Janitor ; twelve rooms, 8 fiimaces, $75 per month, including rooms, fuel, and gas. Nos. 
11, 12, 13j 21, and 28, no hot air furnaces. No. 14, four rooms, $200 ; seven rooms, 
$300; eight rooms, $350; twelve rooms, $550. No. 16, six rooms, 2 furnaces, $720 per 
annum, and living rooms ; eleven rooms, 2 furnaces, $780, and living rooms ; twenty- 
one rooms, 7 furnaces, $1,050, and living rooms. No. 17, nine rooms, @45per mon]^ 
for cleaning ( 10 months to the year), arid $40 per month for fireman during cold weather. 
No. 18, six rooms, $300 and rent ; eight rooms, $600 to $700 ; ten rooms, $480 and $720 : 
twelve rooms, $750 : seventeen rooms, $G20, rent and fuel (salaries regulated by local 
committees). No. 19, twelve rooms, 4 furnaces, $10 per week. No. 20, twelve rooms, 
$50 per month, rooms and fuel. No. 22, four rooms, $30 per month ; eight rooms, $50; 
twelve rooms, $75 ; fourt-een rooms, $81.25. No. 23, two rooms, $15 per mouth, $180 
per annum ; buD dings w ith number of rooms, $5 jier room. Na 24, four rooms, $220 
per annum ; seven rooms, $550. No. 25^ two rooms, $150 per annum ; four rooms, $160; 
ten rooms, $210 per annum ; free academy, eight rooms, $400. No. 26, four rooms, $300 
per annum. No. 27, six rooms, $125 per annum ; eight rooms, $150. 

Question 4. — What amount is paid per month or per annum for janitor's labor 
(whether performed by one or more than one person) in the care of two or more rooms 
(give number of rooms) at one place, heated by steam t 

Answers. — No. 1, fifteen rooms and auditorium, $45 per month for steam apparatus 
and $15 per month for cleaning (annual cleaning extra). Nos. 2, 5, and 9, no answer. 
No. 3, Baltimore City College, $900, and living rooms. No. 4, sixteen rooms, $85 per 
month ; over sixteen rooms, $85 to $135, accordinf^ to character of apparatus. No. 6, 
two rooms, $160 per annum ; four rooms, $416 ; eight rooms, $624. Kos. 7, 11, 12, 15. 
16, 17, 20, 23, 27, no steam. No. 8, twelve rooms, $600. No. 10, thirteen rooms, $600 

er annum, with rooms, fuel, and light. No. 13, ten to fourteen rooms, $45 per month ; 

arger buildings, $50 (12 months to the year). No. 14, twelve rooms, $550. No. 18, 
eight rooms, $S)0, rent, fuel, and light ; twenty rooms, $1,200, and rent. No. 19, large 
building, $14 per week. No. 21, seventeen rooms, 2 boilers, $75 per month, $900 per 
annum. No. 22, t«n to twelve rooms, $50 to $60 per month. No. 24, nine rooms, office 
and hall, $600; thirteen rooms, $625 ; high school, nineteen rooms, large assembly hall, 
and 2 basements, $900. No. 25, twenty- three rooms, $450 per annum. No. W, six 
rooms, $444; eight rooms, 2 boilers, $1,000, rooms, fuel, and light; ten rooms, 1 boiler, 
$800, rooms, fuel, and li^ht ; sixteen rooms, 2 boilers, $1,300, rooms, fuel, and light ; 
twenty rooms, sama as sixteen ; (in addition to the school rooms, each janitor has the 
care of 1 to 4 play rooms, teachers' rooms, offices, and halls). No. 28, seventeen rooms, 
fi buildings, $1,000 per annum. 

Question 5. — In case janitor's rooms (for himself and family) are provided by the 
public authorities in any school building (or an>n?rhere), make a separate note of the 
fact, and state how much the rent of the same is estimated at. 

AuFwers.— Nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, 19, 23, 24, 27, and 28, none provided. Nos. 2, 21, 
22, and 25, no answer. No. 3, only in Baltimore City College, about $300. Nos. 5 and 
20, janitor's rooms are provided, but no estimate of the rent is given. Nos. 9 and 12, 
$10 per month. No. 10, $400, including fuel and light. No. 11, janitor's rooms in large 
buildings (12 to 14 rooms), no estimate of rent. No. 15, rooms for porteresses, $5 per 
month. No. 16, janitor's rooms in three school buildings, rcfht estimated reaiiectively 
at $120, $150, and $240. No. 18, janitor's rooms provided in some cases, but no estimate 
of rent. No. 26, $150 i>er annum. 

Question 6. — Has any reduction of the pay of janitors been made during the past 
twelve months, or is any contemplated f 

Answers.— Nos.. 1. 3, 4, 6, 7, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 25, 26, and 27, none. 
Hos. 2, 5. 18, 21, ana 22, no answer. No. 13, no change of salaries in ten years ; none 
contemplated. No. 19, reduction has been proposed, but it is doubtful if any will be 
made. No. 23, salaries have been equalized, wnich has made a reduction in the whole 
of about 3.8 per cent. No. 24, a slight reduction is probable. No. 28, in February, 
1875, the pay of janitors was equalized, but neither rais^t^d nor lowered oa the vrhole. 



If 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



LXIX 



TABLE in.— NOBMAL SCHOOLS. 

The following is a comparative summary of normal schools, instmctors, and pupils 
reported to the Bureau for the years 1870 to 1677, inclusive : 



Number 04 InstituUonB 
Komber of instructors. 
Kumber of students ... 



1870. 



53 

178 

10,028 



187L 



66 

445 

10,022 



1872. 



98 

773 

11,778 



1873. 



118 

887 

16,620 



1874. 



124 

966 

24,405 



1875. 



137 

1,031 

29,105 



1876. 



151 

1,065 

83,921 



isn. 



152 

1,189 

37,082 



Table III. — Summary of statiaticB of normal 9chooU, 









Number of normal scliools supported by- 


- 








Statei 


County. 


City. 


Al) other agend^ 


States. 



^ ! 


a is 


Nnmber of 
students, a 


II 


■Si 

If 

^ 1 


Mi 

M g 

8 'C 




it 

a a 


il 


11 


If 

8 

1 
1 






Abibttnufc , 


b2 

2 

1 
1 


7 

14 

12 

8 


174 

96 

523 

127 










16 
8 


171 


ArkansM 














35 


CatifbmiA 












.«••.. 


4 


ConTKy^<mt r t » - 
















Delaware 














2 
2 

4 
2 
2 

• 


17 

7 

21 

5 


238 


Georsia 


1 
2 
1 

1 
d2 


25 
8 

4 
12 


130 
744 
282 
139 
589 














82 


Hljbioia 


2 

1 


14 
4 


279 
75 


1 
el 

1 


5 130 
20 2,555 
11 ' 120 


209 


Indiana 


280 


Iowa - 


56 


Kansas 












%rv 


KentnckT 








1 


8 


...... 

...... 

45 


4 
2 


20 
12 


...... 

287 
















45 




4 
2 
6 
1 
8 
2 
5 
1 
1 
1 
8 
2 


24 

15 

60 

18 

27 

11 

40 

8 

5 

11 

112 

22 


596 
820 

1,172 
866 
616 
195 

1,368 

885 

97 

261 

2,825 
224 
















If ArTl«n<1 














1 

i 


4 
6 


30 


ViumarhiisHtA 








1 


9 


8d 


23 












ShmesotA 




















Xisrissippi 




















~ ~~iM ............ 

HTItiKWirl 








2 


16 


410 


3 


17 


74 


If ebraaka 










Xew IIampsbb« 




















Hew Jersey 












ITewTork 








1 


35 


1,566 


5 

10 

2 


• • • • 

17 

68 

8 

• 




Xortb Carolina 








224 


Ohio 








4 
1 


20 176 

27 II Mf 


2,0^5 
134 


Pomaylvsnia 


10 
1 


125 
12 


2,264 
143 









Rhode laland 












SootS Carolina 














1 
7 


9 
88 


87 


Tennessee 


<tl 
8 

1 
6 

4 


6 
24 

14 
28 
47 


84 

850 

274 

432 

1,021 










■ 




667 


VeTBMmt 
















Vfrrinii. , . , 


I 


12 


97 


1 


6 


13S 




. 


", 


West Virginia 


1 
1 
2 

1 


6 
6 
5 
8 


136 


Wisconsin 














50 


THKtnct of Columbia. . . 








1 


8 


30 


23 


Utah 














47 












80 










Total 


75 


695 


15,747 


i 


451 


15 


100 :A .VM 


58 


304 


5,067 






—1 —-■■.• 



a This summary contains tbe strictly ncrmcU stuflents only, as fiir as reported ; for total number of 
stndenta, see the following summary. 6 One of these receives aid fh>m the county also. Sup- 
ported by city and county. dNo appropriations for the last year. 



LXX BEPOBT OF THS COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table Ul.— Summary of $taUi 



StetM. 



Alahftm^ 

Arkanaas 

<;^aiforaia 

OnuMoticot 

Belawaire 

Qeorgia 

Slinoia 

Indiana 

Iowa 

TTaniiaa 

Kentaoky 

liOoisiana 

Haine 

Maryland 

Haaaachosetta 

Michigan 

Minneaota 

Miaaiadppi 

Miaaonri 

ITebraaka 

If ew Hampahire 

New Jeraey 

IfewTork 

ITorth Carolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode laland 

South Carolina 

Tenneaaee 

'Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wiaoonain 

Biatriot of Colnmbia 
Utah 

Total 






H 

o 



I 



5 
8 

1 
2 
8 
9 
5 
4 
2 
6 
2 
4 
8 
8 
1 
8 
2 
10 
1 
1 
1 



7 
14 
13 
1 
1 
8 
3 
8 
7 
5 
8 
1 



162 



I 

o 

I 



23 

17 
12 

8 
17 

7 

65 
51 
20 
12 
28 
12 
24 
19 
74 
13 
27 
U 
78 

8 

5 
U 

147 

89 

' 86 

160 

12 



46 

24 

82 

83 

58 

8 

8 



1.189 



Number of atndenta. 



I Gradnatea 

I the laat ye 



o 
H 



691 
528 
605 
127 
288 
255 

1,952 

8,538 
409 
605 
473 
a337 
696 
431 

1,283 
631 
899 
195 

2,162 
835 
142 
261 

6,964 

848 

<;2,799 

c4,982 

143 

816 

1,280 

408 

714 

888 

1,880 

121 

47 



87,082 



Number of nor- 
mal atudenta. 



. 



Number of otbex 
atudenta. 






169 

68 

64 

14 

172 

95 

660 

1,925 

130 

259 

151 



{ 



188 

77 

150 

156 

2a 

180 
856 

168 

14 

54 

6(852) 
652 

266 

1,883 

1,868 

12 

42 
880 
141 
271 
805 
491 

U 

28 



£ 



176 

63 
468 
113 

66 
117 
801 
1,267 
185 
830 
181 

45 
408 
273 
1,188 
210 
872 

65 



177 
83 

207 

8.007 

182 

878 

2,267 

181 

45 

861 

209 

289 

263 

580 

82 

19 



{ 



6(852) 
10,969 1 16^944 



^ 



206 

245 

12 





24 
284 
207 
55 
10 
79 



67 



126 

129 



160 



I 



28 



200 
141 
812 



104 

286 

80 

90 

186 

891 

4^ 



140 

152 

66 





19 
207 
139 

89 
6 

62 

60 



24 



140 

154 



150 



17 



6(1.068) 
239 256 



200 
157 
646 



124 
254 

28 
114 
134 
418 

86 



6(1, 068) 
3,641 I 8,782 



I 



i 

R 

I 



} 



4 
14 
81 
86 

4 

4 
122 
60 
10 
18 
39 
82 
70 
46 
840 
77 
80 


198 

9 
48 
87 

492 

6 

221 

360 

21 

22 

86 

100 

75 

86 

47 

26 



2,763 



a C l a aaifl oa t ion of 242 not reported. 6 Sex of theao not reported, tflndudea a number not olawU 



NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



LXIU 



«/ noHMl acJi4>oU — Continued. 



TofaiiD«a in libra 
lies. 




2.335 

730 

1,075 

1,200 

650 



7,443 
6^200 
2,150 

440 
2,150 

270 
1.850 



500 
14.150 
1,125 
2,772 
2,540 
3,503 

285 



143,141 



106 



1,245 

500 

50 



500 

205 
25 




525 

23 
105 

30 
281 

25 



8,400 



2.775 


25 


13,892 


220 


1,000 


70 


1,050 


420 


250 


30 


14,223 


1,407 


1,800 


600 




12 


500 


5.818 


846 


23,080 




13,720 


420 


10t43U 


1,213 


1,023 


25 



2 




3 


2 


2 




1 




1 




1 




7 




5 




4 




2 




2 





1 

4 
2 
7 
1 
8 
1 

I 
1 
1 



119 



LXXII BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIOinSB OF EDUCATION, 

Table III. — Appropriatiana for normml MikooU. 



Name of aohooL 



State Normal School^ Florence, Ala 

Lincoln ^Normal ITnivoraity, Marion, Ala 

Normal department of Arkansas Industrial University, I^yetterille, Ark 

Branch Normal College, Arkansas Industrial University, Pine Bluf^ Ark 

California State Normal School, San Jos6, Cal 

Connecticut State Normal School, New Britain, Conn 

Southern Illinois Normal University, Carbondale, Bl 

Cook County Normal and Training School, Bnglewood, lU «.» 

Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111 

Peoria County Normal School, Peoria, 111 

Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind 

JTorthcm Indiana Normal School and Business Institute, Ta^iaiaiao, Ind 

Iowa State Normal School, Cedar Falls, Iowa «. 

Eastern Iowa Normal School, Grandview, Iowa 

Eastern State Normal School, Castine, Maine. 

Western State Normal School, Farmington, Maine 

Normal department of Maine Central Institute, Pitt^eld, Maine 

Baltimore Normal School for the Education of Colored Teachem, Baltimore, Md. . 

Maryland State Normal School, Baltimore, Md 

Massachusetts Normal Art School, Boston, Mass 

State Normal School, Framingham, Mass 

State Normal School, Salem, Mass 

ITestfleld SUte Normal School, Westfleld, Mass 

Massachusetts State Normal School, Worcester, Mass 

Michigan State Normal School, YpsHanti, Mich • ^ 

* Bute Normal School at Mankato, Mankato, Minn 4... 

State Nonnal School at St Cloud, St 'Cloud, Minn 

State Normal School at Winona, Winona, Mbm 

Mississippi State Normal School, Holly Springs, Miss 

Tougaloo University and Normal School, Tongaloo, Miss 

Southeast Missouri Normal School, Cape Girardeau, Mo 

College of Normal Instruction, Columbia, Mo 

Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Mo 

North Missouri State Normal School, Kirksville, Mo 

Northwest Normal School, Oregon, Mo 

Nebraska State Normal School, Peru, Nebr 

New Hampshire State Normal School, Plymouth, N.H 

New Jersey Stato Normal and Model School, Trenton, N. J 

New York State Normal School, Albany, N. T 

State Normal School, Brookport, N. Y 

State Normal School, Buflklo, N. Y 

State Normal and Training School, Cortland, N. Y 

a Exclusive of appropriations for pemument ol^Jeots. 

b Also $4,000 county appropriation. 

c County appropriation. 

d City appropriation ; also $10,000 county appropriatloii. 

a City appropriation. 

/ Includes $30,000 for new building. 

g Also $775 city appropriation. 




$5,000 00 

64,000 00 

10,000 00 

1,600 00 

25.000 00 

12,000 00 

15,000 00 

012,000 00 

24.700 00 

e5,a00 00 

17,000 00 

dl2,000 00 

7,500 00 

el, 400 00 

8,600 00 

7,500 00 

000 00 

2,000 00 

10,500 00 

11,000 00 

12,000 00 

IS, 900 00 

13.000 00 

18.000 00 

/47, 000 00 

•,000 00 

9,000 00 

12.000 00 

8,000 00 

2,500 00 

7,500 00 

13,000 00 

5,000 00 

10,000 00 

«1,500 00 

10,000 00 

^,000 00 

20,000 00 

18,000 00 

28.000 00 

18,000 00 

18; 000 00 



NORMAL 8CHOOL8. 



LXXIir 



Table Tn.'—AppropriaHoM for mtmil gekooU — Continued. 



•faolMwL 



Stete Noniml SeHool, G«iie8eo, "S.Y ^ 

Feniile Korriiftl College, K^wTork, K.T 

Oiwei^ State Koimfll and TiBlnfaig School, 08Wego,X. Y 

State NofrmM and Trsiniiig School, Potadam, "S.Y 

Nocmal department of the UniTeraity of North Candina, Chopel Hfll, K. C. 

State Colored Nonnal School, Fayetteville, N. C 

CineiiiBaii Normal School, Cinduiati, Ohio 

Sandusky Training School, Saodnaky, Ohio 

Pennaylvania State Normal School, aixth diatrict, Bloomaburg, Pa 

Sooth weatem Normal College, California, Pa 

Xinthweatem State Normal School, Edinboro', Pa 

State Normal School at Indiana, Indiana, Pa 

Central Stale Normal School, Lock Haven, ^a 

PennsylvaniA State Normal School, fifth diatrict, Manafleld, Pa 

Pnmaylvanla State Normal School, aecond diatrict, MillersviUe, Pa 

Philadelpliia Normal School for Giria, Philadelphia, Pa 

Cmnberland Yalley State Normal School, Shippenabnrg, Pa..l 

Weat Chester State Normal School, West Cheater, Pa 

Rhode labmd State Normal School, ProTldenee, RI 

?reedme<n*a Nortoal Inatitnte. Maryrille, Tenn 

CasUeton State Normal School, Caatleton, Yt 

Johnaon State Normal School, Johnson, Yt 

State Normal School, Bandolph, Yt 

YaDey Normal School, Bridgewater, Ya 

Concord State Normal School, Concord Church, W. Ya 

Fainnont State Normal School, Fairmont, W. Ya 

State Normal School at Glenville, Glenville, W.Ya 

Kamhall College State Normal School, Huntington, W.Ya 

Shepherd College, Shepherdatown, W.Ya 

Weat Liberty State Normal School, Weat Liberty, W.Ya 

(khkoah State Normal School, Oahkoah, Wia 

Wiaconain State iTormal School, Plattevillc, Wis 

SiTer Falls State Normal School, River Falla, Wia 

State Norteal Sehool, Whitewater < Wia 

Waahlngton Normal School, Washington, D. C 

Konnal department of the Univeraity of Deseret, Salt Lake City, Utah 




tit. 000 00 


MO,ODO 00 


18,000 00 


17.886 00 


2,000 00 


2,000 00 


60.085 00 


bOOO 00 


10,000 00 


25,000 00 


10,000 00 


3,005 00 


10,000 00 


020,000 00 


8,500 00 


533,743 00 


80,000 00 


11, 132 00 


13,800 OO 


4173 00 


1,118 00 


2,872 00 


2,044 00 


«1,000 00 


2,000 00 


2,000 00 


850 00 


2,000 00 


2,000 00 


2,000 00 


13, 021 00 


17,118 00 


18,002 00 


21,000 OO 


52,000 00 


2,000 00 



$58 00 



37 27 

21 00 

8 51 

20 00 



15 00 
12 05 



21 00 
87 41 



19 70 
11 90 



18 50 
10 00 
20 00 

19 00 



24 58 



80 40 
31 00 



a Excluaire of appropriationa for permanent ol^eeta. 

h City aypruprhilion. 

c Provided the achool raiaea $4^000. 

<i County approprii^ion. 

•Coonly appropriation, including $400 from Peabody ftmd. 



LXXIV REPORT OF THE OOMBilSSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

PROFESSORSHIPS OF DIDACTICS OR PEDAGOGICS. 

The Bcience and art of teaching la sorely a snbject bo important that it maj well be 
included in the cnnicula of our nniversities and colleges. The State UniTersity of 
Iowa established a chair of didactics in 1873^ made it an elective snbject for the senior 
year^ and gives the degree of bachelor of didactics to snch of its graduates as have 
taught two years after receiving this instruction. The example seems worthy of im- 
itation J 

The attempt to establish chairs of didactics has been embarrassed by the historic 
customs of our older colleges. They largely retain the ideas and methods which were 
brought by the colonists from the mother country, and contemplate the education of 
a comparatively small number of persons, and this after their minds are measurably 
mature. Their methods are poorly adapted to instruct immature minds, have been 
totally abandoned in all intelligent elementary training, and have been modified in 
secondary instruction. 

Naturally the learned men at the head of our colleges were considered the leaders 
in our educational affairs. Often they stood aloof from the elemcntarj' school and 
usually made no effort to modify their own methods for its use. Teaching many other 
sciences, they omitted the philosophy of education from their curriculum, sometimes, 
indeed, acting as though there were no such subject in the domain of thought. It 
has been the same spirit, but not carried to the same extent, which has contended 
against the teaching of the natural sciences. 

It is this lack of a really comprehensive philosophy of culture, which should include 
man in all his conditions and relations, that has permitted if not promoted foolish 
prejudices between institutions df learning founded on a religious and a civic busiii 
respectively, and between those founded by the several religions denominations. 

A partial cure for this condition has been found in the various college associations 
which have been founded from time to time. These cannot be conducted with any 
marked interest and vigor without making our colleges better acquainted and more 
sjrmpathetic with each other and causing them to assume a better relation to all other 
phases of instruction. 

It is not too much to hope that another result will be a more careful consideration 
of the philosophy of education and adequate provision for the sound and thorough 
teaching of it. 

Many institutions whose students defray a large part of their expenses before grad- 
uation by teaching do not give au hour's instruction in this subject nor make any 
effort to secure pedagogical works for their libraries. 

In striking contrast with this apathy is the treatment of the philosophy of education 
by the German imiversities. In the following German universities pedagogy is taught 
by means of lectures for the time stated : 

iProf. S. N. Fellows has recently pnbliahed two articles on this snbject in the Educational Weekly, 
Chicago, in which he briefly recapitulates as follows the reasons for establishing chairs of didactics in 
colleges and universities: 

. 1. It will greatly assist the graduates who, from their superior culture, will occupy chief placet 
and become teachers of teachers. 

2. A reflex benefit will accrue to the colleges themselves, in the greater success of their graduates 
and in improved methods of their own work. 

8. Professional educational literature will be improved. 

4. The development of a true science of education will be promoted. 

5. It will be a deserved recognition by the highest educational authorities of the value and need of 
professional training fur teachers of every grade. 

0. Teaching will more Justly merit the title of a profession. 

7. Higher institutions will become more closely united with our public school system. 

8. It will increase and widen the knowledge of the ends and means of education among those who^ 
though not teachers, will hold high oflicial and social positions. 



BUSINESS COLLEGES. 



LXXV 



Hours a 
week. 



Berlin 

Bonn 

Brealau .... 
Erlangen.. 
Freiborg .. 
Gieasen.... 
Gottingen . 
Greifawald 

HaUe 

Heidelberg 



6 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
5 



Hours a 
week. 



Jena 

Kiel 

Leipzig..., 
Milnater ... 
Tiibingeu., 
Wtirzburg 

Vienna 

Berne ..... 

Basal 

Ziirich ... 



6 
3 
8 
4 
3 
4 
6 
2 
2 
2 



At Jena the subjects of the lectures are: History of education, scientific principles of 
educating the child, school discipline, methods of instruction, school hygiene, school 
legislation, school architecture, ancient and modem languages, comparative philology, 
logic, metaphysics. 

There are in Germany, besides the ordinary seminaries for the training of elementary 
teachers, several advanced pedagogic seminaries, whose object is to give the students 
an opportunity to acquire a more profound scientific knowledge in their specialties 
before they enter upon their professional duties. These purely scientific institutions 
ftre attended only by students and graduates of universities who aspire to the higher 
positions in the secondary and superior schools. In some of these seminaries great 
Btreas is laid on philology, in others on the philosojihy of education. There are at 
present 4 of these higher seminaries at Berlin, 1 at Breslau, 1 at Gottingen, 1 at Bonn, 
1 at Magdeburg, 1 at Konigsberg, and 1 at Stettin. 

TABLE IV. — COBCMERCIAL AND BUSINESS COLLEGES. 

The following is a comparative exhibit of colleges for business training, as reported 
to this Bureau from 1870 to 1877, inclusive : 



1877. 



Koxnber of institutions 
Kmnber of instructors. 
Knmber of studefits . .. 



1870. 


isn. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1870. 


20 


eo 


63 


112 


120 


181 


137 


IM 


168 


268 


514 


677 


604 


609 


5.824 


6,4eo 


8,451 


22,807 


26.892 


20,109 


25.284 



134 

668 

23,400 



It will be remarked that the commercial and business colleges of the conntry have 
10 far decreased as to be almost in the position they occupied in 1873. 



LXXVl BEPOBT OF THE C0MMI8SI0NEB OP EDUCATION. 

Table IY. — Summary of siaUgUcf of oommleroial and Jnuinesa coUegm, 



Stetes. 



CaUfbmift 

Qeorgia 

UlinoU 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Lonisiana 

Kaine 

Maryland • 

Massachnsetta 

Kichigan :. 

Hinneaota..... 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio -.... 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Tennessee 

Texas .• 

Virginia... :.... 

WcstVfrginia ..... 

Wisconsin... 

District of Colombia 

Total ...• 



4 

2 
13 
7 
9 
I 
2 
2 
2 
1 
4 
9 
2 
1 
6 
1 
1 
8 

21 
1 

12 
12 
8 
2 
1 
1 
8 
8 
1 



134 



Number of students. 



31 

4 

71 

33 

36 

1 

5 

13 

5 

7 

22 

24 

7 

10 

29 

2 

2 

20 

90 

1 

36 

49 

19 

7 

2 

1 

8 

81 

2 



568 



§ •^^ i 

fi O o 

a-S ^ e 

H 



676 

213 

2,848 

1,425 

1,705 

53 

529 

318 

378 

341 

518 

1,114 

318 

130 

1,121 

60 

100 

385 

4,105 

12 

1,985 

i;992 

680 

283 

56 

64 

204 

1,753 

135" 



23,496 



s 

I 



610 

213 

i335 

1,075 

1,070 

35 

447 

265 

318 

256 

843 

832 

260 

130 

1,031 

30 

65 

296 

3.161 

12 

1,596 

1,400 

558 

210 

29 

89 

141 

1,419 

70 



18,055 



t 

I 

9 



66 



613 

408 

548 

18 

82 

53 

60 

85 

76 

353 

128 



90 

30 

75 

89 

1,150 



562 

182 

122 

73 

27 

25 

63 

407 

65 



5,450 



.s 

o 



a 



154 

400 

16,100 

al3,020 

270 



1,050 



6,870 

162 

1,500 

17.813 



700 
3,355 



1,000 
469 
125 



520 
1,425 



64,933 



o > 



7! 



2( 



1( 
H 



1( 



h« 



a Of these, 13,000 volumes are in the library of the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. 

TABLE Y. — KINDEROXRTEN. 

The following is a comparative summary of Kiudergarten, instructors, and pupi! 
reported to the Bureau from 1873 to 1877, inclusive : 



• 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


TTlSinb^T of llMtitntiODV ^rrr, r 


42 

73 

1,252 


55 

125 

1,636 


95 

216 

2,809 


130 

864 

4,090 


U 




3] 


Number of nunils ........t. ........ 


8.9C 







KIKDJEJiO^BTEN — SECOIirDA&T INSTRUCTION. 



LZXVII 



Table X.— Summary of staHatict of Kindergarten, 
^ 



Stote^ 



CalifomiA 

Colorado 

Conaecticiit 

Geoigi* 

nUnois 

Tiyli^ff^ 

low* 

Ktntacky 

Mtine 

ILvyland 

KMMchiisetts 

Micbtlgaii 

Minnesota 

MiMoari 

New HAmp«hire 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

PeonsjlTani* 

Bonth CaroUiui 

Wisconsin 

Diitrict of Colnmbia 

TotsL 



Number of 
schools. 



8 



3 
2 
4 

12 
8 
8 

20 
2 

14 

22 
6 

12 
1 
6 
5 



129 



Number of 
teachers. 



8 
2 
5 
1 

13 

5 

6 

7 

2 

10 

22 

4 

9 

105 

4 

24 

60 

9 

22 

2 

17 

15 



836 



Number of 
pupils. 



82 

22 

80 

7 

141 
80 
40 
82 
80 
48 

195 

00 

70 

1,145 

80 

451 

682 
89 

207 
24 

291 

186 



8,931 



The introdaction of the Kindergarten into schools for orphans^ and those schools 
Mtabliahed among the poor and distressed in our cities, is attended with excellent re- 
Bolts. Mrs. Horace Mann writes that 'Hhe charity Kindergarten are doing a beanti- 
fill work in Cambridge, Mass. One of these Kindergarten is supported by the city of 
Cambridge and the other three by a lady who does not wish to have her name pnb- 
liuhed." The success of the Kindergarten is much lessened through lack of favorable 
conditions. But important progress has nevertheless been made ( 1 ) in training teachers 
to instruct in true Kindergarten methods; (2) in giving to school officers and the public 
generally a correct idea of what these methods are ; and (3) in bringing a supply of 
Kindergarten appliances within the reach of those who desire to procure them. It is 
indeed true that a few thousand only of the many of proper age for this training are 
u yet reported in attendance upon Kindergarten ; but the zealous, self-sacrificing 
advocates of these improvements have the satisfaction of knowing that their efforts 
have been rewarded by a more earnest study among parents and teachers of what 
methods are most fit in the first years of infantile training. They thus benefit tens ol 
thousanda who never enter one of these interesting institutions ; and their efforts, 
also, in not a few cases, have had a most wholesome effect upon the methods adopted 
in more advanced courses of training. 

TABLK VI. — SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

The folio wii^ is a comparative summary of the number of institutions for secondary 
instruction making returns from 1871 to 1877, inclusive : 



IComber of institationf . 
Kamber of instructors. . 
Camber of stadents.... 



1870. 



187L 



638 

8,171 

80,227 



1872. 



811 

4,501 

06,929 



1878. 



944 

6^058 

118,070 



1874. 



1,031 

6^466 

96,179 



187S. 



1,143 

6,081 

108,235 



1876L 



1,229 
6,909 
106»647 



1877. 



1,226 

5,968 

96,871 



LXXVin BEPORT OF THE COliMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



\ 



Table Y1.— Summary ofBtaiisHes of 



Stet«8 And Territories. 



AlAbem* 

Arkansas «... 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Belawaie 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Lou iwiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire .... 

!New Jersey , 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio...; 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

"We^t Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

District of Columbia 

Indian Territory 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Total 



i 

8 



I 



7 

8 

25 

2 

53 

13 

7 

105 

24 

17 

39 

4 

58 

10 

25 

38 

54 

7 

15 

11 

17 

1 

87 

45 

217 

83 

44 

15 

93 

8 

9 

63 

14 

30 

26 



16 
25 
1 
2 
8 
1 



1,226 



Instructors. 



Male. 



23 

8 
80 

2 
89 
29 

7 

128 

54 

525 

65 

4 
96 
27 
48 
105 
98 
19 
27 
)5 
49 

2 

64 

112 

583 

45 

95 

22 

256 

15 

18 

96 

31 

57 

51 

5 
40 
34 

2 



14 
1 



Female. 



Number of students. 



8 

6 

126 

14 
126 

19 

32 

85 
129 

46 

91 

21 
162 

33 

50 

87 

145 

9 

49 

21 

47 
6 

57 
127 
783 

52 
167 

40 i 
332 

29 

22 
104 

83 

76 

51 

19 

91 

83 
1 

12 

82 
4 



Total. 



a670 

205 

3,660 

181 

a2,047 

608 

854 

05,849 

2,852 

2,350 

03,908 

208 

04,422 

904 

2,331 

2,574 

2,814 

579 

1,297 

709 

1,400 

85 

2.968 

2,764 

ol9, 538 

o2,181 

04.130 

1,451 

6.926 

311 

ol, 074 

o5, 378 

1,331 

2,994 

1,366 

710 

ol,827 

1,048 

60 

252 

1,486 

60 



Male. 



278 
100 

1,587 

1 

932 

880 

233 

3,384 
796 
981 

1,777 
53 

1,913 
588 

1,229 

1,439 

1,162 
281 
648 
297 
713 



1,567 

1,430 
10, 153 

1,141 

1,836 
662 

4,161 
132 
337 

2,763 
730 

1,444 
751 
200 
612 
352 
60 
27 
803 



Female. 



156 

105 

2,073 

180 

1,085 

228 

621 

2,385 

2,056 

1,369 

2,006 

155 

2,409 

316 

1,102 

1,135 

1,652 

298 

649 

412 

687 

85 

1,401 

1,334 

9,240 

1,040 

2,178 

789 

2,765 

179 

460 

2,555 

601 

1,550 

615 

420 

1,168 

696 



225 

683 

60 



i 
•i 

i 

a 



844 

175 

2,680 

30 

1,377 

406 

621 
8,926 
1.618 

759 
2,006 

168 
3,178 

816 
1,305 
2,115 
1,608 

235 

932 

603 

915 
85 
2,134 
1,526 
12,653 
1,869 
1,980 

921 

4,303 

70 

575 
4,477 

902 
2,011 
1,029 

556 
1,075 

821 

60 

37 

1,074 



8 
1 

I 






90 


50 


80 


5 


860 


1,004 


2 


46 


564 


. 455 


192 


61 


115 


39 


1,211 


105 


407 


500 


124 


45 


446 


453 


60 


4 


826 


509 


46 


426 


476 


201 


581 


1,187 


509 


716 


16 


22 


143 


169 


147 


81 


185 


233 


7 


15 


568 


204 


533 


480 


3,424 


8,867 


454 


164 


577 


392 


119 


124 


1,452 


1,209 


103 


88 


100 


18 


002 


251 


93 


283 


634 


322 


362 


277 


39 


445 


196 


510 


162 


261 


3 






77 



7 
3 



62,536 3,427 I a98,371 i 48,023 I 49,123 I 63,975 16»285 



15.294 



a Sex not reported in all caaes. . 5 Sex of three not reported. 



SECONDARY INSTBUCTION. 



LXXIX 



kiHMUmifor 9eoondarif itutrudian. 



"Snmher of stadents. 



1 
1 



- c 

h a 

c 

b 



34 
8 

107 
2 

160 
84 
49 

484 
82 
20 

209 



25 
20 



a 

■*» 

g . 

b S 

« O 

ft. «- 
« 



23 



4 

10 

114 



45 
39 
25 

212 
55 
38 

112 



I 



•a 

c a 



«« o 



11 



118 



23 
18 

6 

115 

60 

8 
78 



11 
12 



11 

103 

1 



6^000 2.611 2,124 



I 

n 

si 

s i 



8 

2 

17 



8 
8 
10 
29 
5 
5 
2 



83 
4 

27 

6 

14 



4 

31 

240 

11 

13 



50 
2 
6 

48 
2 

4 



049 



I 

I! 

o 



I 



1 

1 
23 

2 
33 
10 

4 
21 
18 

8 
19 

4 
22 

G 
13 
23 
39 

5 
11 

2 

9 

1 

10 
32 
161 
11 
18 

7 
72 

5 

4 
17 

5 
18 

9 

2 
10 
15 



1 




?** 


► J 


a M 


a^ 


1^ 


i| 


of scb 
rnnsic 


^3 


»4 


^' E 


il 


•*! 


1 


i- 


^ 


^ 


3 


2 


1 


2 


23 


20 


2 


2 


35 


88 


10 


9 


4 

1 


4 



, ' 



41 
21 

9 
23 

8 
88 

8 
12 
19 
27 

5 
13 

7 
18 

1 

14 
29 
185 
18 
29 
13 
53 

4 

7 
39 
10 
10 
14 

o 
13 
11 



1 
3 
1 



2 

8 
1 



51 
21 

7 
23 

8 
43 

8 
18 
18 
27 

8 
12 

7 
13 

1 

19 
81 
148 
15 
81 
12 
55 

3 

6 
39 
10 
25 
13 

4 
12 
14 



2 
4 
1 



Libraries. 



682 742 I 776 



I 



I 



4,730 



IP| Vlw 

1,340 

18,895 

2,400 

2,407 

5, SCO 

9,850 

6,191 

7.826 

740 

21.490 

2.865 

8,495 

81,725 

28,472 

1,610 

8,043 

1,215 

8,240 

2,000 

13,990 

15,745 

124,136 

10,949 

22,300 

4,479 

55, 202 

7,210 

2,050 

13, 8;;2 

4.200 
13,008 
11,350 

1,000 
12, 565 

2,100 
300 



1,806 
100 

499,871 



130 



811 

256 

483 

320 

305 

1,333 

075 

37 

1,018 
2 

1,134 

220 

208 

283 

662 

34 

616 

172 

100 

20 

227 

419 

14,431 

596 

980 

194 

2,131 

353 

224 

468 

575 

487 

20 

20 

50 

55 



Property, income, dtc. 



383 
50 



174,000 

12,500 
802,000 
120,000 
716,000 
112,000 

40,000 
301, 100 
058,000 
194,000 
313,600 

90.500 
534,850 

62,000 
815,000 
666,200 
934,082 
112,000 
267,500 

70,600 
230,200 

25,000 
312,400 
682,000 
4,085,188 
229.400 
609,900 
155,200 
4,538.800 
829.000 
104.250 
430,342 
146,500 
375, 000 
179, COO 

50,000 
276, 000 

26,500 



117,500 



a 



I 



$48,000 
7,000 
150 
32,000 
85.000 
51,500 
49,200 



14, C75 

1,000 

118, 342 

723,000 

572,352 

6,370 

13,500 



126 



198,297 

49,000 

485,903 

8,000 

98,550 

8,200 

123,000 

130,000 



18,000 



148,500 
0,700 



13,600 



1 



1 

Pi 
ii 



9 

B 

o 
e 

(4 



13,625 
410 
150 
2,050 
2,800 
6,050 
8,820 



8,450 

1,300 

4,614 

48,940 

86,396 

620 

1,350 



12 



11,857 

4,630 

29,270 

600 

7,100 

4,000 

0608,230 

8,700 



1,500 



8,020 
5,480 



855 



7,300 1,540 



I 

J § 

ll 



17,400 

1.200 
92,132 
10,000 
98,837 
12,681 

8,720 
91,001 
71,447 
16,247 
28,152 

5,600 
95,065 

8,600 
15,906 
78,300 
93,248 

7,932 
83,780 
13.226 
60,800 

8,000 
28,158 
95.601 
645,938 
26,677 
61, 676 
16,770 
217, 167 
46,800 

3,373 
67,810 
10, COO 
31, 175 
34,517 

2,000 
20,865 

7,100 



9,927 



30, 782 120,008,312 2, 967, 564 | 806. 578 I 2, 075, 259 



cOt this, 1000,000 is the income of Ginrd College for Orphans, Philadelphia, the amount of ftmds 

producing it not being reported. 



LXXX REPORT OP THE OOMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



StatUtioal summary of pupiU receiving secondary inetrueHon. 



States ai^d Territo- 
ries. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticat 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Mary Ian d , 

Massachnsetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York.. 1 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania , 

Bhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

"Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

District of Columbia. 

Indian Territory 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Total 






I 

.d 



1.060 



576 



346 
897 

78 



211 
2,166 
1,073 

450 



923 

338 
374 



43 
491 
346 

94 

16 
141 

60 



3,957 
1,200 



81 



1,439 



192 

1,194 
4,032 



265 

283 



310 



45 



3,955 
144 

1,123 
146 



1,553 
400 
298 



670 

205 
8,660 

181 
2,047 

608 

854 
5,849 
2,852 
2,350 
3,908 

208 
4,422 

904 
2,331 
2,674 
2,814 

579 
1,297 

709 

1,400 

85 



958 



227 



145 



228 
539 



58 
204 
320 
809 

78 



2, 
2, 

19. 
2, 
4. 
1, 
6, 

1, 
6. 
1, 
2. 

1. 

1, 
1. 



1, 



968 
764 
538 
181 
139 
451 
926 
311 
074 
378 
331 
994 
366 
710 
827 
048 

60 
252 
480 

60 



533 

24. 

1,010 



53 
200 

40 
119 



619 

255 

2,325 



622 

276 

2,617 



889 



908 
639 
164 
80 
275 
101 
291 



T— . — ^ 



470 



24,925 I 8,431 



98,371 



12, 510 



In m«par«tory depftrtment* 
of— 




211 



46 



50 
49 



474 

248 

80 



47 

764 

67 



28 

224 
33 



346 
366 



856 
15 
646 
243 
136 
30 
331 



81 
514 
223 



190 



225 



8 






I 






98 
250 
905 
114 



67 



149 

3,846 

1,583 

2.317 

750 

820 

356 



347 
300 
773 
497 
628 
1,471 
384 
82 



2,895 
465 

3,246 
559 

1,865 



221 

1,634 

921 



75 
113 
Oil 
260 



188 
50 



5,961 I 28,499 



I 

I 



I 



H 



53 
160 



14 





199 

121 

49 



13 
45 



17 
26 



34 



828 



50 



1,609 



e 
H 



1,378 
1.021 
6.?B3 
333 
3.083 
724 
854 
6,978 
9,424 
6,471 
6,888 
1,021 
7,070 
1,705 
3,324 
3,296 
9,665 
2,850 
2,077 
1,600 
5,012 
469 
82 
4,182 
4,283 
31,280 
3,289 
12,663 
2,184 
12,939 
1,096 
1,768 
8.372 
2,750 
3,153 
2,126 
1,193 
4,242 
1.531 
60 
252 
1,074 
110 

180,306 



a In ninety-five cities. 



h Strictly normal students are rot indy ded. 



THE HIGH SCHOOL QUESTION. LXXXI 

THE HIGH SCHOOL QUESTION. 

The argnments of those who hold that the State has no right to provide education 
beyond the mdimeuts may be briefly snmmarized as follows : 

1. The State has the right to edncate its children just so far as will enable them to 
understand their daties and exercise their rights as citizens of a firee country governed 
by the popular voice. A primary education is sufficient for this ; therefore the State 
has the right to furnish a primary education and nothing more. 

2. The high school being patronized by but few and the majority deriving no benefit 
from it, it is unjust to levy a general tax for its support. 

3. '' Instead of educating the masses of children so as to prepare them for the pur- 
suits and industries upon which they must depend for a living, high schools educate 
them in such a way as to make them discontented with their condition and unfit to 
discbarge its duties in a manner most beneficial to their own interests." 

4. Our common school system has been enlarged and extende<l beyond the original 
purpose of iis founders. The high nchool has been ingrafted upon the system con- 
trary to the " original design;'* hence it should be cut otF. 

Others who would not abolinh the high schools would still radically change the 
basis of their organization by compelling those who avail themselves of their privi- 
leges to pay a part of the cost of their maiutenauce. 

Some of the causes which have oi>erated to produce this opposition to high schools 
are referred to by Hon. H. V. Harriugtcm, superintendent of the public schools of New 
Bedford, in his report for 1877. In disciuwing the question, "Whether the relations of 
the high school to the elemcntarv dcpartmeuts of the »clioc»l- system are hh close and 
intimate as they ought to be," he Kays: 

It is my firm belief that the principles and mt'thmlH by which most high schools 
have bt-en regulated have tentled to implant prejudices whieh have steadily been 
gathering li**ad until they are now breaking out in open and bitter hostility. * * • 
The miHtakes of management to wliieh 1 refer had their source in the idea whieh pre- 
vailed re.si»ecting high h<'1ioo1h when they were originated, that they were to be tenders 
to the college. From this has resulted the habit, on the jiart of scliool authorities and 
high-wrhool teachers, of looking ujiward to the colleges lor close links of connection 
and i4yui])atby, instead of downward to the elementary schools. Thus a gulf of sepa- 
raticm has been created between the two classes of s<'h<M»ls. 

He instances some of the particuLii-s in which this state of things has been made 
manifest, as follows : 

1. Many of the studies piu'sned in most high schools have been of a purely disci- 
l>linary or preparatory- character, only 4o be i>relerred when the scholar has the prospect 
Ijefore him of si)ending yeain enough in study to attain a (so to speak) complete edu- 
cation. The intiTcsts of those who conld hope to remain through only a part of the 
fourge — a large perci*ntage of every entering class — and whose studies .should there- 
fore have been carefully regulated so as to combine the acquisiti(m of serviceable 
knowledge with mental disc'inline, have been disregarded. Many a parent who has 
maintained his boy in the hign school for a year or two, at cost of much privation, 
* * * withdraws him, when at length he must, (Hily to find that the lu'actical 
interests of his life have not been taken into account, and that he has little or nothing 
in that direction to show for the time he has spent in the school. What wonder that 
«nch a parent should feel a sense of penwmal injurj' and wrong, and nurse it into a 
virolent prejudice f 

2. The studies of the high school have not been intinmtely associated with those 
f»f the grammar sch<K)l, as dictated by the law of n^gular progression. * * * School 
authorities and high school teachei's have acted very generally as though there were 
a broad gulf of s«iparatiou between grammar schools and the high school, as though 
the two differed not only in degree but in kind. Thus the recpiisitions for admission 
to the high schools have implied the expectation that the candidates have finished 
the CTammar school studies. * * * Then, having leaped the gulf and landed on 
the high school side, the successful candidates have been put upon the studies prepar- 
atory to a long course of culture which, by the great majority, was never to be real- 
ized! Meanwhile, the grammar school studies — finished — have been laid on the shelf 
to be forgotten. And thus the parent of whom I have spoken has had an additional 
source of <liscomfort ; for he has not only fomid the studies his child had pui-sued in 
the high school to be of small practical use, but that he had been suffered to forget 
what he had learned before. And nothing has serve4 more eft'ectually to bring the 

E — ^VT 



LXXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Inf:^!! schools into odium and contempt than the fact that so many of their scholars, 
while accomplished in languages and sciences, have proved ignorant blunderers in 
elementary knowledge and work. 

3. Our cities and towns have erected magnificent houses for their high schools, 
i'ar more costly than they would be willing to provide for any school of a lower grade, 
and this lavish expenditure has tended to imbitter two dilFerent classes of citizens 
against the high school : the men of property, whose taxes have been increased to pay 
it, and the poor men, wiio, unable to grant their children the jjrivileges of high school 
instruction, draw angiy contrasts between the splendid accommodations which the 
children of the moiv fortunate enjoy and the humbler conditions with which their own 
must be content. 

These causes of complaint can easily be removed, and Mr. Harrington would accom- 
l)lish this by '* two nulical modidcations of the coui'se of study : one for the purpose of 
adapting it to accomplish a closer relation with the grammar echools, the other to 
answer the requisition of the great American public, which must inevitably be deferred 
to in every (piarter, sooner or later, that the masses of children must be so educated 'as 
to prepare them for the pursuits and industries on which they must depend for a 

living.'" 

'*No system of public iiducation,"8ays Huxley, " is worthy the name unless it creates 
a great educational ladder with one end in the gutter and the other in the university." 
**I will thank any person," says Everett, "to tell why it is expedient and beneficial 
in a community to make i>ublic provision for teaching the elements of learning and not 
expedient nor beneficial to make similar provision to aid the learner's progress toward 
the mastery of the most difficult branches of science and the choicest refinements 
of literature." "Experience has proved," says Mr. Francis Adams, " that element- 
ary education flourishes most where the pro\ision for higher education is most ample. 
If the elementary schools of Germany are the Iwst in the world, it is owing in a great 
measure to the fact that the higher schools are accessible to all classes. In England, 
not only have the aims of the elementary schools been educationally low and narrow, 
but an impassable gulf has separated the people's schools from the higher schools of the 
country. In the United States the common schools have always produced the best 
results where the means of higher education have been the most plentiful." — (Massa- 
chusetts State Report, 1877. ) 

Hon. P. Emory Aldrich, in an addi*ess delivered before the Massachusetts State 
Teachers' Association, December 28, 1877, said : 

I affirm, first, that it has been the settled and prevalent policy of these States, as 
well as of the General Government itself, to grant State or governmental sui)port to 
schools of every grade, from the i^rimary up to and including the university ; and, fur- 
thermore, that this was the accepted theory and* practice of the colonies before the 
States were organized as they now exist. And, secondly, I shall contend that this 
policy should not now be abandoned, but, on the contrary, should be continued and 
extended to meet the growing necessities of the greatly enlarged and ever expanding 
field of human knowledge and acquisition. 

Calling attention to the large and liberal views held U]>on this subject by the fathers 
of the Rejiublic, he quotes from some of them. John Adams, in his work on govern- 
ment, says: 

Laws for the liberal education of youth, especially of the lower class of people, are 
so extremely wise and useful that, to a humane and generous mind, no expense for 
this purpose would be thought extravagant. 

Madison says: 

Knowledge will forever govern ignorance ; and a people who mean to be their own 
covemors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives. » * » 
Every class is interested in establishments which give to the human mind its highest 
improvement. * * • Jammed insiiiulions ought to he favorite objects with every free 
people. They throw that light over the public mind which is the best security againot 
crafty and dangerous encroachments on the public liberty. 

Giving Mr. Madison's views at greater length than is done in the above citation, 

Judge Aldrich continues : 

These sagacious and far reaching views as to the necessity and extent of popular 
education were by no means peculiar to the eminent statesmen and scholars whose 



THE HIGH SCHOOL QUESTION. LXXXIII 

irords I have quoted, as could easily be shown by liberal quotations from the writings 
o[ many of their most distinsuishcd contemporaries. They are the deliberately ex- 
pressed opinious of men by whose wisdom and foresight States were formed and a 
BAtion created. • * * xhe founders of our institutions clearly perceived that 
popular ffovemmeut could not rest securely on popular ignorance, and that knowl- 
edge, ana not merely the rudiments of iL generally disseminated among the people, is 
essential to the stability of that form oi government which depends for its existence 
on the will of the governed. Nor were these views first entertained and expressed 
by the founders of our Republic. They were among the rich inheritances of civil 
wisdom derived from the colonial period of our history, as shown, among other proofs, 
by the celebrated ordinance passed in the year 1647 by the general court of the Mas- 
sachusetts Colony. * • * This ordinance, it will bo remembered, was founded on 
the assumed right of the state to require that schools shall be supported by public 
taxation, wherein the youth of the state, whether they be the sons of taxpaymg or 
uoQ-taxpaying parents, may be educated in the higher branches of learning. 

After quoting the constitutions of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, which con- 
tain substantially the same declaration of principles. Judge Aldrich continues: 

I only desire now, in passing, to remind you that these are not the opinions of an 
accidental and temporary majority, of a sect or party, but are rather the solemnly ex- 
pressed and long cherished principles of a whole people ; and also to ob8er>^o that the 
duty on the part of the state to promote the cause of education is placed on the same 
footing precisely as that of promoting trade, commerce, and manufactures. • * ♦ 
It is witliin the memory of hving scholars when the declaration that this wa« an open 
or debatable question would have been listened to with surprise and an emphatic dis- 
sent by every niend of popular education. * • • The public support of high schools 
and technical schools, wherein the youth of the land may be taught the arts of peace 
and the duties of civil life, is based on the 'same principle and justified by the same 
course of argument as the g;ovemmental support of the two technical schools at West 
Point and Annapolis, in which a few selecteil yonn^ men are instructed in the art and 
discipline of war. Every communitv of men organized under anv form of government 
needs, and must have, individutals educated and competent to auminister its civil as 
well as it« military affairs. And this is eminently true under such a Government as 
ours — "a Government of the people, by the people, and for the ^>eople" — where every 
State, county, city, town, and scnool district in the land requires educated men to 
assume important places of trust and responsibility, and to conduct with intc^lligence 
tbe infinitely complicated affairs of such a popular government. And shall it be said 
that a Government thus needing for its own existence and successful administration 
educated men cannot lawfully and without injustice provide schools for the neces- 
sary education and training of such men ? * • * It is too late to deny that superior 
education is necessary to the state, and it is precisely on this ground of state necessity 
that the grants to, and public support of, schools should be made and given, and not 
on the ground that they are mere benefactions to the grantees. 

Hon. Ezra S. Can*, State superintendent of public instruction of California, in his 

report for 1876-*77 says : 

The right of the State and municipal governments to maintain high schools is not 
legally distinguishable from the right to maintain elementary schools. • * * 
Smooh exist because of a well founded claim, and not because of toleration. The univei"sal 
recognition of this principle is found in tne constitution of every State in the Union. 

After quoting from the constitutions of Arkansas, Florida, Kansas, and Massachusetts, 

Mr. Carr continues : 

Further citations are not required to show that **tlie school is created and en- 
couraged as an institution that is purely one of political economy, for increasing 
the production and accumulation of wealth, and as a means of preventing pau- 
perism and crime, which is still only wealth." The right to educate is '' one of 
those inalienable rights which have never been suiTcndei-ed by the people either to 
Congress or to legislatures, because of the right of the people to the fruits of intel- 
ligence and protection from the folly and crime which result from ignorance." * * * • 
Education is not a fixed quantity to be measured by one generation for that which 
succeeds it. The ** common schooling" of the past century, for instance, would not 
adequately fit the average citizen of to-day for the necessary business of life. The 
standard of general intelligence is higher. The demand for secondary and high schools 
is far more general througiiout the United States at the present time than was the de- 
mand for elementary schools fifty or even twenty-five years ago. " The school being 
the creation of the State, and the interests involved being so vital, it would seem to 
be a legitimate and necessary consequence that all schools should be regarded as to 
their aavancement by the States." If this be true, graded and high schools are legiti- 
mate, because necessary. 



XXXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION, 

Hon. James H. Smarts State siipcrintendeiit of pnblic instmctiou of Indiana, in his 
report for 1876 says: 

Good citizenship requires intelligence enough to make good laws and patriotism 
enough to obey them and defend them when made. An ignorant man can be a good 
subject, thinking the opinions and executing the will of others, but he cannot prop- 
erly exercise the fimctions of good citizenship. The highest form of citizenship necessi- 
tates the highest degree of intelligence. A limitation of intelligence is necessarily an 
abridgment of citizenship. Every voter of the State is a lawmaker. He expresses 
his thought through the oallot, and thus his intelligence manifests itself in the laws of 
the conunonwealth. A primary education, a mere ability to read and to write one*8 
name, is not sufficient to qualify one to exercise this hi^h function. • * * The fact 
that a man sends no children to a school does not justify the claim that he ought not 
to be called iipon to pay for its support. But it is urged by some that while this may 
be true in reference to the lower schools, because those who do not patronize them 
are in the minority, it is not true of the high school, for the reason that those who do 
not patronize it are in the majority. If this objection were sound, then every gram- 
mar school in the State must be struck down, every intermediate and every senior 
primary school must be closed, because a majority do not patronize them. Every 
graded system of schools in the State must also be destroyed for the same reason. 

* * * If the argument be good, then we must limit public education to the sub- 
jects of reading, writing, spemng, and the fundamental rules of arithmetic, because 
these branches are all tnat are studied by the m^ority, and so, because a majority 
cannot be induced to take a good education, the State shall i>rovide nothing but the 
mere skeleton of an education. This principle would limit the schools all over the 
State to four months, because a majority of the children do not attend the schools more 
than four months. * * * It would be as logical to maintain that the insane asy- 
lum should not be supported because the majority of the i>eople do not patronize it 
as to say that the high school should not be maintained because a majority do not 
send their children to it. * * * The argument of "original design" is one that is 
used as a last resort. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that the founders of our 
school system did not contemplate a perfect system, is that any reason why men with 
more wisdom and more experience should be bound not to change and improve itt 

* * * There is scarcely a law on our statute books, scarcely a State constitution 
in the Union, that has not been revised, amended, and improved. Experience has 
shown that the great charter of American libei*ty, the Federal Constitution, a« orig- 
inally constructed, was not adequate to meet the wants of a gro\ving and progressive 
people. ♦ * * Adherence to "original design " turns us ba<;k upon the perfecting 
future to embrace the prejudices of a dead past; it blocks the wheels of human prog- 
ress and stays the onward march of civilization. It can be shown, however, that 
the fathers builded wisely, and that the pres<}nt system, in its scope, at least, is not a 
departure from original design. * * * The first constitution of Indiana, adoi)ted 
in 1816, among other things, provides as follows: "It shall be the duty of the gen- 
eral assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide by law for a general 
system of education, ascending in a regular gradation from township schools to a 
State university, wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all." * * • The 
framers of the earlier constitutions of most of the Northern States held the same broad 
views, and so expressed them in the instruments which they made. * • * They de- 
clared with singular unanimity that learning and wisdom generally diffused among the 
masses were essential to libertv, and that it was the duty of the State to forever estab- 
lish and encourage schools, colleges, seminaries of learning, &c.. for the education of 
the people. A limitation of public education to a few primary oranches would be a 
departure from original design, and not an adherence to it. 

Mr. Smart further says: 

The term "high school" is, possibly, an unfortunate one, inasmuch as it leads many 
to suppose that the grade is one above the common school. This is not ihc case. The 
high school is an advanced elementary school. It is an integral part of the common 
school system. • * * Its purpose is to lay the foundations of knowledge merely. 

* * * It does not make lawyers or architects, engineers or bankers, but it aims to 
give that common information, that common discipline, without which no man can 
become a good physician, a good lawyer, a good mechanic, a good business man, or a 
good farmer. * * • Our so called high schools are common schools in the strictest 
sense of the term. 

Hon. John W. Dickinson, secretary of the Massachusetts State board of education, 
in his report for 187G-77 says : 

There will be more educated people in every town maintaining a high school than 
there would be without it ; and the more educated people there are, the greater will 
be the development of material resources, the more jierfect the security of property and 



THE HK3H SCHOOL QUESTION. LXXXV 

of persons, the higher the civilization, and the more complete the facilities for the 
unmolested enjoyment of all the objects of our natural rights. * * * A further 
argunieDt in favor of maintaining high sehoola at the public expense may be made in 
showing that they }*«*rve to give increase*! elhciency to the elementary schools. • * * 
By the stantlanl they establish for admission to their cla*wes and the opportunities 
tliey offer fi»r a higher education, the high schools determine what the lower schools 
shall do, and they everywhere stimulate pupils to remain in the lower schools until 
what is requiriHl has been accomplished. Again, the lower schools, on account of the 
age and attainments of their pupils, can teach elementary knowledge only. If the 
high school is taken away, the opportunity for obtaining free instruction in scientitic 
knowledge is taken away also. • • » jf i\n^ high school is open to all, that, in 
connection with the lower schools, will have a tendency to preserve a republican 
equality, which is always disturbed when the advantages of a higher education are 
limited to a few. » * » j consider the high schools to be the crowning excellence 
of our common schcnd system ; and, that they uuiy be as efficient as possible, 1 would 
recommend to those who have the direct control of them that they guard against in- 
troducing into their coui*s<'s of study more topics than can be mastei*ed in the time 
*<signed to the course, and that the topic* chosen be those that will lead the student 
to acquire the most useful information, and at the same time be the occasion of the 
greatest amount i>o88ible of mental discipline. 

Hon. H. F. Harrington, whose rejiort has been quoted above, presents the claims of 
the high schools to public support as follows : 

1. High schools are important because they give increased efficiency to all the 
schools below them. 

2. High schools are important because they are the best seminaries from which 
competent recruits can be obtained for the great army of public school teachers. 

X More than all, high schools are important as a branch of a public school system, 
because they constitute the only trustworthy agency to perform tne essential service of 
bringing worthy representatives of the lower classes into the councils of the State and 
the organism ot society. Abolish the high schools, and at once you draw a broad line 
of separation between the rich and the poor. You limit the higher education to the 
children of the well to do, for onlj' the well to do would have the means to pay for it, 
and this would prove a damaging, ])erhaps a perilous, venture for the state. Mainly 
ttic cultured classes are found to be the governing classes, and among its govdming 
classes society needs the representatives of the poor. It needs them, that there may 
always be strong men coming to the front, with powers so tempered by culture as to 
make them wise, * * * to represent the humble class from which they sprang, and 
demand the consideration due to their needs and their rights. These are the men, too, 
in the social exigencies which sometimes occur, when passion becomes rampant among 
the masses and the restraints of law are defied, to throw themselves into the track of 
the storm and allay its violence. Far better this than the alternative if you do not 
1)e8tow the culture ; for those who are bom to be the leaders of men will assert their 
prerogatives whether or no ; and the bom leaders from among the poor, if they be not 
tempered by culture, become the ignorant demagogues whose leadership is anarchy. 

* • * It is the universal confidence in elementar>' education as the right arm of 
a free state wliich renders the objection to high schools so strong, for it implies that 
the state does not need high schools. All the while that prot^sto against the contin- 
nanee of the high schools are ringing throughout the land, the elementary schools 
remain as popular as ever. Not a whisper of objection is heard against taxation for 
their support. They are still lauded as the palladium of liberty; » • * but in a 
n^eent address at Baltimore President Eliot used this memorable language: *' There 
are those who hold that republics can be saved by the general diffusion of primary 
education, but the most eilectively despotic government of Europe is the one in which 
this education is most diffused. There f«, however, a power in the spread of higher educa- 
tioa and the fientiment of honor associated with cu/<Mre." 

Concerning the objection that " the character of the instruction given in high 
schools is such as to disqualify their scholars for occupations involving manual labor,*' 
Mr. Harrington says : 

This question opens up to view the chief incentives to the present crusade against 
this class of schools; and no one can do justice to the subject, nor speculate wisely 
alK>nt the future of these schools, without making those incentives an important 
fwrtor in the solution of the problem. 

The fact is, the times have changed ; the paramount interests and needs of society 
Jiave changed ; the expectations of society in regard to its youth have changed, and 
the instruction in the high schools has not been conformed to the new order of things. 
Here we find the kernel of the whole matter. ♦ ♦ * The grand declaratory 
principle of the fathers, in behalf of e<lucation, was, '' a popular government can rest 



LXXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

securely only on popular kuowle<lge." The declaratory principle of the men of to- 
day is, in the language of Governor Robinson,* "Educate the masses of children, so 
as to prepare them for the pureuits and industries on which they must depend for a 
living." Here is a remarkable chance of base ; and it is no wonder that those who 
are swayed by these new ideas should protest against the conservatism which main- 
tains the work of high schools on its ancient basis and clamor for its moditication 
or its extinction. 

To so change the present curriculum as to make it serve more directly to prepare the 
scholars for the pursuits and industries on which they must depend for a living is, 
says Mr. Harrington, 'M>eset with perjilcxing difficulties. One is this: that a course 
of such a character, to be effective, should •occujiy several years ; whereas the most 
of those who would bo specially benefited by it leave the school before the lapse of two 
years. Another difficult problem is, to <lecide what place in such an arrangement 
shall he provided for the girls, who form so large a portion of the school. And a thinl 
difficulty is suggested by tlie question whether there shall be two separate courses of 
study, one having reference to general culture only, the other to industrial pursuits.'' 

But "a beginning can surely be made," and for that purpose he makes the following 
recommendations : 

1. That during such part of the first year in the high school as may be necessary 
the studies of the grammar schools be tlioroughly and comxirehensively reviewed by 
the entire class. * * ♦ 

2. That the number of sciences in the course be reduced, that they may be the 
better learned; that those retained be such as will be of the most advantage. * * * 

3. That the studv of the classics be positively forbidden to all who are not to 
remain in the school throughout the entire course. ♦• * * 

4. That such studies as are essential to a sound practical education be made im- 
perative, no matter what other studies they may exclude. * * * 

5. That special care be taken, by means of well adapted text bof)k8 and methmls 
of teaching, to secure to the essential branches a positive practical l>earing. 

The report of Hon. W. T. Harris, superintendent of the St. Louis public schools, for 
1876-77, contains an elaborate argimient in "justification of the public high school/* 
from which the following is extracted: 

The limit to public education is found in the means and the will of the community 
which affords it. If the community regards education oh a disagreeable but necessary 
charity, the extent of the education will not be great and its results will not have 
high value. If the community looks upon education as a right, but a right to Im> 
allowed only within the narrowest limits, its value as an instrumentality in the s<»lu- 
tion of social problems will bo correspondingly small. If the community pro|>ost\s to 
do the best by itself, it will place as large a limit as it may in justice to it« other 
interest-s, and will debate the quality and fitness of the education and not its amount ; 
it will feel that every dollar spent for education is more than a dollar gaine<l to the 
one who spends it, both in the decreased need for the expenses for other common 
int.ere8t« and in the increased value of every educated citizen. In this country, tho 
probable limit, for local communities at least, is the high school. 

• «««#«# 

Tho necessity of the work of the high school, briefly stated, is that a high school 
exerts upon the grammar school a leverage which could not be obtained so economi- 
cally by any other instrumentality ; * * * that the leverage gained by a high school 
grade is necessary for the load to be lifted and not for the employment of tne lever; 
that the grammar school demands a high school, and not that a high school requires 
the grammar school ; that tiie grammar schools determine the necessity for a high 
school, and not that a high school needs the grammar school ; that a high school ex- 
ists for the grammar schools, and not that the grammar schools exist for a high school. 

* * * As a matter of practical experience, it has been found in commnnitie* that 
the work was improved in quality and that it cost less with a high school course than 
without it, despite the fact that misconceptions of the true office and relation of a high 
school have in many cases led to a mismanagement which prevent* our seeing the re- 
sults in their clearest light. ♦ * * Every one knows that unless he goes far enough 
to secure success, his capital of time, labor, and money is wasted. * * * The suffi- 
ciency of education must be determined by the previous considerations of political 
necessity and reciprocity of duty between the citizen and tho state, modified by this 
consideration, tho ability of the community to obtain what it may desire. * * * 
The education which fifty yeara ago would have been generous no longer fits a maa 

' Message to tho Now York Legislature, 1877-78. 



THE HIGH SCHOOL QUESTION. LXXXVII 

for the contests of life. » * • We freqaeotly meet the suggestiou that promineut 
men of the past were provided with but a scauty education preparatory to a useful, 
influential life, and we do not reflect, as we should, that prominence is merely rela- 
tiFe. If these men, so distinguished in our histories as revered in our memories, 
could be fairly brought into relation with our own times, they would possibly lose 
mnch of their preeminence. * • * Therefore wo must inquire in regard to the 
education which we furnish as to its sufficiency for the objects which justify its mere 
existence. Those who regard education as a right will admit that the right is value- 
less unless sufficiently extensive to pay for its assertion. * • * Hence, in public 
schools, regarded as the people's schools, ** * * it is reasonable, and indceil imper- 
atively ntH-'e^ssar^', that a sufficiency of education should bo furnishe<l notwithstanding 
the fact that many will, from the necessities of their individual life, be unable to avail 
themselves of these advantages. 

A writer in the Educational Voice for November, 1877, considers the objections that 
have been offere<l against the high school in Pittsburgh, Pa., as follows: 

1. It is claimed that it is an outgrowth of the extravagant notions of the last few 
ye4irs. This cannot l)e true, since the high school was established in 1855, when our 
f>eople were noted as being more conservative and economical than those of any oth€»r 
city in the country. 

2. It is said that it is properly no part of the public school system, and that it 
was never the intention of the founders of the free school system to furnish, at State 
expense, an education beyond a knowledge of the three R's. We think wo can show 
that those who hold this view are sadly mistaken, and for evidence we refer them to 
the constitution of the State, and when we offer this in evidence we want it under- 
stood that it is not a document made by a ring, or by a packed convention, or by a 
cormpt legislature, but one ratified by the sovereign people, who at the ballot box 
ihade it the fundamental law of the Commonwealth. Article 10 says: ^^The general 
aiiaembly shall provide for the maintenance of a thorough and efficient system of pub- 
lic schools, wherein all the children of this Commonwealth above the age of six years 
msky be educated, and shall appropriate at least one million dollars each year for that 
purpose.^' Now, since the law considers all to be children who are under twenty-one 
years of age, it seems strange that the framers of the constitution intended childi'en 
to remain tifteen years in scuool studying only reading, writing, and arithmetic. 

3. It has been claimed that the maintenance of a high scnool makes the public 
»«ebool system expensive. The founders of the high school were of a different opin- 
ion ; they Ijelieved that it would lessen the ex|H*nse of the taxpayer, while it would 
at the same time make the system more <'omplete and the education more thorough. 
Were they mistaken ? Let us examine and see. If the pupils ihiw in the high school 
were sent back to the ward schools they would form forty neparate clasm^s (a class in 
each school). These forty classes would require forty teachers, while in the higli 
(«cfaool they are taught by twenty. This would necessitate an increase of twenty 
teachers, and consequently an increased exijenditure. • * * Kacli of the forty 
i>«chool8 would re(|uire apparatus and nuHlels for illiiMtrative teaching, while at ]>res- 
ent one set of these in the central building is amply Hufficient. 

4. It has been stated that persons are taxed to support the high school who are 
not permitted to send their children to it. This is certainly true; but it is equally 
true with regard to the grammar department of the wanl schooln. There are thou- 
sands of citizens who are from various causes compelled to take their children from 
the wTiTfl schools l>efore they reach the grammar rcMims, and because this is trne in it 
to bo inferred that the grammar schools should be abolished t The same argu- 
ment would abolish all grades of st^hools. If none were to pay t^ixes except thowi who 
are directly benefited, it would indeed be difficult to kee]»the Government machiu«*ry 
in order. If men were to refiise to support the Aniiy and Navy because their children 
were not soldiers and sailors, or if they objected to being taxe4l to support workhouses, 
jails, and penitentiaries l>ecause they had no children there, these useful institutions 
w^ould soon cease to exist. The taxes for the support of schools are levie<l and col- 
lected on exactly the siime principle : indirect benefit. 

Bnt it may be said that we must show that there is an indirect benefit to the 
whole i>eople in maintaining the high school. • * * L^t us compare the condition 
of two sections of country where tno people differed on the question of education. 
New England early adopted the theory that it is the duty of the State to support 
both common and high schools, and as a result of that education she presents to-day 
the most prosp«'rous, intelligent, and the freest people on the face of tlie globe. Can 
her prosperity be justly attributed to any other cause ? Her climate is cold and rigid, 
and her soil is barren and stony, and she possesses but few of the natural advantages 
which are the pride of other States. Compare this section with the two V^irginias, 
State* possessing as many natural a<lvantages as are possOvSsed by any part, of this 
great country, and see if the great diffetence in their prosperity can be attributed to 
any other cause than the difterence of opinion of their people upon the question of 



LXXXVIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



The area of Now Eugland i8 41,000 s<iuare miles, while that of Virginia 
'he populatiou of New Eugland it* over 3,000,000, while that of Virginia 



f^dncatiou. 

is 61,000. The 

is but 1,500,000. 

When, two ceuturiea ago, the English ooiumissioner of foreign plantations inquired 
of the colonial governors with regard to the condition of their respective settlements, 
the governor of Virginia repUed: *'I thank God there are no free schools or printing 
])resses, and 1 hope we shall not have these hundred years ;" while the governor of 
Connecticut answered, ** One-fourth of the annual revenue of the colony is laid out 
in maintaining free schools for the education of our children.'' Both these policies 
have borne their fruits. 

The same writer quotes from the pen of the late Philotus Dean as follows: 

A public, school system should be established for the whole people, and be good 
enough for the average wants of the whole peoi>le, imparting to them that average 
grade of skill and information which suits the age and times ; in fact, be the people's 
educating institution. Such a system keeps pace with the i>assing age, commands 
respect as being a<lequat^' to the wants of the people, and consequently as giving an 
equivalent for its cost. Such a system cannot fall under the odium of caste, as be- 
tween the rich and the poor, a point of impoitance in a true republic. Such a sys- 
tem, by creating a fair average state and more general equalization of intelligence, 
tends to prevent society from separating into widely diverse strata, in which the 
masses and a favored few tigure as extremes of intellect and ignorance, leadership 
and vassalage. * * * The best check against injurious and insidious social error 
is a sound thinking, well instructed people. 

SECOXDAKY INSTRUCTION ABROAD. 

I present the following items respecting secondary schools in several European 
countries as affording material for interesting comparisons. 

PRUSSIA. 

According to Dr. EngeFs statistics, the Kingdom of Prussia, with a population of 
25,000,000, has 447 secondary schools, with 6,432 teachers and 132,612 pupils. The 
object of the secondary schools in Prussia is to give the foundation of a general scien- 
tific and literary culture and to develop the moral power of the student. The second- 
ary schools are divided into Gymnasien and Progymnasien, Realschulen of the first 
and second order, and Hohere Bttrgerschulen. They are for boys from about 9 to 18 
years of age. Secondary schools for girls are still very few in number, and are almost 
exclusively private institutions. 

The Gymnasium is at the head of all the secondary schools, and leads directly to the 
university, while the Realschule leads to the higher technical schools. Both the 
Gymnasium and the Realschule of the first rank have a nine years' course ; but the 
Progymnasium, the Realschule of the second rank, and the Hohere Burgerschule have 
only a six or seven years' course, and their graduates are not entitled to matriculation 
in the university. The Gymnasium is intended for those who desire to study espe- 
cially the aucient languages and mathematics, and whose aim is to prepare for kigher 
situations in the service of the state or the church ; the Realschule is for those who 
desire tc» study the natural sciences, mathematics, and modem languages. As the 
pupils of the Realschule are to become civil engineers, architects, &c., they do not 
pass to the university, but finish their education in the higher technical schools. 

The following is an example of the course of study in a combined Gjinnasium and 
Realschule. Students in the Realschule pursue the same course as those in the Gym- 
uasiuui, except that they omit Greek entirely and substitute mathematical and scien- 
tific studies for the classical work of the last four years of the Gymnasium course. 

Ik'Ufjiou. — Religious instruction (catechism, explanation of the Bible, and church 
history) is given twice a week in every class by clergymen of the recognized denomi- 
nations. 

Latin (6 to 10 hours a week). — Grammar is taught and applied to the reading of 
the classics and to written exercises. The following authors are read : CiBsar; Ovid; 
Livy ; Sallust ; some of Cicero's jrations, epistles, and philosophical writings ; Virgil's 
iEueid; Horace's odes, satireer, and epistles ;. Tacitus's Germania ; Juvenal; Terence; 
Plautus ; and Roman literature. 



SECONDARY INSTRUCTION ABROAD. LXXXIX 

Greek (4 to C hoiirn a week). — Grammar in completed and the following anthors are 
read and translated: Xenophou, Homer, Herodotus, Plato, Sophoclen; Greek litera- 
tare. 

Hebrew (2 hours a week). — This language is obligatory only lor those who intend to 
study theologj* ; the study comprises grammar, etymology, and reading. 

Herman (3 to 6 hours a week). — Grammar, etymology, prosody, and literature are 
taught, and exercises in German composition are continued through all the classes. 

French (2 to 4 hours a week). — The grammar is studied through. German pieces are 
translated into French, and French authors are read and translated into Geiinan and 
Latiu. French compositions and letter writing are also practised. 

Mathematics (3 to 5 hours a week). — Instruction in mathematics comprises the whole 
of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, planimetry, stereometry, and trigonometry. 

History (2 to 3 hours a week). — General history is taught, as well as the history of 
G«?rmany and Prussia and of the pix>vince in which the school is sitnate«l. 

Geography (2 horn's a week). — Geographical instruction includes the whole of physi- 
cal, political, and mathematical geography, with map drawing in all the classes. 

Xatttral history (2 houi-s a week). — Natural history comprises the general introduc- 
tion and the elements of mineralogy, botany, and zoology. 

Physics {2 horn's a week). — In physics the pupils pursue a verj' exhaustive course of 
loechanics, electricity, magnetism, light, and heat. 

Drawing (2 hours a week). — Free hand, geometric, and ornamental drawing is obli- 
gatory in all the classes. 

(rymnastics (2 hours a week). — Obligatory in all the classes. 

Singing (2 hours a week). — Obligatory in all the classes. 

FUAXCK. 

PHhlic schools, — The public secondary' schools of France are of two kinds — lyc^es, 
or lyceums, and communal colleges. The lyc^s are maintained by the state. The 
coDimunal colleges are maintained by the municipalities but may be aided by the 
«tate. The instruction in both is classical and iDodem. The latter is intended to 
suit the requirements of practical life by teaching the natural sciences and the mod- 
<"ni languages insteail of Greek and Latin. Alike in the lyc^es and in the commu- 
nal colleges, all the teaching staff have to furnish guarantees of their capacity to 
teach the subjects intrusted to them. The guarantee genenilly takes the fonn of a 
university degree varying in kind and in rank acconlingto the ^wstto be tilled by the 
holder. 

At the end of 1865, the date embraced in the rep<»rt of M. Duniy, the last report 
pivvious to M. Bardoux's, France had at work 77 lyciSes and 251 communal colleges. 
Three of the 77 lyc^s (those of Strassburg, Metz, and Colmar) an<l 15 of the 251 com- 
munal colleges have been lost to P'rance in conseciuence of the war of 1870; but 
new ones have in the meanwhile been added, so that on the 31st of December, 1876, 
France had 81 lyc<?e8 at work, with 5 others building, and 252 communal colleges. In 
1865 the lyc<^s ha<l 31,321 )Mipils; at the end of 1876 they had 40,995 pupils, an aver- 
age of 506 pupils to each lycee, about one half of whom are boarders and the other 
half day scholars. The communal colleges had nn 1865 a total number of 32,881 puj^ils ; 
at the end of 1876 they had 38,236 pupils, with an average of 152 for each college. 
These 81 great secondary schools of the first class and 252 of the second all have a 
public character and are subject to public inspection. 

The modem or sjiecial instruction in these schools is constantly growing. The 
lyc^es are the stronghold of the classics, yet in the lyc^es the number of boys on the 
modem side or department had risen from 5,002 in 1865 to 8,628 in 1876. The teaching 
of the natural sciences, of geography, modem history, literature, and languages, is 
being continually strengthened. In the communal colleges the development of the 
modem department is much greater still. Of the 38,236 pupils in these colleges at 
the end of 1876, 9,232 are little boys, not yet going beyond X)rimary instruction ; of the 



XC REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

remainder, 14,992 are in the classical department and 14,012 in the modem department. 
The number of teacliersbips for the modem languages has more than doubled in these 
colleges since 1865. 

Private schaoh. — The private secondary schools in France are of two kinds, lay and 
ecclesiastical. There were 803 of them in 1876, against 9'.J5 in 1865 and 1,081 in 1854. 
It is in the lay est.ablishments that the diminution has taken place. The lay private 
schools had in 1865 43,009 pupils to the 34,897 of their ecclesiastical rivals. The pro- 
portion is now revei-sed, and the ecclesiastical private schools have 46,816 pupils while 
the lay private schools have but 31,249. 

The ecclesiastical schools are either under episcopal control, or they belong to one of 
the teaching orders, among whom the Jesuits have the chief place. The former schools 
have nearly 12,.300 pupils, while the latter have nearly 20,000. 

Schools for girls, — The absence of public secondary schools for girls in France has 
often been regretted by educators visiting that country. The want is to be supplied 
at once. 

BELGIUM. 

Belgium had, in 1875, 198 secondary schools, viz: 10 royal athenaeums, 50 state mid- 
dle class schools, 31 communal colleges aided by the state, 3 communal colleges 
entirely 8ustaine<l by the municipalities, 84 colleges under the control of the clergy 
and religious orders, and 20 private institutions under the control of the laity. 
Tlio total number of pupils in 1875 was 17,881, of whom 13,454 were attending state 
institutions. 

The royal atheiueums occupy the highest rank among the s<^condary schools. They 
include two sections, one for classical instruction which corresponds to the German 
Gymnasium, and one for industrial education corresponding to the German Real- 
schule. The classical course lasts six years and the industrial course four years. 

ENGLAND. 

Secondary education in England was not affected by the elementary education act 
of 1870. It is earned on in the great endowed schools and in private institutions. At 
the head of the eudowecl schools — in England styled public schools — are Eton, Rugby, 
Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Shrew8bnrj% St. Paul's School, and 
Merchant Taylor's School, with a total of about 3,000 pupils. Besides these there are 
2,1(50 endowed and private schools, 1,254 of which are calle<l institutes, 603 grammar 
schools, llxi colleges, 92 academies, and 58 classical and commercial schools. 

The tenu '^public schools" applied to the above named institutions is not to bo 
construed as in this country. The public schools of England do not give gratuitous 
instruction to their pupils, as do the schools called public in the United States. The 
Queen's letter appointing the royal commission to inquire into the condition of public 
secondary schools in 1861, named Eton, Winchester, Rugby, Westminster, Charter- 
house, Harrow, Shrewsbiury, St. Paul's School, and Merchant Taylor's School. The 
rejisons, probablj', which suggested this selection were, that the nine named foundations 
had in the course of centuries emerged from the mass of endowed grammar schools, 
and lia<l made for themselves a position which entitled them to l>e placed in a distinct 
category and classed as ** public schools." These nine have certain features in com- 
mon distinguishing them from the onlinary grammar schools which exist in almost 
every country town in England. Many of these latter are now waking up to the re- 
quirements of the n(5W time and following Ihe example of their more illustrious sisters. 
The most notable examples of this revival are such schools as those at Sherborne, 
Gigglcswick, and Tunbridge Wells, which, while remodelling themselves on the lines 
laid down by the public schools commissioners, are to some extent providing a train- 
ing more adapted to the means and requirements of the middle classes than can bo 
found at any of the nine public schools. The modern foundations — Marlborough, 
Haileybnry, Uppingham, Rossall, Clifton, Cheltenham, Radley, Malvern, and W^elling- 
ton College — are schools which have taken their place in the first rank, and, while 



PREPARATORY INSTRUCTION. 



XCI 



followiDg reverently the best traditions of the older foundations, are in some re8p«»ctH 
setting them an example of what the public schools may become. 

In order to get a clear idea of the secondary schools which arc tonimonly cuIUmI 
public in England, these three classes must be kept in mind: the nine old foundations 
recognized by the royal commission of 1801 ; the old foundations which have n*- 
mained local grammar schools until within the last few years but are now cnlarj^inj; 
their bounds; and, lastly, the modern foundations which started from the lirst as 
public schools, professing to a<lapt themselves to the new circumstances and n-qiiire- 
ments of modem English life. The public schools of England fall under one of these 
three categories. 

In view of the inadequacy of the present organization and condition of secondary 
education in England, strenuous efforts are now made by men of great ability an<l in- 
fluence to bring about a change, and to establish a system similar to that ijiangnraritl 
for elementarj- education by the act of 1870. 

Not less noteworthy is the energetic and wide spread movement in favor of second- 
ary education for women. Prominent in this movement is the National Union for 
Improving the Education of Women, which, among other objects, strives to promote 
tho establishment of secondary schools for girls. 

TABLE VII.— PREPARATORY SCHOOI^. 

Detailed statistics of preparatorj' schools will bo found in Table VII of the appendix. 
The following is a comparative statement of the statistics of these schools as reported 
to the Bureau for 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, and 1877 : 



XoiDber of in«titutioDS 
Nomber of inatmcton. 
Number of ttadents . . . 



1873. 


1874. 


187."». 
102 


I87r,. 


lb77. 


86 


01 


io:> 


114 


690 


607 


746 


736 


796 


12,487 


11, 414 


12,054 


12.360 


12, r,io 



XCII 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Table VII. — Summary of statisHm of preparatory schools. 



Number of students. 



States. 



California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

0«'orj;irt 

IliiuoiM 

ludiaun 

Iowa 

Mniue 

Maryland 

MasAacbusetts . . 
Xew Hauipsbiro. 

New Jersey 

Xew York , 

Ohio....' 

PeuHsylvaiiia 

libode Island.... 
.South Caitiliua . . 

T«'nuessee 

Texas 

VeiTuoul 

Virijiuia 

"Wisconsin 



Total ! 114 





1 


1 . 




1 














^'2 


a c 

tc'" 


r 
•5 


9 
O 




3 


a ^ 
» 5 


Number 


B 


.5 ^ 


m 

67 


422 


1 






5 - 
•a « 
«.3 


5 


36 


44 




14 




5 


• 1 


3 
51 


4 

363 


107 


20 
540 










6 




46 




U 


1 


25 






53 
67 





10 


. • • ■ 




' 3 


76 


57 


4 


1 


3 

8 


a40 
20 








1 

1 







2 




99 




7 


26 


271 


8 


340 




62 




1 


2 


14 


14 


<> 


239 




6 




1 


21 


142 


al,231 


180 


914 




181 




30 


5 


36 


421 


20 


181 




72 




8 


1 4 


24 
179 


49 
621 


29 
205 


198 
1,791 








31 


1 20 




112 


35 


1 6 


80 


347 


68 


474 




59 




8 


9 


55 


175 


77 


656 




30 




8 


5 


42 


174 


30 


435 




18 




2 


2 
1 

1 
3 


5 

5 

14 

8 


36 

20 

10 

9 


12 
30 
15 


116 
30 

250 
92 












112 
4 

4 








1 


5 


16 


al£9 


22 


110 




15 




8 


4 


22 


al76 


60 


234 




23 




8 


■ 


796 


4.260 


989 


7,261 




770 




156 



a Includes a number of students preparing for both courses. 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. 



XCIII 



Tabus VII. — SumvMry of staiiaiics of preparatory schools — Continiie<l. 




CalifonuA 

Colorado 

Coimectacnt 

GeorfciA 

IDiDois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Maine 

Maryland 

MaasacbnsetU 

Xew HampAhire 

Stw Jersey 

Xew York 

Ohio 

Pf>nnsylvuiia 

Bhode Island 

SoQth Carolina 

Texm^uiee 

Tc'xas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



600 I i.noo 

10. 04K) 
400 I 8.078 



Total 120,034 3,303 4,0fll,7.> 1, i:»7. IHl 



7*5. :»8C 408. OHl 



TABLE VIII. — SUPERIOR IXSTRUCTION OF WOMEN'. 

Statistics in detail of schools for the superior iustructiou of wom«Mi will bo ftuiixl in 
Table VIII of the appendix. The following is a comp.irative summary of institnticms, 
instructors, and pupils from 1870 to 1877, inclusive : 



2biimber of institutions 
Xnmber of instructors 
Number of students. . . 



1870. 


1871. 


33 


136 


378 


1,163 


5,337 


12,841 



1872. 



1873. 



175 20,-, 

1, 617 2, 120 

11, 288 24, 013 



1874. 

200 

2. 285 

23, 445 



187.5. 



222 

2,405 

23, 795 



1876. 



225 



2,404 
23,856 



1877. 

220 

2, 305 

23,022 



I would also invite attention to the following summary by States : 



XCIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table YIII. — Summary of statistics of in* 



States. 



Alabama 

California . . . 
Connecticut 
Delaware ... 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa , 



Kannas... 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 



Maine. 



Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

Xew Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 
Ohio 



Oregon 



reuusylvanla . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 



Vermont 

Virginia , 

West Virginia. 
AVisconsin .... 



s 



a 
o 



S 



10 
2 
3 
1 

17 

10 
2 
2 
1 

21 
4 
2 
6 

10 
2 
2 
7 

33 



5 



15 
9 

12 
1 

13 
3 

18 
8 
1 

12 
1 
3 



Total i 220 



Corps of instruction. 



o 
H 



78 

7 

27 

13 

100 
96 
16 
25 
9 
M51 
18 
16 
55 

160 
15 
15 
50 

109 
32 
55 

243 
87 

129 
12 

149 

24 

M31 



57 



13 

102 

10 

24 



2, (►28 



•3 



19 

3 

4 

4 

40 

19 

3 

2 

2 

43 

3 

9 

10 

46 

4 

2 

12 

22 

8 

19 

50 

26 

30 

47 
7 

36 

16 
6 

42 
3 
7 



546 



"3 
S 



1,455 



s 

a 

I 



a 

o 



59 

4 
23 

9 
60 
77 
13 h 
23 

7 
93 
15 

7 

45 
114 
11 
13 
38 
87 
24 
36 
193 
01 
99 
10 
102 
17 
83 
41 

7 
60 

7 
17 



I 

d 

Si 

'a 

s 



Student^i 



14 

25 

2 

1 

15 

9 
o 



9 

24 

2 



4 
2 



9 
17 



1 
54 
21 

8 



13 

3 

20 

10 



10 

....I 
2 ; 



277 



9 

s 

a, f* 
^ E 

a « 






21m 



50 
49 

474 
24« ' 

30 



47 

764 

57 



28 

224 

33 



5,9«1 



346 
366 
355 

15 
C45 
243 
136 

30 
331 

81 
514 
223 

190 



225 



a Classification not I'epoi'ted in all cases. 



. :.irK 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. 



XCV 



htions for the imperwr instruction of women. 



Stadentd. 



Xnmber in collegi 
ate department. 




31 

922 

93 

50 

172 

7d4 

112 

44 

386 

623 

88 

45 

904 

352 

766 

71 

417 

217 

994 

439 

56 

659 

120 

172 



10,685 



2 
18 

1 
46 

9 
131 

6 



31 

93 

60 

4 

82 : 

28 
138 

10 
120 

76 
12 
45 
15 



127 



1,337 



1 

19 
1 



15, 
7 
2 



4 

22 
1 
4 

20 
12 
20 



10 



22 



254 



Librarips. 


Prop<»rty, income, A:i-. 




• 
it 


1 


1 
1 = 


9. 

rs 
a 

C 
> 


3 
1 


II 


a 


« P 


X 


»- 


« a 


3 i C L 


'^ A 


^ 


e, « 


-a g 


> 


5 2 


s t 

*2 a 


s 


s £ 


« for t 
»m tuiti 


JS 


2 




s 

c: 






B 

a 


t 


"3 




O 


&■ 

C' 
& 


'A 




> 


-^ 


a 


p^ 




$427,000 

1,500 

118,000 

50,000 

428,500 

565,000 

70,000 

25,000 

100.000 

418,000 

86,000 

83,000 

78,500 

1, 315, 000 

25,000 

20,000 

152,000 

277, 500 

122,000 

345,000 

1, 208, 030 

319,000 

825,000 

30,000 

799,000 

50,000 

492,500 

112,500 

80,000 

30,000 



$0 



8,000 




20,000 

05,000 

20,000 

495,000 



$0 







1,600 
4,000 




20,000 
111,200 



40,400 
5,500 



41,050 
1,000 

30,000 
0,000 
2,000 



146,000 



8, 895, 630 



866,050 



1,600 
5,870 

4,424 
330 



2,675 
60 

2,100 
500 
120 



56,179 



$21,050 

5,000 

2,506 

3,500 

38,800 

42.869 

11,200 

5,000 

2,938 

50,510 

2,100 

7,500 



74,538 

8,000 

3,000 

39,460 

43,440 

4,100 

11,000 

184,228 

27,500 

34,951 



53,582 
4.500 

56,401 

15, 147 
2,900 

37,260 



27,000 



820,061 



h Sex not rei>orted in all cases. 



I 



XCVI 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Several of the institutions in Table VIII did not report completely; for exam 
one of the two Indiana schools reporting did not state how many of its 60 stud< 
were in preparatory, regular, special, or graduate courses of study. This is so 
quently the case that the column giving the total number of students in all dep 
ments of these colleges is greatly lessened in value. 

I have, therefore, caused the accompanying graphic to be prepared, so as to 
phasize the necessity for making complete reports ; many States appear in it to gi 
disadvantage simply because the presidents of the women's colleges in such State-s 
not answer all the queries necessary. 

Degrees conferred by institutions for tht superior instruction of women. 



States. 




States. 



E 



Alabania... 
Delaware . . 

Georg^ 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Kentucky. . 
Louisiana . . 

Maine 

Marit'land . . 
Minnesota . 
Mississippi 
Missonri . . . 



New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . . . 
South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total 



TABLE IX. — UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

The following is a statement of the aggregate number of this class of institutio 
with instructors and students, as reported to this Bureau each year from 1870 to 1^ 
inclusive : 



Xombcr of institutions 
Number of instructors. 
Number of student-s . . . 



1870. 


1871. 
290 


1872. 
298 


1873. 
323 


1874. 
343 


1875. 


1876. 


266 


355 


356 


2,823 


2.962 


3,040 


3,106 


3.783 


3, 999 


3,920 


49.163 


49, 827 


4'.. 617 


:>2, 053 


56,692 


58,894 


56,481 



18; 



3. 
57, 



4 



i 



8UPEBI0B IN8TBUCnON. 



xcvn 



Table IX. — Summarjf of $tatuHe8 of univenitieB and oollegesn 



StatM and Terri- 
tories. 



1 

9 

9 ^ 



« t 



& 



iJabmui 

Aiianau - 

CilifonuA 

Colondo 

CflUDecticut 

Otiavuv 

Gwrgi* 

IQiiou 

TimK>d ih 

Ion 

Etuu 

Ecntackj 

LniiUnA 

Kalae 

Ku^laod 

ICiMtdiiiaetts 

Michigan 

^finaeiote 

ICiMiMippi 

MiMoari 

KebnsU 

KeTadA 

Xev Hampshire... 

KewJeney 

KewTork 

Korth Ccroliim 

Ohio 

Ok foil ............ 

PemujlTania 

Bhod'Lriand 

8oath Carolin* . . . 

Tetmetflee 

TezM 

Tennont ......... 

TiTfiiiia 

WefltTirginiA 

Wisconsin 

Dist. of Colnmbia 

Utah 

Washington 

Total 

E — ^vn 



4 
4 

13 
2 
3 
1 
7 

28 

17 

18 
8 

13 
6 
8 
8 
7 
9 
5 
4 

16 
4 
1 
1 
4 

26 
8 

82 
6 

27 
1 
6 

21 

10 
3 
7 
3 
9 
4 
1 
1 

351 



I 

I 

S, 

e 
I 



3 



4 
4 

18 
1 
8 
1 
6 

26 

14 

16 
8 

18 
6 
8 
8 
7 
9 
4 
4 

16 
8 

1 
3 

26 
6 

81 
6 

26 
1 
6 

21 
8 
3 
7 
3 
9 
4 
1 


828 



£ 







1 




1 

2 
8 
2 








1 




1 
1 



1 

8 
2 
1 

1 



2 






1 






1 
1 





1 

2 

2 



1 



1 
1 




4 
1 
1 




1 

2 

2 


1 
3 





1 
1 

27 



9 

I 

•a 

■5 g 

I 



I 



4 
4 

10 
1 
3 
1 
6 

26 

15 

18 
6 

13 
3 
3 
6 
6 
8 
3 
4 

12 
2 

1 
4 

26 
6 

80 
5 

25 
1 
6 

19 
7 
3 
7 
3 
9 
4 



810 






1 






1 




































I 






1 





1 






2 


1 



1 

2 



1 






1 



1 





1 










12 





1 

2 
2 




1 

4 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 


1 
2 
2 

8 
1 
1 


2 
1 
6 
1 
8 

1 
6 
1 








49 



Years in oonns. 





2 
1 



1 

1 



1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 



2 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 





1 
1 

23 



I 
I 



1 
3 

10 
1 
3 
1 
4 

26 

15 

17 
6 
8 
4 
8 
6 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
8 

1 
2 

22 
5 

26 
4 

21 
1 
5 

16 
8 
3 
2 
8 
9 
4 



270 



M 

I 



^ 





1 









1 










1 








1 






1 



2 











o 

I 



3 


1 








5 

0' 

0< 

Q. 

2 

4 

1 

4 

1 

S 





3' 

1 



Of 













I 



•a 

o 
3 S 

1^ 



i 








» 
1 



) 
1 

t 
t 
1 

t 
t 
t 
t 
t 

t 
t 



• 

9 

9 

9 

1 

9 

9 

0' 

8 

9 







8 



XCVin REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Table JX.—8uMmafTf of Btaiisticssm of 



States and Terri- 
tories. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Looisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Mossachnsetts . . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missoari 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.... 

Rhode Island 

Sonth Carolina. . . 

Tennessee 

"Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia .. 

Wisconsin 

Dist. of Columbia 

Utah 

Washington 

Total 



I 

9 

I 



•a 

O 



4 
4 

13 
2 
8 
1 
7 

28 

17 

18 
8 

13 
6 
3 
8 
7 
9 
5 
4 

16 
4 
1 
1 
4 

26 
8 

32 
6 

27 
1 
6 

21 

10 
3 
7 
3 
9 
4 
1 
1 



351 



Preparatory department. 



I 
I 

B 



2 

3 

22 

3 

• • • 

4 
4 

67 
41 
45 


17 

8 



18 
7 

21 
1 

10 

46 
6 
ll 



88 
9 

76 
8 

42 

• • 

4 
43 
27 



3 

3 

24! 

3 
1 



Students. 



I 



98 

259 

905 

all4 



67 

149 

03,346 

1,583 

a2,317 

750 

820 

356 



347 
800 
773 
497 
528 
al,471 
384 
82 



2,895 

465 

03,246 

559 

ol,865 



221 

1,634 

0921 



75 

113 

0911 

260 

188 
50 



675028,490 



4 



98 

164 

679 

34 



83 

118 

2,131 

1,013 

1,353 

607 

595 

265 



839 
800 
489 
837 
601 
887 
214 
18 



2,393 

366 
2,269 

299 

1,309 



221 
1.271 

446 



75 
107 
625 
253 
103 

50 



i 



95 
226 

30 


84 

31 
954 
670 
840 
243 
225 

91 



8 



284 
160 

27 
281 
170 

14 



502 
99 
913 
260 
891 




363 
275 



6 
81 

7 
85 



19, 862(7, 265 






i 



s 



25 

63 

140 

30 





eg 



I 



10 

28 

437 

10 





65 
958 
437 
618 
809 
241 






S 
1 



I 



60 



754 



175 
300 
250 
109 
105 
330 
110 



849 
206 
949 
136 
633 


96 
375 
151 



43 

57 

863 

132 



20 



8 
1,037 
448 
662 
237 
169 



169 

275 
69 
111 
4U1 
100 



857 

85 

750 

114 

329 



78 

344 

246 



13 

56 

438 



8, 275 6, 985 



147 

80 

189 



110 



40 



231 

4 



70 



1,634 



Collegiate department. 



53 

I 



I 



49 

16 

168 

4 

55 

6 

49 

241 

146 

185 

43 

94 

27 

28 

58 

131 

104 

63 

24 

154 

21 



20 
62 

471 
44 

292 
24 

293 
17 
42 

183 
68 
26 
74 
S3 
81 
43 



d 



I 



a 
•3 



890 

100 

828 

8 

853 

85 

457 

1,731 

1,503 

993 

176 

875 

62 

878 

301 

1,573 

765 

170 

288 

720 

94 



815 
769 

3,150 
474 

2,662 
311 

1,984 
235 
854 

1,219 
724 
186 
891 
166 
720 
166 



(, ^23:26, 



590 



Students in 

classical 

course. 



1 
819 



815 
5 
264 
784 
645 
486 

60 
278 

24 

827 

214 

1,615 

871 

90 
188 
291 

26 



246 
546 
648 
280 
009 
90 
1,246 



1, 

61, 



209 
450 
194 
162 
164 
93 
852 
105 



13,437 



4 






• 5 
90 



8 



86 

154 

133 

173 

9 

80 



15 

16 

25 

95 

9 

8 

44 

8 



805 



123 

58 

117 



48 

16 

9 



60 



1,624 



Students fc:i 

Bcientifica. 

course. 



01 




170 



28 

11 

9 

279 

191 

149 

67 

99 

4 

31 

20 

27 

201 

83 

7 

45 

9 



69 
124 
825 

94 
299 

75 
892 



72 

297 

18 

13 



88 

148 

10 



3.854 






5 

1! 



u 

H 

"A 



09( 



13 



/ 



J 



116 
86 

129 
49 
00 



10 
6 
85 
15 
1 
60 
10 



195 



194 

88 
86 



52 

4 
2 



84 



4i 

11 
1» 



8^ 

» 

67 

1» 

16i 

22! 



4» 

44^' 
I 
1 

23! 

79^ 



15' 

I 
.. .1 

1' 



1,433 



Gil 



o Sex not reported in all cases. 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 



xca 



^ivenUiet and eoUeget — Continned. 



Yolmnes in libraries. 



i 

i 

c 

8 



g 

S 



13,750 
865 

45.904 



125,093 

0^000 

80.200 

97,725 

63,428 

38,390 

18.230 

88,001 

5,025 

36.200 

25^146 

350,481 

43.000 

18,008 

8,877 

71.350 

2,750 



220 



1,834 



• 970 
60 
1,875 
1,100 
1,146 
2,812 
1,350 
1,211 

800 

968 
2,341 
8,711 
1,172 
3,062 

650 
2,140 

250 



6,600 



8,480 



20,000 
8,000 

11,300 

17,250 

12,432 
8,347 
1,480 

18,600 
1,500 

15,900 
4,400 

17,018 
8.750 
1,210 
4,000 

11,400 
200 



Property, income, 4bc. 



4\ 



$480,000 

42,000 

1,423,000 

130,000 

656,384 

75,000 

620,000 

2,568,000 

1,002,500 

923,000 

644,000 

806,000 

186,000 

606,000 

200,600 

1,200,000 

1,123,000 

286,136 

647,405 

1,229.000 

220,000 



s 
i 



9 

I 
I 



$312,000 

19,000 

862,000 



638,057 
83,000 

467,202 
2,022,000 

847,412 

624,642 
46,000 

746,000 



660,000 

8,027,670 

4,807,491 

438^628 

437,260 

65,000 

722,000 

20,000 



$24,600 

1,850 
10,900 

8,000 
89,318 

4,980 

85^985 

U4,887 

64,200 

66,067 

8,913 
46,884 



85^400 

181,784 

275,649 

80,963 

26,821 

1,850 

128,607 



$10,000 

6,600 

108,459 



68,008 
600 
23,250 
91,660 
20,100 
86,274 
19,080 
88,849 



20,734 
6,690 
206,107 
6,162 
5,026 
3,730 
83,705 
6,700 



n 

^ p* 

** W 

o 

u 



$7,500 




13,000 



23,000 

11,864 

26,275 

240 



82,265 
1,028 



19,000 
84,321 



20,000 









s 



$2,000 
23,000 
22,000 
10,000 
12,000 
10,000 



118,000 

600 

246,000 

120,000 

6,000 



63,200 
200 



54,835 
57,300 

237,184 
22,500 

227,974 
3,100 

138,790 

50,000 

43,000 

34.037 

11,985 

34,700 

73,000 

8,090* 

41,728* 

44,000' 

2,507' 

600 



2,000 
6,452 

125 

8,410 

55 

9.731 

450 
60 

728 
1,150 
1,728 

600 

310 
2,085 
1,250 



24,98Q 
16,700 
34,700 
40,375 
1,875 
74,306 



100,000 
1,420,000 
6,589,848 

612,000 
2, 724, 716 

263,000 
4,254,600 



7,700 
9,750 
4,525 



19,200 
8,600 
6,050 
8,000 



722,000 
1,337,500 
842,000 
860,100 
1,425,562 
290,000 
913,250 
760,000 



450,000 

1,318,667 

8,725,281 

168,800 

1,681,458 

121,782 

1,693,000 

682,627 

486,000 

1,193,300 

66,000 

305,250 

864,700 

147,000 

725,000 

140,000 



26,000 
79,003 

448,080 
10,040 

168,600 
10,900 

118,870 

40,864 

89,200 

76,818 

2,200 

14.413 

24,222 

9,800 

64,767 

4,819 



21.400 
48,608 
841,374 
21,980 
80,521 

8,038 

142,530 

27,881 

4,000 
41,502 
84,000 

6,100 
49,901 

4,496 
75.922 
10,236 

2,600 



1,000 
6,960 
150,664 
7,500 
23,000 
5,000 



42,100 



30,000 
12,000 
42,300 



5,000 



60 



100,000 

90,600 

320,077 



261,274 
40,000 

122,000 
64,226 
65^000 
87,670 

12,000 
94,000 



7,500 
4,600 



2; 012, 9611 66,423 



406,428 



86,689,401 



29,247 927 



2,^,904 



1,680,122 



613,977 



1,841,546 



fr AIm 605 MX not giren. 



en 



REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Summary of college entrance examinations in 1877 — Continued. 



Kame. 



St. Xayier College 

Kenyon College 

Denison Uniyenity 

Marietta CoUege 

Urbana Unlvenlty 

Wilmington College 

Uninns College 

Pennsylvania College 

Haverford College 

Meroersburg College 

Westminster College 

Western University of 

Pennsylvania. 
AngnstiniBn College of St. 

Thomas of VUlanova. 

Bro>vn University 

College of Charleston 

ErsUne College 

East Tennessee University 

Bethel College 

Maryville College 

Christian Brothers' College 

Mosheim Institute 

Fisk University 

Qreeneville and Tnscnlam 

College. 
Southwestern University . 

Baylor University 

University of Vermont and 

State Agricultural College. 

Middlebury College 

Norwich University 

Lawrence University ..... 

Beloit College 

University of Wisconsin. 

Bipon College 

Howard University 

National Deaf-Mute CoUege 



Total 



Location. 



Cincinnati, Ohio.... 

Gambler, Ohio 

Granville, Ohio 

Marietta, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio 

Wilmington, Ohio. . 

Freeland,Pa 

Gettysburg, Pa — 
HaverfbrdCollege,Pa 
Meroersburg, Pa . . . 
New Wilmington, Pa 
Pittsburgh, Pa 



Villanova,Pa 



Providence, B. I. .. . 
Charleston, &C.... 

Due West, &C 

Knoxville, Tenn . . . 
MoKenzie, Tenn . . . 
Maryville, Tenn ... 
Memphis, Tenn .... 
Mosheim,Tenn .... 

Nashville, Tenn 

Tusoulum, Tenn . . . 

Georgetown, Tex . . 
Independence, Tex. 
Burlington, Vt 



Middlebury, Yt... 

Northfleld,yt 

Appl6ton,Wis 

Beloit, Wis , 

Madison, Wis 

Bipon, Wis 

Washington, D. G . 
Washington, D. C . . 



i 

I 



285 

17 

20 

21 

9 

100 
10 
27 
82 
8 
42 
27 

60 

66 
10 
85 



112 

5 

25 

135 



80 

26 
45 
20 

20 
12 
20 
23 
05 
12 
8 




8,324 



Number admitted. 



i 

I 



271 

2 
17 
10 

8 
07 
10 
12 
24 

6 
24 

5 



' 17 

6 

28 

72 

83 

1 

7 



7 
60 


20 
11 

12 
10 
2 
7 
70 
6 
6 
1 



Conditioned in— 



1,670 



8 

1 

8 
8 



5 
5 

1 

U 


85 

26 

2 
2 




15 
10 

1 

4 

10 

15 

4 

2 

10 
8 
6 
1 
1 
4 



4 
2 
6 
6 



8 
1 
2 
15 


15 

11 

a7 

8 

2 



1 

10 

10 

1 

8 

14 
5 
6 

6 

3 


4 



(70) 



405 



415 



3 
:0 



I 



11 
1 
7 
1 



6 
2 

6 
12 

40 

16 
6 
2 

12 




17 
15 

1 
10 

26 

4 
3 

4 

7 
10 
6 
8 
1 
6 



I 
I 

1 
I 



8 








2 
2 

2 
10 

40 



1 






18 
4 
2 
3 

26 
1 
5 



8 
8 
3 
2 



Number rejected f 
deficiency in — 



A 



2 
1 
1 
1 



8 




10 

1 
1 

63 



8 


4 



O 



3 
2 
1 





3 



3 




12 

1 


65 



2 

8 

8 



654 



375 



02 



83 



1 

a 

1^ 



2 

1 
3 



3 




8 

1 
3 

64 



1 
2 
2 



10 
1 



00 



J3 






H 

9 



8 

•s 

9 

s 



a 
m 

g 

o 

6 

o 



2 


• •« 

8 





4 

1 









6 



44 



a 3 conditioned in Gennan and 4 in French. 6 Became students in the preparatory schooL 



5 



Showinf 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 



cm 



8taU$tiedl summary €f etudenU in eloBiioal and HienHfio preparatory oourKS. 



Stitet and Territoriea. 



Alahanm....... 

ArkioiM 

CalifonJA 

Colondo 

CoDMCtiCQt ... 

Bdawe 

Pknida 

6«orgift 

Tllmftjf 

lodiuuk ........ 

lova 

ya^l^f ...... .. 

Xeotocky 

Louisiana 

Mahie.......... 

IfarylftDd 

HaanachnsetU. 

Kkhigan 

Miimesota 

Miariaatppi .... 



Kebraaka 

New Hampahire 

• 

Xew Jersey 

New York 

North CaroliDa 

Ohio 

Or^on 

PennajlTania 

Bhode Island 

SouUi Carolina 

Tenneasee 

Texaa 

Termont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wieeonain 

District of Colnmbi*. 

Indian Territory 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Waabington 

Total 



Number preparing for 
claaaioal coarse in ool> 
lege. 




84 
8 

107 
2 

160 
84 
49 

484 
02 
20 

200 



333 

30 

175 

116 

176 

9 

M 

54 

45 



100 
262 
1,626 
218 
235 

66 
380 

15 

67 
358 

85 
811 
116 



25 

20 

8 



23 



6,090 



ll 



44 

4 
863 



76 
40 
20 



271 

14 

1«231 



421 

49 

621 



847 



175 

174 

36 

20 

10 

9 

150 



176 



8 . 

It 



25 

63 

140 

80 





65 
058 
437 
618 
809 
241 



175 
800 
250 
109 
105 
830 
110 



849 
206 
949 
136 
633 


96 
375 
151 



43 

57 

863 

132 



Nomber preparing for acicntiflo 
coarse in college. 



4.260 



20 



8,275 






I? 



4 

10 

114 



45 
80 
25 

212 
65 
88 

112 



142 
22 
58 
24 
17 
8 
82 
19 
80 



83 

74 
699 

76 
110 

60 
158 



10 

196 

82 

72 

58 



11 
12 



2,611 






67 
107 



67 



8 

2 

180 



20 

29 

205 



68 



77 
80 
12 
30 
15 



22 



60 



989 



8 



t ® 

S3 

U 

« 



M 



10 

28 

437 

10 





8 
1,037 
448 
662 
237 
100 



109 



275 
69 
111 
401 
100 



357 

85 

750 

114 

829 



78 

344 

246 



13 

50 

433 



6,985 



f 

s 



1. 

.a 
B 8 

s s 



53 
160 



14 




199 

121 

49 



13 
45 



17 
26 



84 



828 



50 



1,609 



! 

3 

o 
H 



126 
269 
900 
60 
675 
123 
74 
968 

2,866 

1«082 

1,621 
646 
885 
61 
512 
513 

1,949 
537 
264 
808 
832 
210 
643 
448 

4,257 
685 

2,468 
874 

2^580 
219 
299 

1,323 
539 
392 
411 
ICS 

1,068 

164 

3 



23 

ao 



30,819 



CIV BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

STATSMENT BESPECTING AMEBICAK COLLEGES. 

Several foreign mmisters who represent their ooontries in Washington have applied 
to me for information on various topics connected with American colleges, such as 
their courses of study and the degrees conferred by them. I have caused several 
copies of the following statement to be made for their use ; but finding that the matter 
is of general interest, I publish it in this report. 

COUXOX KOMXMCLATUBB. 

By the term '' superior instruction '' educators in the United States somewhat vaguely 
describe all grades of instruction above that given in high schools, academies, normal 
schools, and commercial schools. The nomenclature of institutions of learning here is 
quite perplexing to foreigners, and even to many natives. This arises from several 
causes, of which the two most important will be mentioned. These are, first, the dif- 
ferent meanings assigned to the words "college," "university," "seminary," &c., 
by the various nations from which the people of the United States descend; and, 
secondly, the different wayv in which institutions of learning are incorporated in the 
several States. A few instances will show what is meant. 

In Pennsylvania, the Girard College is really a school for orphans, whom it appren- 
tices at a specified age. In Connecticut, Tale College, having an extensive and varied 
course in the classics, mathematics, and the moral, mental, and political sciences, haa 
also schools for superior instruction in technology, fine arts, law, medicine, and 
divinity, yet it does not possess any university title, although it is one of the very 
best of American universities. Again, Harvard College, the oldest in America, is the 
nucleus of Harvard University, which, in addition to the coUege proper, consists of 
schools of technology, divinity, law, medicine, dentistry, and agriculture, besides 
having a fine astronomical observatory, a botanical garden and herbarium, a very 
large library, and two museums, one of American arch»ology and ethnology and the 
other of comparative zoology. The College of Physicians and Surgeons in Phila- 
delphia is a society of resident medical men, chartered for certain specified purposes, 
but not intended as an educational institution. Again, the Board of Regents of the 
University of the State of New York is a corporation supervising all the chartered col- 
leges, universities, law schools, and medical schools, and nearly all the academies and 
academic departments of union schools in the State ; but, as an educational corporation, 
it has not a single professor, teacher, or student. On the other hand, many so called 
"universities" have only classical and scientific departments or courses; some have 
only the classical department ; some, especially in the South and West, combine work 
usually done in schools for secondary instructien with their collegiate- work. This 
will be further alluded to. 

It will be observed, therefore, that the nomenclature of institutions for snx>6rior in- 
struction in this country does not by any means indicate with certainty the character 
of the instruction given in them, but only that they profess to instruct in one or more 
of the numerous subjects which by common consent are classed together under the 
name of "superior instruction." 

CHAIULCTBB OF COLLBOUTB nrSTBUCTIOV. 

Collegiate iustruction may be divided generally into two kiods, which have in com- 
mon Inany studies : one of these is composed, to a great extent,, of instruction in Latin 
and Greek ; the other devotes more attention to mathematics and natural sciences. 
The courses a,ve generally four years in length, and they are called classical and scien- 
tific. 

Beligious connection of the colleges, — Another peculiarity of sobools for collegiate in- 
struction here is the influence which the different religious denominations have in 
their foundation and support. Unlike the Protestant communitiiBS^in Northern Germany, 
Holland, and England — which had great monastic foundations^ buildings, and funds 
that could be directed to the training of clergymen for the* new religious beliefi» of 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CY 

those countries — the colonists in America were forced, out of their own narrow means 
to establish schools, colleges, and seminaries for the preparation of their clergy and 
teachers or else to import these fix>m the Old World ; other religious motives and 
causes have continued to produce the same effect. No religious sect, however numer- 
ically small, is satisfied till it has the control of some college where its spiritual teach- 
ers and the chief men of its laity can be educated in the principles and practices of its 
belief Consequently we find that the greater number of American colleges have a 
decidedly denominational connection of one kind or another. There is, however, an 
increasing number that, remaining ^ligious in spirit, have outgrown special sectarian 
limitations. Of course, too, the inteUeotual, moral, and social standard of the college 
varies in like manner with the intellectual, moral, and social condition of the American 
conunnnion to which it owes aUegiance. 

State colleges, — In addition to the colleges above mentioned, several American States 
have established colleges and universities not sectarian in their character, but sup- 
ported partly or whoUy from public funds. These fhnds originally were derived from 
the sale or lease of the '' university lands " given to the newer States on their admission 
into the Union. 

Still other institutions of this kind have been founded by the benevolence of private 
citizens. Their positions depend much on the rules imposed by their founders. 

Womem in eollegtB amd wmveniHeB, — About one-half of the universities and colleges 
established for the instruction of young men also admit the other sex. In addition to 
these there is a large number of institutions which devote themselves to the higher 
instroction of young women only. In most of the mixed colleges a special ** ladies' 
eonne'' is established, and in general the standard of qualification necessary to obtain 
a diploma is lower for women than for men. In a few cases, however, the curriculum 
is saperior in extent and variety to that of many so called colleges for the instruction 
of yoong men. The subject of mixed instruction has excited great discussion and has 
btoQght out the most contrary opinions, but it is quite impossible in this short state- 
ment to do more than note the faet. 

CollegeBfor eolored per9<m$. — Race pr^udice was so strong in some parts of the United 
States that the friends of the colored jieople found it advisable and necessary, even 
before the late war, to establish schools and a college for their special instruction. 
This feeling of prejudice is disappearing. It is much to the credit of some of the best 
colleges in America that they deny th^ir privileges to no one on account of race ; 
among these may be mentioned Dartmouth, Yale, and Harvard. 

The detrf-mute college, — Even the deaf-mute are provided ifith facilities for higher 
cnltnre. At the national capital a college for deaf-mutes has been in successful opera- 
tion for several years. It gives an excellent education in classics, mathematics, science, 
philosophy, physics, and natural history, and its graduates are eagerly sought for as 
teachers in other institutions for the deaf-mute. 

FBorissioxAL nrBTRnonoir. 

The subjects usually considered in this country matters for professional instruction 
are theology, law, medicine and surgetry, dentisry and pharmacy, engineering, naval 
and military science, and the like. Most of the schools for teaching these subjects are 
connected with colleges, but generally the connection is one of a corporate character 
only. For instance. Harvard College is at Cambridge, but the medical and dental 
schools of Harvard University are in Boston, and the agricultural school is at Jamaica 
Plain. The medical and law schools of the University of Georgetown are in Wash- 
ington. 

Normal (or pedagogic) training in this country has been confined to the training of 
teachers for elementary and secondary schools. It is not, therefore, considered a 
branch of superior instruction ; though several colleges have normal departments or 
courses of instruction in which teachers for the lower grades are instructed. In the same 
way, commercial schools are not considered a part of superior instruction, although 
many so called colleges give instruction of this kind. Quite recently, however, a few 



CYI BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 

colleges have institated professorships of pedagogy, respecting which aUnsion is made 
elsewhere in this report. 

UnUed States military and navdl achooh, — The only schools teaching military and nayal 
science under the protection of the National Government are the Military and Nayal 
Academies at West Point, N. T., and Annapolis, Md., respectively. From the gradu- 
ates of these schools, officers of the line and sta£f in both services are generally selected. 

Medical offioen of the Government, — Medical officers of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, 
Marine Hospital Service, and Revenue Marine Service are selected by competitive 
examination after due public notice. 

The quarantine service is not yet under Federal control ; but strong efforts have been 
made to work a change in this respect. 

State military academies, — Several of the States have chartered military schools; in 
these, mathematics, engineering, French, German, military tactics, and drill are taught, 
often exceedingly well. Instruction in tactics is also given at several other institu- 
tions, among which may be mentioned the colleges of agriculture and the mechanic 
arts which have been established under the provisions of the act of Congress approved 
July 2, 1862, and the several acts amendatory thereof. 

OOLLBGSS OF AQBICULTUBB JLITD THS MXCHAXIO ABTB. 

The act of July 2, 1862, granted to each State of the Union, out of the public domain, 
30,000 acres of land (or land scrip for an equivalent amount) for each Senator and Rep- 
resentative then in Congress from the State. ^ The State must use the money derived 
from sale thereof in ** endowing, supporting, and maintaining at least one college where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and 
including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may 
respectively prescribe." — (Section 4 of the act of July 2, 1862.) 

It will be observed here once more that the Federal Grovemment avoids interference 
with local rule. It charters institutions of learning only in the District of Columbia. 
Elsewhere, institutions of learning are chartered by territorial or State Legislatures or 
under the provision of general State laws. 

nroEFEKDKNOB OF TUB AMKWCATf COLLBOB. 

i^erican colleges aiid professional schools, even when endowed from public funds, 
are not much under public control or supervision. After receiving their charters — 
which usually authorize them to have a corporate seal, to hold real and personal prop- 
erty, to teach and charge fees therefor, and to confer appropriate degrees — there is not 
much connection between them and the States. The State of New York is an excep- 
tion to this general usage. All academies chartered by the State and aU colleges and 
professional schools (excepting schools of theology) are parts of the general corpora- 
tion known as ''The University of the State of New York,'' which has been mentioned 
already. Detailed information respecting American colleges and professional schools 
will be found throughout the annual reports of this Office, but more particularly in the 
statistical tables of the appendix. 

DBOBBB8 JX COUBSB. 

When students have pursued the course of study laid down by the authorities of a 
college or professional school, and have passed such examinations and paid such fees 
as are prescribed, they are given diplomas which certify that they have so studied 
and that the corporation has granted them a degree ; this is called a degree in oowree. 
The usual degrees in course on graduation in this country are as follows : 

Collegiate, — Classical, a. b., bachelor of arts; scientific, B. s., bachelor of science. 

Professional, — Theology, B. D., bachelor of divinity; medicine, M. D., doctor of med- 

> For example, Delaware had two Sesaton and one BepreaentatlTe in Congreaa ; Delaware thereCoie 
zeceiyed 90,000 acres (land aorip). 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CYII 

idse; dentistry, D. D. s., doctor of dental surgery; pharmacy, ph. o., graduate in 
pharmacy; law, li«. b., bachelor of laws. 

The great improvement and extension of scientific and polytechnic instruction dur- 
ing the past fifteen years have made it advisable to give degrees in course at gradua- 
tion in civil engineering (c. E.), agriculture (B. agb.), mining engineering (m. e.}, 
architecture (b. abch.}, and other branches. 

Usoally a degree in course caUed master of arts (a.m.) is conferred three years 
after graduation on bachelors of arts who are engaged in literary or professional pur- 
soits and who pay to their college a fee prescribed by its regulations. There are 
exceptions to this rule. The University of Virginia never gave this degree except to 
persons studying and passing examinationB in certain specified branches. Harvard 
Yale, and some other colleges have discontinued the practice. 

The degree of bachelor of divinity is not conferred by most of the theological schools. 
Thns, in 1875, this degree was conferred on only 158 graduates, while the theological 
seminaries graduated about 400 other students who were undoubtedly equal in literary 
and professional attainments and in fitness for the pastoral office to those who received 
that degree. 

In the same year 26 schools of law conferred the degree of bachelor of laws 
(ll. b.) on 841 graduates. It may be said with truth that at least as many more 
persons must have been admitted to practice by the various State courts without 
attending law schools or taking degrees.' 

The degree of doctor of medicine (m. d.) in course was conferred in 1875 by 61 
schools of medicine, the number of such degrees conferred being about 2,300. There 
can be no doubt that others in various ways* entered the medical profession during 
the same year without a diploma. Licss than four hundred degrees in course were 
conferred on graduates in dentistry and pharmacy. 

It will be seen from the above facts that the ranks of the professions in this coun- 
try are not filled exclusively by graduates from institutions for superior or profes- 
sional instruction. The conmiunity, however, is beginning to look with disfavor on 
those who enter the professions without previous thorough preparation, and it may 
be said with confidence that in the course of time few will be found in the professions 
who are not graduates. 

BOHORAET DIOBXIS. 

American colleges are much in the habit of giving honorary degrees. This practice, 
copied from the two great English universities, has been carried on without due dis- 
crimination. It is confined almost entirely to the coUeges proper ; no school of the- 
ology daring the year 1875 gave any honorary doctorate of divinity ; no school of law 
conferred any honorary doctorate of law ; only 5 honorary doctorates of medicine were 
conferred by the medical schools. The colleges gave honorary doctorates as follows : 
138 in divinity, D. D. ; 2 in medicine, M. D. ; 68 in law, ll. d. ; 19 in philosophy, PH. 
, D. ; and 4 in music, MUS. D. They also conferred 130 honorary masterships of arts. 
It ii true that most of these degrees were conferred on men who had graduated from 
college and that most of the recipients were professional men, but the practice is 
one very liable to abuse and is discountenanced now by some of the leading schools. 
Owing to the facility with which charters can be obtained from most State legisla- 
tures, it is quite easy for unscrupulous and designing men to be corporators of a ''col- 
lege" or "university;^' or they can become the possessors by purchase of the charter 
of some decaying corporation with a sounding name. When a charter is secured by 
either of these methods an imposing series of diplomas certifying to the conferring of 
various degrees is prepared ; advertisements are published which inform the public 
that for a specified sum of money and the presentation of a satisfactory thesis the 
applicxuit will be given the degree he desires. The thesis is unimportant ; the fee is 
the principal reason for conferring the distinction. Many foreigners have obtained 
degrees from such schools, to the scandal and disgrace of our country. It may be set 

1 Admiuion to the bar is a matter entirely in thA hanoUi of the courts. 

1 Sometimes without any authority ; sometimes by license of medical societies. 



CVin REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION, 

down as an inTsriable rule that any "college" or "nnivcTrity" or professional school 
-which grants degrees in absentia on the payment of certain ''fees'' is a fraud. Fortu- 
nately the number of such institutions is not large. 

FBSB BCBOLABSHIPa. 

In many colleges, and in nearly aU schools of theology, there are scholarships 
obtainable under certain conditionS| so that poor students can receive help from 
the income thereof; but scholarships in medical schools and law schools are almost 
unknown. 

OOKnmOHB OF ADMUnQH. 

As the colleges are quite independent of the State in their management, so they 
are also as regards conditions of admission to their curriculum (except in the State 
of New York) ; generally, however, students desiring to pursue a classical course of 
instruction are required to prepare themselves for it by studying some of the easier 
Latin and Greek authors, the English branches, arithmetic, geometry, and some alge- 
bra; but these requirements vary much. 

ASTonmaart of pborssobs. 

• 

Professors are usually selected by the board of trustees of the college they serve. 
The State has very little to do with their selection or the payment of their salaries. 
In sectarian colleges the professors are usually selected fr^m the educated men of the 
denomination; and the desire that these institutions should supply facilities for supe- 
rior instruction as extensive as those afforded by rival colleges produces a healthy 
competition. By this means the requirements of the curriculum are continually im- 
proving. An additional motive for improvement is the high standard maintained by 
non-sectarian colleges. 

Professors in professional schools are generally selected on account of their pub- 
lished writings or the reputation acquired in their professional career. In theological 
schools they of course belong to the religious denomination for which the seminary 
is founded. 

GBIUBBAL BSKABXS. 

From the foregoing remarks the reader will observe that the American university, 
when fully developed, differs from the German or the English university. The English 
universities at Oxford and Cambridge are substantially several colleges for instruction 
in classics, logics, mathematics, and mental and moral science, professional instruction 
being given almost entirely in London and other large cities of Great Britain. The 
German university leaves the care of ordinary instruction in classics, mathematics, 
and similar studies to the Gymnasien, Realschuleiv» &c. It teaches by means of lect- 
ures, and confines itself to a very high character of instruction in philology, philos- 
ophy, mathematics, law, medicine, and diyinity. 

CONDinOK OF STTPEBIOR INSTRUCnOK. 

The present condition of superior instruction in this country is, on the whole, en- 
couraging to all lovers of sound learning and solid culture. Institutions of long estab- 
lishment are broadening and deepening their plans ; institutions of recent foundation 
are pushing into the field untrammelled by tradition and full of the spirit of the age 
with which they are solely identified. 

Boston University, — Prominent in the highest grade among the later institutions 
stands Boston University, rich in endowment, imbued with advanced ideas of impar- 
tial and universal education, brought into closest competition with older institutions, 
and able, by virtue of the conditions which have called it into existence, to combine 
exact scholarship and severe tests with elastic methods and eclectic courses — it is 
unquestionably destined to .exercise a determining infiuence in the new methods of 
education which the time demands and for which it is expectantly waiting. 

The position of Boston Univer»ty with reference to the department <^ theology 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CIX 

acquires pecnliar importance fcom the edacational policy adopted in State establiah- 
menta. In the endeavor to preserve that perfect religious impartiality harmonizing 
with the principle of onr constitution, these institutions have made no attempt to 
give instruction in theology. 

Universities of private origin are free from the conditions that limit State action^ and 
the University of Boston congratulates itself that '' it stands for all sciences and not 
for a part of them." 

The Johns Hopkint Univerrity, — As the founder of the Johns Hopkins University gave 
no limitation to the interpretation of the word, the trustees after ample counsel and 
reflection developed an organization which corresponds more nearly to the German 
nniTeisity than any other American college. 

The increasing attendance of American students uxKm the lectures of the German 
oniversitieB, the enrolment of graduate students at Harvard and other of our institu- 
tions, and the need of advanced instruction for students looking to professors' chairs led 
the trostees to determine that the first object of their care should be ** the philosophical 
hcvltj of a university,^ to give superior instruction in mathematics, science, and the 
langnages. The academic staff consists, at present, of the president and six professors, 
including graduates of the universities of London, Oxford, Cambridge, and Gottingen, 
of American colleges, of a medical school^ and of a technical school — men who to the 
highest scholastic honors have added large and varied experience in practical affairs — 
while the associate instructors, lecturers, and fellows represent a still wider circle of 
institutions, thus centring in the university at the outset influences the most vigorous 
and stimulating. 

Recognizing the responsible relation of a university to the antecedent grades, the 
trustees have made arrangements for the reception of graduates of the Baltimore City 
College and of private schools of the city, and courses of study leading to the bacca- 
laureate degree have been marked out for such schools. This is necessarily a measure 
of local application, but the pervading spirit of the university is comprehensive, 
liberal, and nationaL For the second year 104 students were registered, as follows : 
20 fellows, 38 other graduates, 24 matriculates, and 22 speciaL The traditional class 
system is here abandoned, each student upon entering being assigned to a member of 
the faculty, who acts as his official adviser with reference to his studies. All advance- 
ment is determined by rigid tests, and the examinations for the degrees conferred, 
namely, a. b., ph. b., a. m., and ph. d., are thorough and impartial. 

The library of the university is being gathered with reference to its special needs. 
The relation between the Peabody Institute and the university relieves the latter from 
the necessity of establishing a general library upon a liberal scale, while at the same 
time securing to the students the invaluable facilities of a large, weU chosen, and 
constantly increasing library and a comprehensive series of scientific Journals and 
transactions, purchased with reference to the wants of students. It will be especially 
in the power of the university to advance science by stimulating original investigation 
and research, and publishing the results to the criticism of the world. The earnest 
of its purpose in this direction is the activity of the three scientific laboratories, 
physical, biological, and chemical, and the list of books and papers published by resi- 
dent members of the university during the last two years. 

The influence of the university is not confined to its resident members : its liberal 
spirit and its power of wide adaptation are illustrated in such special efforts as the 
''teachers' class in physiology'' and the afternoon public lectures. The latter effort 
has been maintained frt)m year to year with increasing success. It reacts to the ben- 
efit of the university by arousing the interest of the best people and by inciting young 
men to prepare for the large opportunities of which a glimpse is thus afforded. 

Vanderbilt Univernty, — The want of additional means of higher education in the 
South and Southwest led several conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, between the years 1871 and 1873, to take measures for the organization of a 
nniveiBity. Their efforts excited the interest of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who, on the 



CZ REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

» 

S7tli of March, 1873, made a donation of $500,000 to the enterprise, which amount he 
snhseqnently doubled. As the result of tb''s generous gift, Yanderbilt University was 
established in Nashville, Tenn., October, 1675. 

The university is organized with four distinct departments, as follows: The depart- 
ment of philosophy, science, and literature, and the biblical, law, and medical depart- 
ments. The courses are eclectic, allowing the student th^ privilege of pursuing those 
studies which are suited to his special taste, previous preparation, or projKMed busi- 
ness in life. 

As a temporary substitute for the lack of efficient preparatory schools, a preparatory 
collegiate department has been established in connection with the university, whose 
students will be under the same government and ei\]oy the same privileges, i 

The facilities for instruction and investigation in the different scientifio schools 
include the full appointments of physical, astronomical, and chemical laboratories, 
and a museum of natural history and mineralogy. 

It is purposed to so arrange the university curriculum that a student of ordinary 
ability may obtain the degree of bachelor of arts in four yem and that of master of 
arts in -five. Graduate students may reside at the university for any length of time, 
and be entitled to the advice and assistance of the professors and to the use of the 
university library and to examination for higher degrees. A Judicious system of 
scholarships and fellowships is designed to extend the influence of the university. 
. Drury College, — Peculiar interest attaches to all movements for superior education 
in the far West, because of the important part they must assume in maintaining the 
intellectual life of our own people constantly moving toward the setting sun, and in 
moulding into the spirit of our civilization and institutions the foreign emigrants that 
pour into our new lands. 

Drury College, Springfield, Mo., a coeducational institution under Congregational 
auspices, is one of the recent foundations in this field. While designing, as did the 
first, colleges of our infant colonies, to instruct youth in the sacred Scriptures and the 
principles of Christianity, it has no organic connection with any religious denomina- 
tion and allows no effort for the promotion of sectarian interests. It has preparatory 
and collegiate departments and is anticipating a growing want in its special arrange- 
ments for musical and art culture. 

• Colorado College is favorably situated for the work of education in the West. It 
occupies a conunanding position in that great block of territory comprising Colorado, 
New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona, exceeding by 50,000 square miles the extent of the 
thirteen original States. On the south is a mixed population of 10,000 Americans, 
20.000 Indians, and 100,000 Mexicans. The dearth of educational facilities in this 
immense region is scarcely credible. Large and populous villages are wholly destitute 
of schools, communities with a population of a thousand souls have i>erhaps two 
months' schooling in the year, and, even at that, many teachers employed can scarcely 
read and write. Adverse influences are insidiously working to secure control of edu- 
cational interests. To the west is polygamy, antagonizing all that is best in American 
liberty and all that is purest in society. 

Colorado College has pushed into the field by establishing schools auxiliary to the 
college at Santa F^ and Salt Lake City. The work of the college proper is wisely 
adapted to the wants and the special resources of its section. The college compre- 
hends at present three general courses of study, viz: English and normal course, 
preparatory classical course, and the college course prox>er. As it has been made a 
station of the United States Signal Service, students from the higher classes are formed 
into a corps for the study of meteorology and for practice in the use of instruments 
according to the regulations of the Signal Service. The price of tuition has been 
placed at |25 a year, with the design of making the college practically free to alL 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. CXI 

HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS. 

I present here nearly the whole of Professor Hitchcock's paper on the physical train- 
ing of the students at Amherst College^ Massachusetts. It was read before the Amer- 
ican Pablic Health Association at Chicago, in Beptember, 1871 : 

Probably the first idea of the department of physical education and hygiene in Am- 
herst College originated in the mind of the late President Steams. In 1859, in his 
report to the trustees of the college, when he mentions the death of two members of 
the senior class as probably hastened, if not actually caused, by a neglect of the laws 
of health, l^e whole board of trustees was incited to the immediate erection of a 
baildin^, the nucleus and beginning of the department. 

This building is called the Barrett Gymnasium, in honor of the late Benjamin Bar- 
rett, of North^pton, Mass., the largest donor to it. The edifice is of stone, two 
storied, well lighted and ventilated, and warmed in the cold season. The lower story 
contains dressing room, bowling aUeys, spirometers, lifting and rowing machines, and 
the apparatus for securing vital statistics. The upper room is 50 by 75 feet, of smooth 
hard pme floor, with a clear space of 40 by 50 feet. At one end of the hall is to be 
found much of the heavy apparatus, consisting of the horizontal bar, rack bars, vault- 
log horse, batule board, spool ropes, peg pole^ incline board, perpendicular pole, hori- 
zontal, vertical, and inclined laaders, swingmg and travelling rings, Indian clubs, 
Ufting wei^ts, and a few other kinds. At the other end are a smaliplatform for the 
leader of the class exercises and a piano to secure harmony and rhythm during the 
exercises. Above this platform is a gallery for the spectators of the exercises, of whom 
there were 3,635 during the year 187B-^7, 842 of them being ladies. 

The gymnasium is open during all the hours of daylight and may be used b^ any 
member of college at nis will, save that he may not interfere with the exercise of 
a class when occupying the floor. No restraints whatever are put upon the students 
in osing the building or its apparatus, save instructions as to the proper and healthy 
nse of the heavy apparatus and impressive caution to the freshmen and newcomers 
not to use excessively until inured to work and familiarity with the apparatus by a 
period of training. 

The title of the department was proposed by Dr. Nathan Allen, of Lowell, one of 
the trustees and graduates of the colle^, of which he has been an early and long 
tried friend, and &e most devoted and faithful guardian to the department, of which 
he may well be styled the godfather. The duties of the professor of this department 
were established by the trustees, upon the suggestions ofDr. Allen, as follows : '* The 
dnties of this professor shall be: First, to take charge of the gymnasium and give in- 
stmction to the students in gymnastics. Second^ to take a general oversight of the 
health of the students and to give such instruction on the sublect as may be deemed 
expedient, according to the general plan stated by the president in his report and 
nnder the direction of the faculty, like all the other studies. Third, to teacn elocu- 
tion, so far as it is connected with physical training. Fourth, he shall give lectures 
from time to time upon hygiene, physical culture, and other topics pertaining to the 
laws of life and healthy including some general knowledge of anatomy and physiol- 
ogy. Fifth, the individual appointed to have charge of this department shall be a 
thoroughlv educated physician, and, like other teachers and professors, shall be a 
member of the college faculty. It is distinctly understood that the health of the stu- 
dents shall at all times be an object of his si>ecial watoh^ care, and counsel.'' 

At the same time, the faculty believed that the exercises in the gymnasium should 
be conducted according to the following ideas: "First, the main object shall not be 
to secure feat« of agility and strength, or even powerfal muscle, but to keep in good 
health the whole b^y. Second, that all the students shall be required to attend on 
its exercises for half an hour, designated for the purpose, at least four days in the 
week. Third, the instructor snail assign to each individual such exercises as may be 
best adapted to him, taking special care to prevent the ambitious from violent action 
and all extremes, endeavormg to work the whole body and not overwork any part of 
it. Fourth, that while it may not be expedient to mark the gradation of attainment, 
as in the intellectual branches, yet regularity, attention, and docility should be care- 
folly noted, so as to have their proper weight in the deportment column of the stu- 
dent's general position. Fifth, that some time shall be allowed out of study hours for 
those volunteer exercises which different men, according to their tastes, may elect for 
recreation, and particularly that the bowling alleys be not given up to promiscuous 
nse, but be allotted at regular hours to those who wish to make use of them : all 
these volunteer exercises, of whatever kind, to be under the supervision of the gym- 
nasium instructor. Sixth, that the building shall always be closed before dark, that 
DO light shall be used in it, and no smoking or inegularities of any kind shall bo 
allowed in it. Seventh, that the instructor ought to 1^ a member of the faculty, and 
give in to it his marks and occasional accounts and receive directions a0 other officers 
of the college are accustomed to do." 



CHI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION, 

The department has now been in operation for seventeen years. During nearly the 
whole of the firet year it was under the direction of Dr. John W. Hooker, son of the 
late Dr. Worthington Hooker, of New Haven, Conn., who left on account of sick- 
ness and soon died. And for the remaining sixteen years it is interesting to observe 
that^ though it has been experimental in the work of college education, yet it has been 
earned on so nearly according to the plan and views of its originators that to a mere 
looker-on it might seem as ii the work of the department began and ended with the 
dailv exercises of the four classes in the g^nasium. But in this department much 
of tne work is done with individuals and in ways where it is not known or seen by 
the multitude. 

Each of the four classes in college meets the professor for an ezeroise in the gymna> 
slum of half an hour's length on four days in tl^ week. In this way the student pre- 
sents himself for a public visit to the professor, and ma^ always have a private inter- 
view either before or after the exercise if either desire it. The hours for the exercise 
are mainly at the beginning and dose of the day, as both the most valuable time for 
exercise and those which Best adapt themselves to the coUege routine. Each class 
has its own captain and as many otner officers as are best adapted to manceuvre and 
handle the class in its movements. The general method of the conduct of the exer- 
cises is military. The required exercise of each man and class is best known as that of 
light gymnastics, or those bodily exercises performed by a class with one or two pieces 
of apparatus in the hands, each movement timed to music and all simultaneous and 
uniform ; and the only apparatus successfully used at Amherst is the pair of wooden 
dumb-bells, weighing less than a pound apiece. The students here have universally 
preferred the beUs to the rings and wandB, though these have been thoroughly tried. 
Each class has it« own ** exerdse'' or series of Ixidily movements with the bells, and 
these are so managed as to give free, lively, graceful, and vigorous work to the whole 
muscular system daring the time of the exercise. In addition to the bell exercise, 
marching by the file and flank is considerably practised, and during the cold months 
running or '^ double quick'' movements. This running is encouraged, that the stu- 
dent may gain the very valuable assistance that it gives to the ** wind'' by furnishing 
warm air to the lungs, and a more rapid relief hj sweating and greater freedom to 
the bodv by the smaller amount of clothing required than if the necessary amount 
were taken in the cold temperature of out of doors. This exercise varies from fifteen 
to twenty minutes, and with the teinperature from 55*^ to 60^ the student almost 
always finishes with a moist skin. The remainder of the half hour is occupied in 
voluntary exercise. Some use the heavy apparatus, about one in .eight, or take a 
longer run ; others dance, use clubs, sing, pnll rope, toss in the blanket, turn somer- 
saiuts, and occupy themselves in any proper maimer to secure exercise, sport, or recre- 
ation. 

This amount of exercise includes all that is required of the student, and satisfies 
probably three-fourths of the whole number. The use of the bowling alleys is entirely 
at the option of the student. Some, however, who are not quite normally robust or 
who are specially advised to it, frequent the gymnasium for the seoond half hour in 
the day, either following special directions or enjoying themselves as they like. Others, 
on account of their robust nature, require more muscular work in order to discharge 
their superfluous energy. Just as some people require more food than do others. It 
might be thought that accidents would happen here frequently, and that there has 
been such an exemption from everything of this sort seems to be owing to a special 
providence. There has never been a serious result from accident since thebuilding waa 
opened and dedicated to the better culture of the body, unless it be to one young man 
who fell and was kept from gymnasium exercise for three months. 

Before this department was establi^ed it was thought that requirements of bodily 
exercise would be irksome to students and difficult to secure. But experience here 
has shown that the disposition to shirk this branch of college life has not been so 
marked as in some of the intellectual departments. Some statistics have been gath- 
ered to illustrate this point. In 1868^69 attendance on chapel and gymnastic exercises 
was compared. Nearly 84 per cent, of the class were present at Uie gymnasium and 
80 per cent, at the chapel. Similar observations in 1870 gave 13 per cent, of absences 
from chapel and 6 per cent, from the gymnasium. It was at first thought that it would 
be necessary to excuse many from gymnastic exercise. The past year, however, may 
be taken as a sample for the sixteen years, during which year only one junior and two 
freshmen (each with a defective arm) have not been required to attend. There has 
been no instance in the history of the department where the exercises as required have 
worked the least injury to the student; but, on the other hand, there are scores of men 
in whom a marked improvement has evidently taken place as a direct result of the 
required physical training as practised here. 

The military method, thougn a little used, is not sought after. It seems idle to talk 
about military rules and life where there is no military authority to carry out the reg- 
ulations. Were the coUege a State or Government institution, a military department 
would be in pface and possibly sustained and prospered. But to talk about military 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. OX III 

rules and methcxls without the authoiity of the ball and chain, the giianlhonso, or 
power of life and death in the officer, seems worse than idle. College students will 
generally chafe under that rule which degra<les them from the agents of free will and 
choice to a mere live machine except when " the country calls." 

The definition, or perhaps description, of hygiene, as understood in this department, 
is best given in the words of the late Dr. E. A. Parkes: " Taking the word hygiene in 
its largest sertse, it signifies rules for perfect culture of mind and body. It is impossi- 
ble to dissociate the two. The body is affected by everjMnental and moral action; 
the mind is profoundly influenced by bodily conditions. For a perfect system of hy- 
giene we must combine the knowledge of the physician, the schoolmaster, and the 
priest, and must train the body, the intellect, and the moral soul in a perfect and bal- 
anced order. Then, if our knowledge were exact and our means of application ade- 
quate, we should see the human being in his perfect beauty, as Pn^vidence perhaps 
intended him to be ; in the harmonious proportions and complete balance of all his 
parts in which he came out of his Makers hands, in whose divine image we are told 
ne was in the beginning made." 

With this definition for an inspiration, it is one of the duties of the professor in this 
department to give a course of lectures on health to the freshman class immediately 
op«n its entering. The subject relates more especially to the health of student life ; 
not merely to individual sanitary rules, but to the peculiar necessities of care in 
90 closely compact a body of young and growing men in college : not to those condi- 
tions peculiar to the body alone, but to those interesting relations and interdependence 
of body npon mind and vice versa. This department also gives instruction in human 
anatomy and physiology. The cabinets are well supplied with natural and artificial 
prenarations of the human body, which furnish to the student a proper acquaintance 
witn the stmcture and uses of the organs of the body, such a knowledge as ou^ht to 
be familiar to every person of so called liberal culture. The anatomy and physiology 
which is technical or professional is not offered to the student, but only such knowl- 
edge as may be gained by a tolerable acquaintance with the skeleton, the manikin^ 
and most of the enlai^ed papier mAch6 models of Auzoox. As a stimulus to study in 
this direction, two prizes for the best recitations and examination in these sciences are 
anmially given by Hon. E. H. Sawyer, of Southampton. A course of lectures, reci- 
tations, and laboratory work in comparative vertebrate zoology is undertaken by the 
senior class. This is arranged so as to give the student an enlarged plan of the verte- 
brate kingdom rather than the study ot species. 

The professor in this department is expected to know the physical condition of all 
students during term time. This does not mean that he only sees them at the gymna- 
sinm exercise, but that he makes himself acquainted with their habits, bodily condi- 
tion, and whatever in the ])hysical sense may react upon their mental state. This 
means that he offers suggestions where he may discover deficiency . excess, imprudence, 
or ignorance of many of the conditions of student hygiene and life; and the regula- 
tions of the faculty are such that these suggestions may if necessary have the force of 
a requirement. The visiting of the iU and disabled students requires a share of the 
time of this professor ; for, while the diseases of college life are seldom alarming, or 
very distressing, or numerous, yet for students living in dormitories and boarding 
houses, without home comforts and nursing when ill, much care is often necessary to 
give comfort during and freedom from the disorders which affect young men at the 
college period of lif^. It is to be hoped that the next step in physical education here 
may be to establish a sanitarium or an equivalent to the hospital of an army. 

The amount of time lost in sickness by the students is a fact determined by this de- 
partment. Dr. Jarvis says that the amount of time lost by each laborer in Europe is 
from nineteen to twenty days each year; and the Massachusetts Board of Health 
says that in 1872, in that Commonwealth, each productive person lost thirteen days 
by sickness. A man here is put on the sick list if he is absent more than two consecu- 
tive days from all college exercises. With this as a compuison, between the years of 
1861-^62 and 1876-^, inclnsive, S^.3 per cent, of the college liave been entered- on 
the sick list ; or, every student in college has constmctively lost 2.64 days each year 
by illness, and every sick student has averaged 11.36 days of absence from college 
daties. Daring this same jieriod, 48, or three each year on an average, have left col- 
lege from physical disabilities, althongh 16 of these have rettimed and entered again 
their own or a succeeding class. The causes which produced these removals were : in 
7 eases, constitutional debility ; in 6, typhoid fever ; in 5. consumptive tendencies ; in 
6, weak or injured eyes, and single cases because of other infirmities. During this 
period of sixteen years, 16 students have died while connecte<l with the college. 

In connection with this subject it is instructive to learn that dyspepsia, though 
formerly prevalent in Qollege, has lost its foothold here of late years. For the past 
sixteen years it has not once so occurred as to be recognized as a cause of loss of time 
to any student. Pork, too, is mostly banished as an article of food. The students 
will not eat it. The maladies which have visited Amherst students for the sixteen 
years past have been, in the order of their frequency : Colds, including the few of lung 

E — ^vra 



CXIV EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

fevL*r aiul influenza, 35 i>«r cent. ; physical accidents, 9.47 per cent. ; boils, 4.82 per 
cent. ; eyes, 4.5(5 per cent. ; and so on in decreasing ratio of numbers, with febricma, 
typhoid fever, quinsy, debility, mumps, bilious fever, diphtheria, bilious trouble, 
stoaiach initatiou, intermittent fever, measles, teeth, and forty-five other causes which 
yielded 1G4 cases, or 12 per cent, of all the cases of sickness. 

The months of the year during which college sickness has prevailed havebec-tn care- 
fully recorded. The record, however, can be made out only for nine months, as vaca- 
tions cover so much of the other months that it would not give completed j?esult«. 
April also has always had a short vacation. 

The percentage of cases has been as follows : 

In January 13. i? 

In February 16.6 

In March 16.4 

In April (part of the month') 6.3 

In May i 12.8 

In June 6.3 

In September 10.3 

In October 9.7 

In November 7.7 

Total 99.9 

In addition to the items secured upon the maladies of students. Dr. Hasket Derby, 
of Boston, is now instituting a series of personal examinations of every student, in 
order to determine the effect of college life upon near-sightedness. In due time with- 
out doubt his results will be g^ven to the public. The vital statistics of the students 
of the college have also been secured. These include the age, weight, height, finger- 
reach (distance between tips of the middle finger of each hand^, chest g^irth (average 
between **fuir* and "repose"), chest range, arm girth (biceps), forearm girth, capacity 
of lungs, and a simple test of muscular strength. The results are the averages of the 
data secured from 1,171 students, with 20,458 items of record: Age, 21 years, two 
months; weight, 139.146 pounds, 63.11 kilograms; height, 5.653 feet, 1.723 metres; 
finger reach, 5.783 feet, 1.763 metres: chest girth, 35^786 inches, 9.09 decimetres; 
chest range, 3.416 inches, 8.7 centimetres; arm girth, 11.620 inches, 2.95 decimetres; 
forearm girth, 11.059 inches, 2.81 decimetres; lung capacity, 240.871 cubic inches, 4.095 
litres: strength, 10.747 times. 

Probably the most important feature of this department consists in plaeing it on 
the same level with the other departments of the college course. As, however, it is 
of so different a nature and unlike the ordinary methods of so called school culture, 
it has taken time and experiments to carry the system along to it« present condition. 
In our educational institutions some method is adopted to Inform the student — and 
generally tlie public, too — where his position is in the institution and how he pro- 
gresses. In mental growth and culture this can be determine<l by recitationB, exam- 
inations, and exhibitions, since the mental powers should grow through the whole 
range of mental maturity, and the design of intellectual work is to secure the highest 
development of mind within its normal limit>s. But the young man who enters col- 
lege in his twentieth year has approximated to his highest physical growth and pow- 
ers ; and moreover the design of the college physical education is not to produce ath- 
letes or physiological prodigies, but only to estabUsh health, and well preserve the 
body up to the normal standard, and promote the harmonious culture of both. Hence 
"rank cannot be assigned to a man if he excels his classmate in heavy gymnastics. 
To encourage this might be ii^jurious. And to discriminate between four-fifths of a 
class as to the best gymnasts with dumb-bells would be next to impossible, as this 
proportion of a class perform the exercise equally well. And vet to secure a proper 
attention to obedience of the laws of health, and particularly the taking of sufficient 
and regular exercise iu a proper manner, is what is attempted to be done for the Am- 
herst student ; and if he but gives the attention and care to the needs and culture of 
his body as required in this way, he receives an increment to his college rank or st^md- 
ing which is recorded on the books of the faculty: in this way the student has a 
l)crsonal incitement to discipline in this department. There is also an inducement to 
the same thing in another way and by the means which are always so effectual to 
the college student : a spirit of class pride and honor. By the generosity of Mr. John 
H. Washburn, secretarj' of the Home Insurance Company, New York, a yearly prize 
of ^100 is given to " the class which during the vear shall most faithfully discharge its 
duties in the gymnasium and carry out most fully the instructions of the professor of 
hygiene." This prize has been awarded for the last four years, and has shown valua- 
ble results in ^'bracing up" the easy, indifferent, want of energy element of society, 
which is not wanting m a college; the very character needing push, snap, and tone 
to make it enjoyable of itself and of use to mankind. The following data gathered at 
different peri<Kl.s show the effect of the class prize: In 1868-'69 the attendance on 



SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION. 



CXV 



sjimiastic exercises, inclading the excused absences, was 88 i>er cent, of the class; 
onring October, 18r70, the jratio of absence to attendance with the same data was 1 to 
17^; and during the summer of ISTG-T? the average attendance of the classes, under 
same conditions, was 93.5 per cent. 

It iM not possible to make definite statements as to the value of this department, 
siDce no numerical records of data were had concerning these matters before its crea- 
tion. Hence, criticisms, adverse or otherwise, must depend on hearsay, opinions, and 
general impressious. It is a general opinion that the young men carry themselves 
in their walk with more erectness and elasticity, not to say grace, than did the former 
college students. Soon after the establishment of this department, boarding house 
keepers noticed a better appetite tm the part of the students and a demand for the 
more substantial edibles, such as bread and meat. The opinion of the college faculty 
is most decided that the intro<luction of the new department has done much to im- 
prove the health of the students. Prof. W. S. Tyler, the oldest member of the fac- 
ulty at Amherst, speaks as follows upon this matter : '^If I were asked to specify what 
I consider to be the most marked characteristic and distinctive excellence of the Am- 
herst gymnastics, I should say that it is the union of recreation and amusement with 
exercise, of the voluntary ana spontaneous with the required and the prescribed; in a 
word, of play with work. To succeed in doing this wonkL be of course, according to 
Dr. Bushnelrs well known distinction in his article on 'Work and play,' to bring 
heaven down to earth. And this is just the success which these gjinnnstics have 
achieved." 

One merit of the system as practised here has been its humanizing or levelling in- 
flnence. The best scholar in his class may stand shoulder to shoulder in the gymna- 
aiim between two very ordinary scholars and constantly be made to realize that ho 
is not equal to either of them in physical attainments or endurance. And here a man 
may not choose his comrade on account of his lit-erary or social nnalities : one of the 
things periiaps which may help to prepare him for the battle of life and the develop- 
ment of proper sympathies and self-denial . A moral consideration of some si^ificance 
has presented itself in the college within the last 12 or 15 years, which is the de- 
crease in the demands for college discipline. This has aone so far that durlnff the 
last year not a single student was removed from college for improprieties of conduct. 
The drinking of intoxicating liouors and the useless expenditure ormoney in style and 
show, which once were decidedly prevalent in college, have been less during the last 
few years. If any of these things are credited to the department under consideration, 
it is no doubt very much owing to the giving up of many petty rules when so new an 
clement was introduced into the college; and this very relinquishment places the 
student much more under his own control, government, and self-reliance. 



TABLE X.— 8CHOOL<» OF SCIKNCE. 



The following statement shows the number of institutions and departments of this 
claw, with instructors and students, as reported to this Office in each year from 1870 
to 1877, inclusive. The numbers under 1873, 1874, 1G75, 1876, and 1877 include the 
national Military and Naval Academies : 



Xumber of institutionB 
Smnber of instroctors. 
HnmbcT of stadeots . . . 



1870. 

1 


1871. 

, 

41 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1870. 
75 


17 


70 


70 


72 


74 


144 


303 


724 


740 


600 


758 


703 


1,413 


3,303 


5,885 


8,050 


7,244 


7,157 


7,614 



1877. 

74 

781 

8,550 



CXVI 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table X. — Part 1. — Summary of statistics of schools of science. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticnt 

Delaware 

Plorlda 

Georgia 

Illinois 

T tiiHa^v^ 

Iowa 

TTayiiiaiy , 

Kentncky 

Maine 

Maryland 

Hassachosetta . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . 
Bhode Island . . . 
South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia . . 
Wisconsin 



Total 

U.S. Military Acad'y 
U. S. Naval Academy 

Grand total . . . 



s 

«M 

o 
b 

B 
'A 



ad 



aO 



40 



42 



Preparatory depart- 
ment. 



e 
a 

6 

•Ad 
00 



1 

3 






(B) 



5 
1 








2 
3 











(d) 





4 
8 



34 



34 



Students. 



53 

100 





(b) 



165 

107 

40 





13 

45 





17 

10 












71 



(d) 
(b) 




50 



671 



'a 

B 



60 




(b) 



34 

14 

9 











10 











22 



(d) 



155 



Scicutiflc deportment- 



Students. 



g 
o 

I 

a 

o 

00 

o 
O 



7 
12 
33 



32 



(b) 



17 

24 

7 

16 

12 

8 

8 

6 

47 

8 

4 



(b) 



3 
5 



12 
11 
42 
12 
12 
4 
11 



8 



(b) 



9 

8 
10 



e 

s 

s 



120 

84 

126 



188 
(b) 



198 
227 

16 
273 
140 
110 
104 

41 
844 
141 



(6) 



42 



13 



24 
41 

201 
75 
49 
49 
67 
43 
37 
(b) 

331 
15 

224 

44 

9 




O 

o 

i 
t 

a 



47 

3 

13 



12 



10 

5 

59 

12 



5 

a 
'2 • 

«M O 

O T? 



'A 



5 



10 
100 



383 3, 366 



311 



47 
67 



264 
360 



071 



155 



497 3,990 



311 



3 
3 



30 






G 


1 


1 


29 









4 



12 

1 





14 

1 






1 



I 

ce 
e 

C5 

■•^ 

'A 

c 



100 




27 



250 





300 



11 







12 
40 



(6) 



93 



60 



«?) 



(b) 





200 

36 



79 1, 129 







79 



1,129 









O 5 

o ic 

o 

6 

s 

'A 








20 








9 







23 





(W 



53 



53 



aCollege not yet established. 6 Reported with classical department (Table IX). c The income 
of $50,000, which has accrued from the national grant, at |100 a scholarship annually, d Reported in 
Table VU. 



SCIENTIFIC INSTKUCJ ION. 



CXVII 



Table X. — Part h— Summary of statistics of schools of science — Continued. 



States. 



Aklwma. 

Arianftas 

California 

Colorado 

CoDoecticat 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

lUiDois 

Indiana 

Iowa , 

EanMa 

Kentncky 

lUioe 

Marylasd 

lEaamM^lixiaetts . . . 

Michigan 

HinnMota 

MiaaiMippl 

Miaaonri 

Xebraaka 

Nevada 

X«w Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North CaroIiBa.. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

PennsjlTania . . . 

Bhode Island . . . 

Sonth Carolma. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virgiirfa . . 
Wiac4>nsin , 



Libraries. 



a 

s i 

I g 

p Xi 

2 e 



s 
>5 



90 

a 
^^ 

o 



a 



i 

a 
p x> 

^ S3 
o 2* 



•/; 



2,220 
500 
(a) 



250 
300 
(a) 



2,500 
(o) 



Property, income, Sec. 






'S 



e 

^ 9 

O . 
-» • 

es 



I 



$100,000 
170,000 
(a) 



o 
>• 

s 
o 

a 

9 
3 



$250,300 
130,000 
(a) 



s 

E 
- "^ 

c 

o 

s 

o 



$20,744 
10,400 



c C 
.a ® 

-2 I 



$750 
2,000 



hi . 



a t 
I s 



$0 

5,000 

40.000 



5,000 I 
(a) 



(o) 



14,000 

11,040 

1.050 

4,500 

2,000 



3,648 
1.500 
e,500 
4,306 

(a) 

52 

1,678 

200 



(o) 
8,000 



440 
500 



35 







200 



1,007 



100 

231 



1,500 



20 



(a) 

16,000 
111,000 
359, 411 
239,695 
485,202 
131, 791 
150,000 
145,000 
100,000 
025,000 
195, 803 
(a) 

28,905 
45,960 
20,000 



280,123 
(o) 



17,000 
(o) 



(a) 



258,000 
310,000 
310,000 
500,000 
238,101 
165,000 
135,000 



890,000 
237,175 

(a) 
94,646 



18,250 

29,460 

20,813 

40,000 

20,491 

0,900 

8,000 

6,900 

40,600 

16,000 

(a) 

5,679 

1,250 





40 

2,751 







1,600 



10,665 

47,000 







876 



11,500 

35,444 

11,000 

23,000 

12.500 



15,218 

6,000 

5,000 

36,837 

(a) 

30,000 
7,600 



Total 

r.S.HmtaTjAc»d'y. 
r.SNaral Academy. 

Grand total 



1,200 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 
1,000 



200 

(a) 



(a) 
100 



1,950 



50 



2,000 



^20,000 

(«) 

(a) 

(a) 

500,000 

6,000 

500,000 



1,200 



400 



(a) 



(fl) 
2,784 
7,000 
7,000 



(a) 
339 
500 



300 
600 



10,000 
(a) 
200,000 

{a) 

303,050 
250,000 



80,000 
116,000 

(a) 

125,000 
600,000 



4,800 
6,960 

(a) 
7,600 
30,000 



160 
1,200 

(a) 
2,076 




500,000 

60,000 

191,800 

(a) 
196,000 

(o) 

306,750 
110,000 



30,000 
3,000 
7,500 

(a) 
14,955 

(o) 

34,268 
6,600 



(a) 



585 

520 

1,500 



80,337 



26.735 
19, 247 



126, 819 



4, 283 15. 200 



5.111,817 5.401,805 



410, 470 



900 





(a) 




5,000 





16,250 

7,600 



71.111 i 268.649 



310 
900 



8,000,000 



6,493 



15,200 



8, Ul, 817 








6,491,895 








410, 470 



'6286,604 
j (6) 



71, 111 



556.253 



a Reported with classioal department (Table DC). 



h Congressional appropriation. 



CXVIII BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 
Table X. — Part 2. — Summary of »i<Ui9Uc8 of achooU of wience. 



States. 



Califomia 

Colorado 

T nHinna. 

Louisiana 

Massachusetts . . 

Missouri 

Now Hampshire 

New Jersey 

JSTew York 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . . 
Virginia 

Total 



Preparatory dejMO-t- 
ment. 



Scientlflc department. 



a. 






I 



1 

2 
al 
1 
5 
1 
2 
2 
5 
1 
1 
6 
4 



s 
i 




5 



32 



12 



Students. 



o 

a 

o 



14 




34 



405 



453 



330 



330 



§ 

■♦A 

I 
a 



o 
ce 

& 

o 

O 



Students. 



£ 

I I 



o 



4 
4 



44 

13 
22 
33 
61 



o 






1 



60 
14 



140 

37 

73 

131 

959 



2 





4 
3 
3 
10 



a ■♦* 



«4 • 



-^ OF 






s 












34 
23 



238 



899 
109 



2,482 



20 



00 



1 

1 

9 

13 



20 




i 
11 



20 



40 



50 



28 



7o 



78^ 



States. 



Califomia. 
Colorado.. 
Indiana . . . 
Louisiana. 



Massachusetts.. 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oregon . . . .* 



Pennsylyania . 
Virjdnia 



Totsil 



Libraries. 



s 



s 



II 



o 



11 



^s 



110 



0,000 
1,000 
2,000 
5,000 
10, 000 



34,500 
5,500 



64,110 



00 
I— I 

M 



si 






24 




150 



30 
200 
186 



a S 

ll 

O >. 








50 



Property, income, &c. 



o S 

61) of 






?- 



114,500 
135,000 



1,000 
200 



1.790 



1,000 



1,050 



150,000 

80,000 

4,000 

630,000 

2, 000, 000 

100,000 






^ 



^$250,000 



739,835 



155,000 
700,000 



a 

B 



00 



11 






$15,000 



103,424 



9,300 
38,355 



sl 



^ 






•^ I 






<0 



« .2 



« « g 



O Q; 



>^. St 



$137 $1,7») 

a 



350,000 
393.000 



3, 856, 500 



40,000 



1,884,835 



7,408 

2,500 

3,840 

18,367 

30, 770 








2,400 



168,479 



15,000 I 25,000 



78,022 26,75a 



a Not fully organized. 



bExclusivc of a bequest lately made of |105,000. 



SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION. CXIX 

A r«>view of faelH brought out in the reports of the colleges of agricnltnre and the 
mechanic arts* allows no doubt that they are solving the problems which have been 
intrusted to them. The close study of their history in each State will convince a can- 
did judge, I am confident, that they are adjusting themselves — 

(1) To science: Alreaily they have here and there promoted its progress and this 
stimulating influence increases ; still more generally they have tlrawn upon the ad- 
vancement of science for the benefit of their instniction. 

(2) They are equally adjusting themselves to the condition and necessities of industry. 
Tlie reports of the boards of agriculture of the several States show that their nierr- 

ings have received valuable contributions from Uicse institutions, and that thoy havr 
:ii«le«l in disseminating im|>ortant information concerning the various intert'^ts of a-i i- 
eulture. 

A few isstances will illustrate the nature of this practical scrviic and of the rela- 
tion between the colleges and the boards. From the report of the Michigan Board of 
Agriculture for 1877 it appears that farmers in the State, excited by repre8«'ntati<»iis 
against a popular and pro<luctive variety of wheat, applied to the State Agricultural 
College for information on the subject. Tlu^ board of agriculture ordered an investi- 
gation, which was made by the cfdlege professor of ehemistry and his assistant. The 
result proved that neither in the chemical composition nor in tlic pliysical properties 
of the flour made from this wheat did there exist any caus<; of com]daint. Thus a 
serious disturbance of opinion, which would have affected the cultivation of more tljaii 
1,200,000 aci*es, was averted. The connection between the bouitl and the colh'ge is 
very intimate in this State, tin' board of agri«ulture having, in fact, the niauagenirnt 
of the college. 

The act establishing the Vermont Hoard of Agriculture makes the president of the 
State Agricultural College one of the board. The entomologist of the board of agri- 
culture is the professor of zoology in the University ami State Agricultural College. 
His address on *^ Certain injurious insects,'* published in the report of 1877, su-^gests 
the inve^igations of general interest that come within ^he ssope of this board. 

The Board of Agriculture of the State (»f New Hampshire authorized its secretary 
and Mr. J. W. Sanborn, superintendent of the college fanii, to initial*' experinieiital 
work on the farm and on certain "quasi stations" for the pur])08e of giving authori- 
tative instruction t^ farmers about matters of farm and stock management. The lirst 
results have been already reported by Mr. Sanborn. 

The last day of the convention of the State Boartl of Agriculture of Maine was occu- 
pied by the students of the State college, who reported the results of exj)eriments at 
the college farm. 

The importance of intro<lucing such praetical exercises in the colleges of this grade 
is universally acknowledged. In the proceedings of the Wisconsin State Agricultural 
Society for 1877-78, it is recorded that a resolution was passed expressing as th<* sense 
of the convention that one or more of the regents of the university should be practical 
farmers. 

It appears from the State Tniversity re]>ort for Missouri, lH7(>-77, that the State 
Board of Agriculture has been transferred to the Agricultural College, thus eoueeiit rat- 
ing the forces working in the cau8«» of agriculture and increasing their efficiency. 

The general importance of the experiments uuwle on the college fanus is not their 
only merit. Tliey aftord work for the students, whieh often is even more necessary to 
the class of young men attraeted thither than to those entered in purely literai*y insti- 
tutions. In s<mie of thesi' colleges a certain auKunit of labor is required; in othei-s it 
is optional with the students. The jirires paid varv. ae<-ordinjj: to the nature of the 

^Illinois Agricultural Collojic Trvintxtoii, ilii»rt«T«Ml in 18<jl ami ctrpniizod in 18GG, 1ia8 be«'n suspended 
becanso of a decree of i-ourt which givos its lands and biiildinsH to the State. Orisinally meant to be 
an i^ricnltural coUcjSe in fau-t as well as in name, it rec»!ived fi*om the State a laude<l endowment >rhich 
yielded a fund of $56,000. The tresisiiier of the institution wasted this fund in private sj>oeulaliona, 
and the State, failing; to ivcover it I'nnn the e:»llejr»', o1)tain< d a denoe ns :ibove stated. 



CXX REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



TTork and the skill of the student, fi-om 4 cents to 15 cents per hour, as will be seen 
from the following table : 

Hourly compensation of students in agricultural colleges for work on the farm. 



Illinois Industrial University 

Iowa Agricultural College . : ■ 

Indiiina Agricultural College > — 

Kansas Agricultural College 

M:iine Agricultural College 

Maryland Agi-icultural College 

Massachusetts Agricultural College 

Michigan Agricultural College 

Missouri Agricultural College 

Agi-icultural department of Cornell University, Xew York . 

Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College 

Pennsylvania State College 

Virginia Agricultural College 



Minimum. 

8 cents. 
4 cents. 



Maximum. 

10 cc*nts. 
9 cents. 



7 cents. 10 centa. 

1 10 cents. 

"Very liberal corppeusation.*' 

10 cents. I 10 cents. 
10 cents.' 

10 cents. 15 cents. 



(a) 
"Fair wages." 
•'Liberal pay." 



a Though the rate paid to students by the hour at the Ohio College is not given, it appears that the 
amount of $459.69 was exi>ended for student labor during the year 1876-'77. 

Illinois, Kansas, and Maryland agricultural colleges report that students, with skill, 
industry, and economy, can defray a large part of their expenses by work on the college 
farms and gardens. 

In the report of the Massachusetts Agricultural College it is stated that " indigent 
students are allowed to do such work as may offer about the college and farm build- 
ings or in the field, but it is hardly possible for one to earn more than from $50 to $100 
a year, besides performing other duties/' 

In the agricultural department of Cornell University employment is not guaranteed 
to any students, yet a limited amount is furnished them at such prices as would or- 
dinarily be paid to other persons for doing the same work. 

The relation thus established between the agricultural colleges and practical indus- 
try makes them important factors in the great labor problems of the day. At the same 
time they are bearing their part in the general progress of education and thus becom- 
ing more and more' important as educational centres. They send many students into 
the teachers' ranks and make valuable contributions to the literature and discussions 
of education. 

VACATION SCHOOLS. 

The number of schools for instructing advanced pupils during vacations has formed 
a marked feature of the year. In several preceding years such schools existed, some 
of them for the field study of geology, botany, zoology, and kindred topics, and 
some in convenient localities for instruction in chemistry, ichthyology*, drawing, music, 
languages, methods of teaching, and so on. But in 1877 these means of summer in- 
struction expanded into greater proportions than in any previous vacation x>eriod 
The States north of the Ohio River were dotted with institutes for teachers who, in- 
stead of resting, were trying to prepare for higher work. More than fifty such insti- 
tutes were held in Indiana alone, besides many in other States. One of these was*to 
instruct teachers in the art of elocution ; another was to prepare them to give draw- 
ing lessons in their schools ; others were for the study of the natural sciences, for 
which last Butler University, in Indiana, also sent out a number of its students, under 
competent instructors, on a summer's walk through the mountain ranges of the South. 
In the East, besides the usual simimer schools of Harvard professors — one of these, also, 
a field school in the South — there were a summer school of biology, zoology, and bot- 



THEOLOGICAL INSTRUCTION. 



CXXI 



aoyat Salem, Mass., under tbc auspiccH of the Pcabocly Academy of ScieDcc there; a 
normal institute of great proportions at East Greenwich, R. I., for instruction in music, 
elocution, drawing, and modem languages ; a school of languages at Amherst College, 
and several kindred ones in other portions of New England, as well as in New York 
and Pennsylvania. A scientific exjjedition to the Rocky Mountains, under the charge 
of Prof. Sanborn Tenney, of Williams College, Mass., was arrested by the death of 
Professor Tenney, July 9, while en route. Another from Princeton College carried its 
fitadents to the Yellowstone and brought back large treasures for the college cabinet. 



TABLE XI.— SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY. 



The following is a comparative statement of the number of schools of theology 
\inolnding theological departments) reporting to this Bureau each year from 1870 to 
Iffil, inclusive, with the number of i)rofe8sorH and number of students: 



Knmber of institutiona 
Number of imitnietors 
Xoniber of stndents . . . 




1872. 

t 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


104 


110 


113 


123 


124 


124 


435 


573 


579 


615 


580 


564 


3,351 


3,838 


4,35G 


5,234 


4,268, 

1 


3.965 



Table XI. — Statistical summary of theological seminaries. 



Denominatioii. 



Number of 
seminaricB. 



Bomao Catiiolic 

Pri)<«8taiit Episcopal 

Pmb3rteriaii 

Baptist 

Lotheran 

CoDgr^ational 

Vethodist Episcopal 

Clnutisii 

Seformed 

Halted Presbyteriaii 

dunberland Presbyterian / 

Free Will Baptist 

Methodist Episcopal Soath 

Unaectaiian 

Beformed (Datch) 

Unireraslist 

African Methodist Episcopal 

Mennonite -' 

Kethodist 

Korsvian 

Seir Jemialem 

rnion Evangelical 

Unitarian 

United BrethrMi 

• 

Total 



18 

16 

16 

16 

13 

9 

7 

3 

3 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 



124 



Number of 
professors. 

93 

65 

82 

62 

38 

64 

51 

4 

8 

11 

11 

10 

8 

17 

6 

9 

6 

4 



8 
1 
4 
6 
2 



564 



Number of 
students. 

575 

263 

074 

772 

252 

347 

383 

31 

62 

66 

61 

43 

68 

120 

40 

48 

8 

50 



19 



32 
19 



3,065 



GXXII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table XI. — Sumnuiry ofstatiaiicB of »chooU of iheoloffy. 



States. 



Alabama ... 
California... 
Conuocticut 

Gwn'gia 

TUinoiH ... 
Indiana 



1 

Cm 

^^ 

a 



I 



13 
1 



Iowa : 3 



Kansas . 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

MassachusettH 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia 



1 
6 
1 
2 



5 



4 

2 
3 
1 
4 
1 
4 
13 
3 
14 
16 
1 
5 
1 
5 
2 



Total il24 



StudMita. 



Libraries. 



Property, income, d:c. 



§ 

■*-) 

g 

■♦» 
c 
a 

Cm 

C 

e 

& 

o 



fit 

t 









« 




9i 




♦i 


u 


« 


J 


s 


a 


1 


9 


u 



o 
a 



00 

9i 



0/ 



X 

a- 



0) 



« 

ea 
ji 

o 
ua 

if 

a 






a 






Ex 



P^ pH 



2 .... 

12 i 2 
29 I 8 



18 .... 2 

14 i 

150 ; 3 124 
85 I.... 



51 19 376 ! 30 



75 



4 ... 
12 4 



23 L... 
20 ! 2 

4 I.... 



10 5 123 I.... 



42 



9 18! 
20 !.... 
53 1 J7 j 

sl 1, 

15 



5 
13 

3 
35 
63 

9 
58 
83 

5 

17 
»> 

17 
18 
10 



01 

2 ! 



21 
24 

17 
21 



5 



1 t 



66 
57 
294 
25 
32 
12 
57 



5 



287 
692 

75 
351 
398 

40 
112 
6 
205 
162 
120 







18 



564 164 3,879 





8 
1 
1 

15 

6 
11 



132 

«> 

to 

6 




171 

300 

3 

99 

147 



Gl 



2 



80 1, 189 



a ^ 

V 

C 
« 1 

2 i 



it 



CB 

X 

36 
3 



ft* 

•to* "• 

s s 

.- "to" 

■* □ 

2 = 

800 
7.500 
13 25,500 
500 
65 50, 850 
... 6, 000 
12 I 6,800 
. . . . 3, 000 
12 I 19,600 



a 



S 

ao 



O 



a 



i 



3 
3 



a 





o 



290 



72 



490 



500 



2. 125 



3 

34 

77 

3 

3 

39 

10 

85 

201 
o 

97 

130 

9 

10 



19,200 

27,061 

73,945 

1,500 

4,500 

1,500 

9,200 

500 

73,633 

94.028 

600 

63,500 

100,555 

18, 916 

7,000 



150 

355 

1,636 

300 

100 



$5,000 

110,000 $30,000 

247,544 $15,000 

9.000 , 

537, (HH) 760, 150 44, 330 

150,000 

230.000 I 91,000 6.200 

25.000 

38,500 ' 565.884 31,900 



3,118 
3,337 
200 
4,050 
2,652 



36 I 23,600 I 200 
....' 13,000 I 1,000 
22 i 2,200 



809 G54, 988 20, 575 



190,000 

72.000 

581,835 

90,000 

5,000 

40.000 

10,000 

894,000 

692,500 

50,000 

805,000 

408,000 

35,000 

30,000 



170,000 

I 3,100 

1, 100, 712 

30,000 

I 15, 000 



I 40,000 



U. 750 

210 

81, 576 

2,000 


2,000 



jl, 034, 275 62, 500 

11,412,208 94.950 

i 

I -- 

I 522,000 I 61,400 

1,321,922 ! 83, Ml 

I 060,000 j 47.200 



275,000 

150,000 

40,000 



266,000 
25, 000 



14,000 
2,000 



5,472,835 8,294.795 .>58.677 



TABLE XII. — SCHOOLS OF LAW. 

The following is a statement of the number of schools of law reporting to this 
Banyan each year from 1870 to 1877, inclnsivc, with the number of instructors and' num- 
ber of students : 



Number of institutions 
Number of instructors . 
Number of students . . . 



1870. 


1871. 


28 


30 


99 


129 


1,653 


1,722 



1872. 

37 

151 

1.976 



1873. 

37 

158 
2,174 



1874. 

38 

181 

2,585 



1875. 

43 

224 

2,677 



1876. 

42 

218 

2,604 



187 



4a 

173 

'2. all 



SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE. 



CXXIII 



Tabub XU,—8unmary qfBtatUiic$ of^dtooU of low. 



Stitos. 



I 

o 
u 



AhhuoA I 2 



Connedicat 1 

Georgia 2 

miiiois 3 

Indiana 2 

Iowa 3 

Kcntncky I 2 

Looisiana 2 

Maryland 1 

Maaaachafletta 2 

Michigan 1 

SGaioarJ 2 

NewTork ' 4 



North CaroliBa 

(Mo 

PeonsjlTania 

Sooth Carolina 

lenneaaeo 

Vliytrfg 

WiBcooain 

Diatriet of Colombia. 



total 



2 
2 

2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
4 



I 
I 

"3 

o 



5 



10 

5 

15 



13 
G 
4 
3 

18 
5 

11 

20 
2 
6 

10 
1 



5 



10 
11 
15 



43 175 



Students. 



Libraries. 



Property, income, &c. 



23 

67 

9 

168 



a • s 



8 



a 

I' 



S 



I 

o 



^ 



I 



S S 



II 



.9 






1 

35 



8 
28 
16 
53 



133 ' 

I 
23 ! 

23 

60 
360 
385 
109 
646 

20 
120 
103 

12 

70 
137 

38 
299 



31 



180 




2,811 



98 

12 

7 

21 

47 

155 

144 



313 



4 

5 
5 

12i 
1 



29 
24 
9 
10 
27 
10 
116 



8.000 

600 

50 



-43 

s 

o 






1,964 



150 AlO.OOO ! $600 



104 




19,000 




500 



3,930 
13,775 



1,409 
300 



1«0 

3,800 

520 

301 



111 
140 



383 
60 



200 
1 



115,000 





051,614 ; ll,6r»8 



15,000 



.; 10,000 



601 1,227 



53,799 1,639 



3 

^» tar 

Jl 

9 a 

^£ 



$415 
4,800 



:j, 950 

900 

•J. .'jOO 

3,:ioo 

20, \)')0 

6, 19:. 

4, 740 



4,262 
6,330 



5,600 
8,300 



600 I 1,811 



30, 000 I 71, 614 I 12, 868 I 76, 113 



a Also one-fourth interest in a fond of $413,092. 



TABLK XIII.— SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE. 



The following is a comparative statement of the number of schools of medicine^ 
dentistry, and pharmacy reported to the Office each year from 1^0 to 1877, inclusivi', 
with the number of instmctors and students : 



1870. 



Xmnbcr of infttitutionH ', C3 

Number of instmctors ^ 588 

Nnmbef of ntadenta ' 6, 943 



■ 






" """ 




■ 


" — *• 


1871. 


1872. 


1H73. 


1H74. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


82 


87 


U4 


99 


106 


102 


106 


760 


720 


1,148 


1,121 


1,172 


1,201 


1,278 


7,045 


5,995 


8,681 


9,095 


9,971 


10. 143 


11.225 



€XXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Tablk XIII. — Summary of statistics of schools of medicine^ of dentistry j and of pharmacy. 



States. 



L Medical akd 

fiURGICAL. 

1. Regular. 

Alabama 

California 

Coimecticat 



Georgia 



I 



o 
u 

.a 



Jzh 



niinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kontucky 

I/miisiana 

liaine ■ 

Maryland 

Mawachosetts — 

Michigan 

Miasouri 

"New HampsUre. . 

New York... 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

^utli Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

T'ermont 

Virginia 

District of Columbia 

Total 



2. EeUetU. 

Cieorgia 

Illinois 

New York 

Ohio 



Total. 



3. Homctopathie. 

Illinois 

Massachusetts . . . 

Michigan 

Missouri 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Total 



2 
2 
1 
3 
3 
3 
2 
4 
2 
2 
3 
1 
2 
5 
1 
7 
7 
1 
3 
1 
a4 
1 
1 
2 
3 



66 



1 
1 
1 
1 



2 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 



12 



o 

o 

a 

GO 

.9 

o 

00 

o 
O 



9 
20 
13 
25 
68 
32 
10 
41 
23 
10 
24 
34 
33 
65 

8 

142 

92 

8 
111 

8 
12 

7 
18 
10 
28 



878 



12 

8 



29 



24 
24 
6 
20 
31 
26 
13 



Students. 






a 



o o 

3 *• C 

* i^ 1-1 

Si > "^ 

^ d ^ 



50 
111 

50 
136 
568 
104 
315 
583 
183 
110 
297 
231 
360 
484 

96 

1,673 

927 

33 
1,048 

60 
115 

18 

92 

94 
147 



7,987 



105 
107 
267 



479 



153 



282 
176 
75 
71 
200 
216 
160 



1,180 



11 
16 



103 

27 

115 



17 



101 



5 

23 

154 

25 



39 



11 
657 



♦* o 



« a 

IS 



30 




42 



39 
72 

2 
11 

2 

103 

17 



246 



15 

28 

6 

43 

160 

59 

128 

304 

44 

24 

115 

36 

114 

145 

22 

330 

279 

6 

334 

19 

46 

12 

33 

26 

17 



2,351 



Libraries. 



a 

s 
> 



u 

a 

p 






C3 * 

O 



Property, income, &c. 



a 



I 



"3 
o ^ 



500 



33 

26 

121 



180 



50 
45 
13 
105 
43 
62 
53 



380 



2,500 

4,800 

50 

3,000 



4,000 
2,400 
4,660 
400 
3,550 
1,700 
1.206 
1,200 



1,500 

50 

3,000 



40 



500 



35,056 



1.000 



1,000 



2,000 



200 
1,260 
2,000 



60 



100 



160 



200 



200 



200 



15 

80 



$150,000 
75,000 

200.000 
55,000 

105,000 

7,500 

75,000 

10.000 

160,000 
25,000 
90,000 



230.000 
117,200 

25,000 

367,500 

247,000 

2,000 

802,000 

50,000 



50,000 
1.000 



2,844,200 



20.000 
50.000 
30.000 
80.000 



180,000 



52,500 
120.000 



5,460 



295 



3,000 

130,000 

80,000 

50,000 



435,500 



9 
> 

•mm 

d 
n 



i 

o 

I 



$30,000 



14,000 



2,500 
84,365 



> 






a 



a 

o 

w 



si 

^ Si 

O 9 






$2,300 
500 



$10,395 



130 



1,000 
1,200 
5,000 



364,250 




502,315 



50,000 



2,000 
3,000 
3,000 



5,513 



100 

72 

350 



4,612 




13,577 



2,500 



221 



2,187 
34,000 

7,000 
12,000 

3,500 
14,525 

6,975 

0.400 
38,504 

4.381 
39,870 



48,875 
H4O0 

2.500 
41,000 

2.800 



3,120 



4,000 

3.500 



302,032 



5^000 



21.680 



26,690 



15,500 
10,000 



3,450 
12,585 
14,000 
13,680 



58, 000 2, 721 69, 215 



a Of these but one reported. 



SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE. 



CXXV 



Table XIII. — Summanj of statistics of schools of medicine, ^c— Continued. 



States. 



II. Dentai^ 

Lotnguouk ...... 

Maryland 

Maaaaidiiuetts 

Michigan 

Miawarj 

XewTork 

Ohio 

PcansjiTania 

Total 

nL Phxrmacbu- 

T1CAL. 

California 

miBoia 

Iowa 

Satuclsy 

Maryland 

Masaachusetta 

Michigan 

Missouri 

XewYork 

Ohio 

Prmisylvania 

TenDessec 

I)iatrictofColambi2( 

Total...: 

TOTALS. 

Medical and surgi- 
cal: 

Bepilar 

Xclectic 

Homceopathic 

Dental 

Pharmaceatical 







• 





1 


o 

o 


A 

^ 


1 




X 


^* 


q 


o 


■S 


u 


«M 


^ 


o 


s 




^ 


O 


1 


10 


2 


28 


2 


26 


1 


11 



1 
1 
1 

2 



U 



13 



06 
4 
12 
11 
13 



168 



4 
5 



3 
3 
3 

3 
5 
3 
3 

3 



Students. 



c 

9 






o 9 

if? & 






u 

c 



Libraries. 



'*A 

s 



Propcrt}', incomo, d:c. 



^5 






a 

35 J9 „ 






c 







« 

a 



o 

o 
(.1 

S 



i e 



u 



I £ 
1^ 



"3 = 

3 5* 



I 



ii GO 

•3 .2 
> 



5 


62 


41 


43 


15 


92 


20 


275 




553 



37 
61 



19 
64 
58 
69 
50 

230 
85 

318 
12 
23 



50 1,020 



878 

29 

153 

108 

50 



7,987 
479 

1,180 
553 

1,020 



1 
36 
29 
12 

5 
14 

8 
35 



50 


50 


78 


3 


150 


75 


40 




50 






$750 
12,500 
17,000 
10,000 
300 
3,500 
12,000 
15,000 



> 



a 

O 

S 

<5 






^4 

o 

S 

o 






I o 

I o *- 
! '^ s 






22 



140 



4 
5 



28 
11 
75 
28 
16 



55 



52 



568 



134 



71,050 



1,000 



425 
300 



25 







15 
20 



1,271 I 91 



150 



88 .. 2,258 125 



5 



75 



6,000 



8,000 

6,000 

500 



500 
70,000 















♦0 


♦0 

























$5oa 

9.660 
8,071 
1,40» 
2,000 
7,175. 
2.340 
10,050 



41.796 



2,000 



20 2,000 



360 



5,504 



271 



98,000 



22, 800 

4G0 

10, 000 



75 



79g 
1,800 



1,500 
1,700 



2,300 , 9,400 
3, 500 



1,550 







41, 260 3, 925 



1,050 



10,748 



657 2,351 

42 I 180 

240 I 380 



22 



140 
369 



35,050 


160 


1,000 


200 


5,460 


295 


568 


134 


5,504 


271 



Grand total... 100 1,278 ill,225l 969 3,420 47,588 



2, 844, 200 

180. 000 

435,500 

71,050 

98,000 



502, 315 
58,000 



41,260 3.925 



13,577 I 30J,932 
L'O, G90, 
C'J, 215 
41,700 
111. 748 



2,721 



1,000 ,3,028,750 



001,575 i 20,223 ! 4C0, DSl 



CXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The Mends of medical education would be surprised to learn the small muntMi of 
volumes reported in medic al libraries. Special attention to their organization, increase, 
4ind use would not fail to add to the competency and efficiency of the profession. 

Too much credit cannot be given to Surgeon-General J. K. Barnes, U. S. A.^ and to 
his assistant, Surgeon J. S. Billings, U. S. A., for their efforts to organize, increase, 
and catalogue the National Medical Library at Washington, which undoubtedly has 
no superior. It is to be deeply regretted that the publication of the catalogue has 
been so long delayed. The benefit of its publication to the profession, and thus to 
the world, will be incalculable. 

Next to the medical library opportunities in Washington are those in Philadelphia. 
The library of the College of Physicians, that in 1875 numbered over 19,000 volumes, 
is steadily increasing, as is also the library of the Pennsylvania Hospital, which con- 
tained at the same time 12,500 volumes. 

The medical department of the University of Pennsylvania has the benefit of a 
medical library containing more than 3,000 volumes, founded by Prof. Alfred Still6. 

Dr. W. H. Mussey, of Cincinnati, has done great service to the profession by con- 
tributing to the Public Library of Cincinnati, Ohio, the Mussey medical collection, 
amounting to some 5,000 books and pamphlets gathered by his father and himself. 

Dr. J. M. Toner, of Washington, offers his litotry of 18,000 books and pamphlets, 
on a few apparently reasonable conditions, to the profession in the State of Illinois, 
to be kept in Chicago, and with it a fund of which the income would meet the 
expenses of an annual lecture (to be entitled the Toner Medical Lecture) on some sub- 
ject relating to medicine. 

SCHOOLS OF PHABMACT. 

The responsibility of a pharmacist has been little understood. Outside of citi4ss and 
villages physicians generally prepare their own prescriptions. Formerly, in many in- 
stances, the medical student prepared and administered the medicines for the patients 
of his preceptor. The pharmacist, in a measure, bears the same responsibility as the 
physician. What the exact share of the responsibility exercised by the apothecary is, 
is reaching a clear definition in law and in the decisions of the courts. The schools 
of pharmacy may be expected to emphasize this responsibility both with the manu 
facturer of drugs and medicines and with the dispensing pharmacist. Even the ap- 
prentice has been held criminally responsible in the courts. He delivered laudanum 
for paregoric, causing the death of an infant child. The judge said: ''If a party is 
guilty of negligence, and death results, the party guilty of that negligence is also 
guilty of manslaughter. '' Indeed, a universal appreciation of the moral re^>onBibi]ity 
•of a dealer in drugs (that they should be exactly what they are represented to be) 
would add greatly to the efficiency of our schools of pharmacy. 

TABLE XIV. — UNITED STATES MILITARY AND NAVAL ACADEMIES. 

In Table XIV of the appendix will be found the statistics of examinations of candi. 
<dates for admission to the United States Military and Naval Academies for the year 
1877. 

TABLE XV.— DEGREES. 

The following summary shows what degrees on graduation have been confened in 
the several States by the institntions mentioned in the various statistioal tables in the 
4ippendix : 



COLUSOE DEGREES. 



CXXVII 



Table XV. — Statiatical summary of all degrees conferred. 



S 

< 



c 2 



S 










Hi 






o 



C I c ' o 
u s 5 

►9 a \g 



Graxdtotal ;a8,68563o6| 3,305, lOSJ 846; 6 19824 5 3; 180 150| 3,213; 5 gift 

Total in clauical and scientific c5, 365 6349 2,005 108J 825 g| 198 24 5~3 94 148 920 

coUeges. I , I ' 

TotiJ in college* for women : d65ll l' 608' 

Total in professional eohools . . . ! 2. 460 6 2 






n 



58 



AuiAMA /no 

CUiwical and scientific colleges . j /48 , '4 

Colleges for women i 44 

Professional schools ' 18 



AUU.\8A8 



Classical and scientific colleges 
Collegee for women 
Professional acho<^ 

Caufobxia ] i;f94 

Cbssieal and scientific colleges j 1^50 

CoDsgee for women 

Professional schools ^ 35. 



CoinRADO 



yiOSODX 




ClMsical and scientific colleges 
Colleges for women 
Professional schools 

CoSJrECTfCCT I 314! 10 

Classical and scientiflc colleges. [ 
CoUeges for women . ' 

Professional schools 

Bkuvabx 

Classical and sci<mtific colleges 
CoUeges for women 
Professional schools 



Classical and scientific colleges 
CoUeges for women 
Professional schools 

GlORGIA 253 11 

CIsssical and scientiflc colleges .1 114! 11 

Colleges for women I 113 

l*rofc«siuiial st^hooln 26 

a Includes 89 dejrrccM not specified. 
MDc]ades2 <legrw*8 not Hpecifl©<l. 
<: Includes 67 degrees not specified, 
d Includes 22 decrees not sjieciflwl. 



r Thfn' wnn- uIh^i 530 jfrjnlnat<'H, ii]»on whom in roost 

caws (liplnniaM were confpni'*]. 
/IucUkIch 7 dourt'CH not HiMTifle*!. 
r/InclmU's 4 dc;rr«M>s not HiKTJfioil. 



CXXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table XV. — Slaiistical summary of all degrees conferred — Continued. 



S 



•J 

< 



a 
M 



o 



r^ 



O 

o 

.J 






o 


Cj 


kJ 


U 


o 




b] 


Mm 




:4 


r . 


•H 


-i 


f^ 






o 

£ 



Illikoib 



2 

o 
o 



3 

8 



2 3 § 

a § a 



i 



o la o lea S fl u a 



a 

o 



a704! 29 '185; 111 



80 



18..'.. 



Classical and scientiflo colleges . 

Colloges for women 

Professional schools 



0409, 29| 

25....' 

27o!....! 



160, 11 

20!...' 



801-. 18 



24' 13 

I 

9! 13 



253l. 143 5 



15. 



39 . 1 102 5 

....!..'. ...L 

214'..' 41'.. 



IlfDIANA 



Classical and scientiflc colleges. 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



Iowa 



Classical and scientific colleges . 

Colleges for women 

Professionid schools 



Kakbas 



Classical and scientific colleges. 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



KENTUCKr 



Classical and scientific colleges . 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



al20 14. 



52 



9 



39< 



1' I 



31 



36 



a86| 14 

7|.... 
36i.... 



45 
7 



9 



39 



11 1 



401 



284 
117 



7 



1241 



36. 



124 



36 




36 



130 



08 



3 



25 



15! 



10 



13 
117 



98 



3 



19| 

6 



2 
ll 



10 



LOUISIAXA 




2 
2 



7 

• 


90 1 


11 




1 1 






5 


175 






1 




r -,-'}'- 




• - 1 - - - 1 


7, 


42! 1 

48... ' 

1 


7 
4 








5 






1 






' 










.... 

1 


1 1 ; 


175 








....... 


' 






' ■ " " ; " 


















Classical and scieutiliccolkges. 

Co!le;;c8 for women 

Professional schools 



4 

8' 
35 



12 



4 

1 

8 



3.->' 



Haine 



144 



5 



87 1 



29i 



3.'i 



25 



Classical and scientific colleges. 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



13U 
14| 



5 



73 
14 



29 



25'. -1 



Maryland. 



Classical and scientific colleges . 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



Massachusetts. 



Classical and scientific colleges . 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



Michigan. 



Classical and scientific colleges. 

Colleges for women 

Profosaional schools 



208! 3 



22, 



16 

9 

183 



788 



684 
104 



3 



13 
9 



H 162. 



21 



I ' I 



162 



21 



3 
22 



373 8, 



52 



I 1 



13 3 1 .. 39 



'J i 



210: .100 



373 8 



52 



13 



3 1 



31 

8 



114 

I 

•96' 



100 



449 



419 
30 



11 
U 



84; 



84 



^1 
4 



52! 1 



20! 



105' . I 122 



6 



6 



.1 «i 



52 1 26i 



135 
30 



122 2 



a Includes 1 degree not specified. 



b Includes 27 degrees not 8i)ecifled. 



COLLEGE DEGREES. 



OXXIX 



Table XV. — Statistical summary of all degrees conferred — Continned. 





-< 


1 


t 


Philosophy. 

1 


I 

< 


• 

s 

B 

H 


M 

H 




• 

'4 


' 


i 
i 


■ 

% 

n 


• 

8 

17 


I 


• 

8 

12 


\ 

o 

§ 

ta 


1 'c|§ o 
Z a o 




I 


8 

►9 


g 

o 

EC 


i 

1 


1 


If nnmioT A 


038 






1,! 








• 


1 


1 




.... 




— 






CiMsiAcal and scleDtific ooQegM . 
Cfilleffefl for woznen ............ 


a29 


15... 
2 -- 


6 

7 










1 








9 


• • <■ 








..!.. 














Profnurional iu*.linnlii 










1 


















6 




• • • ■ 









^•^ ^^m- 




5 
5 




— 







57 


46 


11 


li..-..!.... 








ClBMical and scientific colleges. 
Colltfff^ for womfin ...... 










Ij 


A 


9.... 
37... 


6 




1 


. ., . .1 










42 .. 


5 








1 
-.1.. 












ProfnwionAl iichoolfi t . 








! 

i 














Uboubi 

Classical and scientific colleges . 
CoUf'ffefi foT wom^n . ...... 




rf7 
,5 








-• 


' 


1 
1 










6330 


37 


24 


4 1 


..,-. 38 


176 


2 


35 


1 


<nio 


31 


20 
4 




' 


4 1 


.. ..L._. 


5 


•- 


35 


1 


ell 
209 


• • 

2 


6.... 

*■■•■* 








PrDfipfiftimiAl acIiooIa ...... 








' VA 


-:: 


171 2 






Xkbbaaka 











1 




_ 






5 


3 








2 










Classical and scientific colleges. 
CoIlMfMi far women . . 






' 
















5 


• ■ • • 


3 














2 




































































. 


Kit AD A. .-1 






















= 




,, , 




































— 






__ 














Classical and scientific colleges 
CoIlf>irfM for women ....... 














..1.. 










































Pitifff^aianfll sclioola ....... 






































9 
9 

• • • • 












1 

1 


■ • 1 - - 




1 
1 











S Hf Hampbhibb ... .. ...a..... 


Shi 


" 


6 


17 




22 






1 








1 




" 






Classical and scientific colleges 


39 
/18 


8 


6 


17 










22 




1 


































■ 








10 
in 








' 


.... 


1|!T 


—I 


L.J . 


2 
2 








, 


KbwJkssxt 


231 


195 


1 
1 


36 


1 


% — 


...... 


1 


2 














Classical and scientific colleges 


227 


191 
4 


36' 1 




4 




1 








2 


4 .. 








"T" 












PmfMMrfnnA] fu^lwiolji 












. . ._ 


... 1 ... 










KiW YOBX 




42 


...... 


9 




= 




"^-^ '-\ 


17 
16 


1 


., 


1,236 


821 


136 


19 7l 3 1 




626.. 

1 


131 
131 


R 




» •"'v 








^^^ 


Classical and scientific colleges 


929 41 


821 


9 


136 




19 


7 


3 


1 





319 




8 




307 1 



















1 
12 
12 


307 












23 
23 




7 






1 












_ 


t SOKTH CABOLHf A 


43 


37 


5 


" 


..L.i-J 


* 




4 




** 1 




1 1 






Classical and scientific colleges . 


Ifi 


12 1 


6 




1 


-■ 






• • • • 






4 


25 




25 












!ProfofliiioiiA] mtIiooIa 



















































— ; 






: 


:::= 





:= 



« Inelndes 9 degrees not specified. 
b Includes 16 degrees not specified. 
e Inchides 2 degrees not specified. 



d Indodes 15 degrees not specified, 
s Includes 1 degree not specified. 
/ Includes 10 degrees not specified. 



CXXX BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Table XV. — Statistical summary of all degrees conferred — Continned. 





I 

< 




4 


t 


S 


< 


• 

§ 

3 
H 


3 


• 




^ 


o 

1 

34 


A 


1 

10 




• 

o 
§ 

1 


• 

£ 

p 

8 

3 


i 

1 

1 


i 

a 

o 


o 
a 
o 


i 
g 

M 

19 


• 

o 
§ 

16 


a 

8 


• 

o 

1 


i i 

26 5 


Ohio 


755 


2312 


48 


427 










Classical and scientiflo colleges . 
C^ollf^ffpit for Tiromi^ii - ._...... 


283 

19 

453 


33 

1 

1 


213 
19 


10 


48 1 


8 


1 






19 


16 






5 












ProfftAfiloiifll achoolfl ........... 




















427 1 26 












~~- 








= 








^ 


^ 


Orrgon 


34 


13 


21 


~\ 




L. 














1 




Clasaioal and scientific colleges. 
Collecfes for women ............ 


34 


1 


13 


21 




1 












1 


















'Profefutional stthoola . .^-.r^--,r-- 






































35 
33 

_ 


















.... 


18 








2 


Pkmhstlvakia 


951 


297 


9 
9 


61 


» 


19 


1 






14 


536 2 


24 




_ 






Classical and scientific colleges. 
CoUecfes for women ............ 


512 
14 


281 

14 

2 

68 


61 


3 


19 


1 




• - 


2 


18 


125 . . 

i.. 


24 


2 


ProfniMional Achools - r 


425 2 

















12 




... — J.. 
411 2 












2 






4 












— 





HuoDK Island 


72 


2 














j 
























Classical and scientific coUeges. 
Colleffea for women 


72 


2 


68 


2 






4 




























































*• 




















• . - - 












1 


South Carolina 


78 


3 


58 


1 








▼- 




2 
2 


19.-!... 















I I 1 


Classical and scientific colleges 
Colleses for women 


39 ^ 


38 - 


1 


• • • • 


t 
^ 1 






1 


20 
19 





20 




















Professional schools 






















lo'.. 

1 








~i5 










2 


.. 








8 
8 




1 


Tennessee 


312 


192 


fi 


14 








3 


54 .- 


47 






6 




t 


%rm^ • - 1 


Classical and scientific colleges 
Colleges for women 


179 

131 

2 


15 


61 
131 


14 


-• 


2 








3 


52 


-- 


47 






















2 




' 1 




2 








— 


12 


. . .. 






2 










Texas 


55 


43 










1 






















■ i 






Classical and scientific colleges 
Colleses for women 


32 
23 


2 


20 
23 






12 










2 




\.. 






















Professional schools 




















L. 










9 
9 


32 


4 

4 




















' ' 


Vebmont 


o74 


3 


~ 


3 1 


— ■ r — 




2 


33 






2 
2 






■ 1 




2 






Classical and scientific colleges. 
Colleges for women 


a71 
3 


29 
3 


3 


• • 


3 


1 






33 


















Professional schools 
























1-- 

















1 


=: 








3 






_ 
1 


y IBOINIA 


&1G2 


4 


39 


58 


~|~ 


26.. 27 

1 




,W|.. 




...... ... 

1 t 


Classical and scientific colleges. 
Colleges for women 


126 

&23 

13 


4 


28 
11 


67 

1 




1 










3 


13 -- 


?I7 


















Professional schools 
















13 




















* ■ * 
















Wkbt ViEonfiA 


9 


6 


3 
















L, 




























« 


Classical and scientific colleges 
CoUetres for women 


9 


.... 


6 




3 












































Professional schools 














































-: 




I 


= 


= 


... ,--.. 


i"< (•" 



a Includes 3 degiees not specified. 



h Includes 11 degrees not specified. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



CXXXI 



Table XV. — Statistical summary of all decrees conferred — Continned. 



'WncassDS 



ClMflical and scientific colleges . 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



BBmcT OF Columbia 



Classical and scientifio colleges . 

Colleges for women 

Professional schools 



i 



314 
12 

7 



o 



133 8 



i 



71. 






8 



59 
12 



ta 



30 



5! 



14 



14 



i 



o 






o 



8 |§| 8 



45 
45 






Ij 11. 
11. 



2' 

o 

23 






c 



i 








O 



i5 






5 !^ 

6 'a 

n c, „ . » 

M J— < M »*4 



7. 



4; 

4 



10 



10 1 



o 



15: 3 



15 3 



TABLE XVI. — PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

Special improvement has been noted during the year in the use of two classes of 
educational libraries: (1) those in conuecUou with colleges and universities, and (2) 
those connected with public schools, the improvement in both instances largely depend- 
ing upon the methods and efficiency of the librarian. Public libraries have in many 
instances been characterized by marked increase of usefuhicsK from the same cause. 
Mr. Justin Winsor's efforts in connection with Harvard University Library have been 
con.spicuous in their favorable effects upon college library management generally. 

1. The improvement in this department of library work is well illustrated bj- the fol- 
lowing summary of the circulation in the library of Colby University, Wat^rville, Me. 

« 

Circulation of hooks in the library of Colby University, 



Academic year. 



l«SL-09 

wa-70 

1870-71 
l«71-72 

U7+-75 
1875-76 

iwe-77 



-g 



1^ 

|5 



g 3 

C • 

el 



Remarks. 



342 


0.7 


442 


8.1 


630 


12 


641 


10.4 


701 


14.0 


867 


14 


1,258 


15.3 


2,021 


22.2 


2,044 


27 



Library up two flights* ; ox>cn twice a week ; S. K. S., 

libmrian. 
Libn-.ry moved io new hniWinj; : MndcntH not allowed 

beyond an iion bar, 20 feet from the door. 



First assistant librarian himself took ont 87 volumes i 
second assistant librarian himself took out 70 volumes. 

Edward W. Hall, librarian ; no assistant. 

Library open from to 0.30 daily ; iron bar removed, 
and tables instead. 

Open 9 to 0.30 : also, TVednesday and Saturday p. m. ; 
students freely admitted to alcevcs. 

Assistant required, to charge books. 



The gratifying increase in the usefulness of the library thus shown was not at all 
due to any improper influence or any shortening of the time of loans which would 



CXXXII BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

increase the number. It arose from the labors of the present efficient librarian (Prof. E. 
W. Hall) in cataloguing, indexing, and making accessible the contents of the library ; 
from his effort to procure, by gift or purchase, desirable books actually in demand ; 
fi'om appointing the library hour at the close of chapel service, when the students 
would all be assembled near by within the building, and from throwing open the 
alcoves to the free inspection of the students. 

It is affirmed that there has been no trouble arising from admitting students to the 
shelves. Not a volume has been missed, and there is very little misplacing of books. 
The saving in assistants and delay in procuring books would far more than equal 
a loss of fifty dollars' worth of books a year. 

2. The better use of books in connection with elementary and secondary schools has 
been aided by the efforts of intelligent teachers, who have made it their aim to ac- 
quaint ^themselves with the taste for reading among their pupils, and to guide it 
aright by suggesting authors and topics. The influence of the Library Journal and 
of the conferences of librarians has contributed greatly to the increased efficiency of 
libraries as a means of education. 

LIBBABT OF COKORB88. 

The following is taken from the report of the librarian, Mr. A. R. Spofford, for the 
year 1877 : 

Extent of the collection. — Rapid progress in the growth of the library and all its 
interests, except the provision of adequate space for its fast accumulating treasures, 
has characterized the year just closed. The number, of readers has been fai" greater 
than ever before, the majority of whom are serious students in quest of authorities and 
information, and it is at times impossible to furnish adequate accommodationft, within 
the narrow space at command, both for the readers and for the members of Congress 
themselves. 

The enumeration of books January 1, 1878, exhibits fm. aggregate of 331,118 volumes 
and about 110,000 pamphlets. Of the books, no less than 3i»,79t) belong to the law de- 
partment of the library. At the date of the last annual report, the library contained 
311,097 volumes. The increase during the last year was thus 20,021 volumes, derived 
from the following specific sources, namely : 

Punph- 
let«. 

By purchase 

By copjTight 

By deposit of the Smithsonian Institution 
By donation (including State documents) . 
By exchange 

Total 

To this should be added maps and charts, to the number of 2,622, acquired during 
the year 1877. 

Copyrights. — There were entered, during the calendar year 1877, 15,758 publications, 
as against 14,882 for the year preceding, 1876.* This is an increase over the preceding 
year of 876 publications. The aggregate of copjTight fees paid into the Treasury 

I The following data from the Leipziger Catalog exhibit a classification according to subject of the 
books published in Grermany during 1877: Independent works, 14,000, in over 20,000 volumes; number 
of different authors, excluding anonymous writers, 10,000 ; encyclopvedias, bibliography, and science 
of literature, 372; theology, 1,253; law, politics, and statistics, 1,329; medicine, 755; natural science, 
chemistry, and pharmacy, 740; philosophy, 163; school books and pedagogy, 1,629; books for the young, 
485; classics, Oriental languages, and antiquities, 520 ; modem languages, 445 ; history, 730; geography 
311 : mathematics and astronomy, 166 ; military works, 347 ; commerce and industry, 525; architecture, 
mining, engineering, and navigation, 378 ; shooting, hunting, fishing, and forestry, 103; agriculture and 
horticulture, 392; belles-lettres, 1,126; popular works, 540; masonry, 17; miscellaneous, 507 ; maps, 336. 
To each thousand inhabitants there are 103 subscribers for political newspapers in all Grermany. The 
figure is much larger in the south, where it varies firom 125 to 150, than in the north, where it does not 
reach 100. Alsace-Lorraine is the least reading province in Germany, counting only 35 subsoriben to 
ever}' 1,000 inhabitants. 




PUBLIC LIBRABIES. CXXXIII 

aznonnt^d to f 13,076. The deposits of pnblications protected "by copyright, under the 
law requiring that two copies of each book or other publication entered be transmitted io 
the Librarian of Congress, show the following result for the year under the yarious 
designations of iarticles which are lawful subjects of copyright : 

Books 8,952 

Periodicals 7,03« 

Mqaical compositions 5,710 

Dfanutlc compositions 1C3 

Photographs 1, C88 

Engn^vings and chromos 1, 8>i8 

Mcps, charts, and drawings 2, 206 

Prints 154 

DtMgOB 81 

Total. 27.958 

As two copies of each publication are deposited, the net additions to the collections 
of copyright material in tlie library foot up l'.{,979 articles, of which 4,476 are 8t^j)arate 
b«x»ks, besides a still greater numoer of ]>eriodicals. 

Xeic catalogue. — The printing of the new general catalogue of the library, so long 
ready for the press, is now proceeding. This catalogue will embrace the titles of aU 
the works in the library up to 1877, including both books and pamphletH. The ar- 
rangement will be that most generally approved, by authors' names in a single al])ha- 
bet. Embodying as it will the titles of a larger collection of English and American 
literature, to say nothing of other languages, than has ever been embraced in the 
printed catalogue of any existing libiary in a single alphabet, it is hoped that it may 
be found a work of reference of the highest utility to all. 

Index to the documenUif debates^ and laics of CongrenH, — This work, embracing as it 
does the contents of over l,r>00 volumes, is one of such magnitude as to i-equire the 
most careful application both of industry and of time to the work involved. There 
have already been indexed the Annals of Congress, 42 volumes; the Register of De- 
bates, 29 volumes; nearly the whole of the Congressional Globe and the Congressional 
Eecord, 1:^5 volumes; with 18 volumes of the Statutes at Large, up to the last Con- 
gress. There still remain to be indexed a great proportion of the executive and 
crtiher documents of Congress. Meanwhile there has been oHered to the Committee on 
the Library, on certain conditions as to printing, the index of documents alone, pre- 
pared in manuscript by the officers of the BoHton Public Library and assumed to be 
approximately complete. With a view to avoid delay, the librarian reeonnnends 
that the Library Committee consider the expediency of accepting these alreaily pre- 
pared materials for an index, with such revision and additions as may be found im- 
portant, the whole to be printed in one alphabet, with the index to the debutes of 
Congress and the laws. Under each topic of legislation there can then be traced its 
history, with complete references to its discussion in both houses of Congress, to all 
reports or dociuneuts bearing thereon, and to the laws affecting the subject, in chron- 
ological order. 

Documents relating to French dUcoveries and earpZoroHow*.— Dnring the year, the second 
volume of the pnblication of original historical documents exhibitiug the French dis- 
eoveries ami explorations in the norlhwesteni regions of the United States and on the 
Misfiisiiippi has been received from Paris, and the third volume approaches com])lef ion. 
The recommendation is renewed that as the cost to the Government of. each set of this 
work in six volumes is about twenty dollars and as the edition is small (being only 
500 copies), the librarian be authorized to exchange copies of the work with his- 
torical societies and other libraries for books, periodicals, and pamphlets, deemed of 
equal value, to enrich the collections of Congress. The great interest and value of 
the letters and papers embodied in this collection, as throwing light upon the aborig- 
inal trilKMs and pioneer settlements in what are now creat and poi)ulous Common- 
wealths, fully vindicate the wisddta of Congress in making the moderate ap])ropria- 
tion necessary for this publication. 

Re9olt€9, ordinances, and acts of the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confed- 
eration,, — The librarian was charged by act of March 3, lo77, with the e*liting and 
preparation for the press of the resolves, ordinances, and acts of the Continental 
CongTf^as and the Congress of the Confederation, **to be taken from the journals." 
Aft<T a thorough examination of the printed journals, in thirteen volumes, and a 
careful companson of them with the original manuscript joiu'nals of the Congress, 
preserved in thirty-nine volumes in the Department of State, the librarian Ibiind that 
soch large and important omissions ha<l been made in printing these inestimable 
records of our early political history as to justify lum in suspending any attempt at a 
selection or a fragmentary publication from the journals until Congress should l>e con- 
salted as to the expediency of printing the originals in full. 

County and town histories. — Under tiie joint resolution of March 13, 1876, and the 
proclamation of May 25, of the same year, recommending that the several counties 
and towns in the United States cause to be prepared a historical sketch of eacii coxmt^ 



CXXXIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

or town from its foandation to the year 1876, and that a copy in print or mannscript 
be filed in the Library of Congress, there have been received up to date two hnndred 
and twenty-live historical memorials, which are carefully laid aside and catalogued for 
binding and preservation. While it may be regretted that the suggestion of Congress 
has not been to a larger extent complied with, no such contribution to our historical 
literature can be wholly without benefit. 

Xew building for the library . — The librarian renews, for the sixth time, his earnest 
appeal to the judgment and patriotism of Congress, that this body will no longer 
permit the great collection of literature and art confided to iis care to suffer injury 
and loss in its present narrow and inconvenient quart'Crs. The space which five 
years ago Avas too small for- the library is now, through the accumulation of nearly 
one hundred thousand additional volumes, utterly in^equate not only to store the 
books, pamphlets, maps, charts, engravings, and other works of art, but it is at times 
uncomfortably crowded by those persons laudably seeking to make the best use of its 
rich and overflowing stores. A new library building has become a positive and im- 
mediate necessity to funiish room for the readers, to say nothing wnatever of room 
for the books, nearly seventy thousand volumes of which are now piled upon the floors 
in all directions. * 

XJBRABT OF TBR OFFICE. 

The increase of the library in books and pamphlets relating to education is highly 
gratifying. The removal, however, to other quarters has been very damaging to it 
as well as to other ofiice material. The value of the library and the demands upon it 
in the ofiice work have become so great that I have withdrawn fix)m other important 
work one of the clerks best informed in library matters, to arrange, classify, and 
catalogue the material already collected, in order that it may be more available for 
use in the investigations of the Office or of visitors. 

Closely connected with the library are the collections of educational appliances. 
Often the sight of the plan of a building, or .of an article of educational apparatus, will 
furnish a basis of judgment more correct than could be obtained from any description 
in words. The collection of these plans and appliances from foreign countries in the 
possession of the Office is already valuable. Indeed, a visitor jnay now obtain fit)m 
the library and museum together information the acquisition of which might other- 
wise involve extensive travel. 

Table XVI. — Summary of Btatistics of addilionaJ public lU^roiiea for 1877. 



States. 



Califomia 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Kan Has 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Kew Hampshire 

H'ew Jersey 

Now York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . . . , 



o 



1 

2 
4 
4 
2 
3 
1 
11 
2 
1 
4 
1 
2 
4 



o 



a 



734 

929 

6,959 

7,067 

2,952 

649 

2,800 

11,844 

2,841 



12,603 

5,963 

6338 

6,566 



Is 

lb 






36 

67 

2,565 

2,086 

390 

89 



2,884 
3 



232 



.347 
3,168 



I 

I 

a 
% 

L 

« IS 

I 



1,650 

2,800 
16,006 

5,342 
17.419 

2,225 



05,750 
9,772 



12,401 



11,389 



a 
« 

S 

"I 

o 

i 



$64,000 
500 




7,000 



1,000 
32,200 
30,000 



6,300 



.a 

I 



$384 

430 

5,089 

2,002 

680 

62 

315 

43,314 

708 



4,109 

2,115 

400 

4,400 



Yearly expend- 
itures. 



I 



•Si 



$18 
80 
649 
865 
300 
114 
165 
8,590 
252 



3,010 



100 
2,149 



a 



s s 

I 



$362 

212 

1,583 

1,081 



150 

20,307 

266 



19.900 

800 

275 

2,022 



a Only 4 reporting tills item. 



50nly 1 reporting this item. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



CXXXV 



Table. XVI. — Summary of siaiistlcs of additional public Ubrariee for 1877 — Coutiuued. 



StAtes. 



Bhode Island 
Tenneraee ... 
Vermont..... 
"WiacoDJUXi... 

Total .. 



1 

o 

s 

a 


00 

a 

1 

o 
6 


Volumes r.dded during last 
libmry year. 


1 
1 
3 
1 


I2,ir2 

1,678 
2,020 
2,563 


1,865 

1,678 

557 

635 


48 


81,677 


16,102 



a 

li 
It 

•^ s 



^ 



« 

a 

*- . 

9 'O 

^1 

O 

■»» 

a 



o 
S 
< 



31,768 !$92,750 
410 



5,23*J 
19,440 



141,604 



4.000 




237,750 



I 

.9 

t 



o 
H 



Yearly expend- 
ditures. 



1 



II 
II 



$210 
8,870 
1,726 



60,410 



$172 

1,463 

875 



13,802 



.s 

rs oe 

5 2 



3 



$2,405 

1,009 

579 



50,951 



In order to make the statistical information in regard to pnblic libraries as complete 
as possible for those who receive this report and did not receive the report for 1876, the 
following tAble is here reprinted : 



CXXXVI EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Statistics of <iddiii<mal public libraries nutnbering each 300 volumes or upwards 

[Betuma from the libraries named in this table were received 



4 

5 

6 

.7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 
18 
10 
20 

SI 

22 

23 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28 
20 
30 
31 
82 



l^ame. 



American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 
American Medical Association 



American Social Science AaMociation 

Los Angeles Public Library 

Wauregan Village Library Associat'n 

Library Association 

Atlanta City Library 

Cambridge Public Library 

Young Men's Christian Ass'n Lib . . 

Frankfort Public Library 

Masonic Lib. Grand Lodge of Iowa 
Blue Rapids Ladies' Library Ass'n 

Ellis Library Association 

Kansas State Historical Society 

State Board of Agriculture 

Deering Public Library 



Location. 



Rice Public Library 

Portland Society of Natural History 
Catonsvillo Lib'y and Lit'y Ass'n . . . 
American Institute of Instruction . . 

Library of the American Statistical 

Association. 
Franklin Typographical Society's 

Library. 

State Agricultural Libntry 

Turner Library 



Hadley Young Men's Library Ass'n 
North Amherst Library Association 

North Chelmsford Library 

First Parish Library 

Turner Free Library 

Revere Social Library 

Rowley Book Club 

South Adams Library Association . . 



Los Angeles, Cal 

Wanregan, Conn 

West Killingly, Conn 

Atlanta, lU 

Cambridge, HI 

Peru, 111 

Frankfort, Ind , 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Blue Rapids, Kans 

Ellis, Kans 

Topeka,KanB 

Topeka, Kans 

Deering (p. o., Woodford's), 
Me. 

Kittery, Me 

Portland, Me 

Catonaville, Md 

Boston, Mass. (16 Hawley 

St.). 

Boston, Mass. (1 Somerset 

St.). 

Boston, Mass 



Librarian or Beoretary. 



Frederick W. Putnam, secre- 
tary (office, Salem. Mass.). 

William Lee, M. d. (address, 
2111 Pennsylvuiia ave., 
Washington, D. C). 

F. B. Suibom, correspcmding 
secretary (Ckmoord, Mass.). 



Boston, Mass 

Boston, Mass. (29 Middle- 
sex St.). 

Hadley, Mass 

North Amherst, Mass 

North Chelmsford, Mass . . . 

Petersham, Mass 

Randolph, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Rowley, Mass 



Henry Johnson 

Mary Dexter 

Greorge L. Shoals 

Miss Addle Dean 

Henry Phillips 

R G.Boone 

T.S.Parvin 

Misses Hall and Dawes 

George C. Miller 

F. G. Adams, secretary. 
Alfred Gray (ex officio) 
George C. Codman 



Miss A. A. P. Goodsoe 

John M. Gould, cor. secretary . 

D.P.Bamette 

Thomas W.BickneU 



R W.Wood. 



C. L. Flint. . 
Leo Huegle 



F. Bonney 

F. P. Ainsworth 

Fred. T. Gay 

Dea. J. M. Holman 

Charles C. FamhMti 

David W. Stowers 

Frances S. Todd 

C.F.Sayles 

PartL J)e. 



South Adams, Mass 

> Public Libraries in the United States: Their History, Condition, and Management, 
partment of the Interior, Bureau of Education. Washington, 18T6. 
a Volumes and pamphlets. h Total increase in last year in volumes and pamphlets. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



CXXXVII 



fur 1876 ; fnrai replies to inquiries by the United States Bureau of Education. 
after the pablication of the Special Report on Public Librarieiu]* 





a 

a 






& 



1848 



180 



18^ 

1872 
1861 
1854 
1874 
1878 
1875 
1877 
1844 
1874 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1870 




Subscription 



1874 Free 

1843 1 

1877 Subscription 
1840 Free 



1839 

1^ 

1853 
1849 

1856 
18» 
1872 



187« 
1824 
1867 
18C3 



Free 

Free 
Free 



6 



Scientific. 
Medical.. 



Scientific. 



Subscription . . Social 
Subscription . . Social 
Subscription ..! Social 

Free 

Free 

Subscription .. 

Free 

Free 

Subscription . . 
Subscription . . 
Free 



Subscription . . 

Free 

Subscription . . 

Free 

Free 

Subscription . . 
Subscription . . 
Subscription . . 



Public 

PubUc 

"Y. Ikf. C. A.. 

Public 

Social 

Social 

Social 

Historical . . 
Scientific. . . 
PubUc 



Public ... 
Scientific. 
Social.... 
Scientific. 

Scientific. 



Social 



Scientific. 
Social.... 



Social. 

PubUc 

Social. 

Social. 

Public 

Social. 

Social. 

Social. 



e Also 2,000 pamphlets, 
d Estimated. 



i 



? 






al,500 
al, 514 

c312 

• 

1,600 
927 

1,400 
375 
300 
464 
300 

1,500 

1,279 
400 
500 
400 
946 

1,027 

/800 

543 

850 

2,053 

2,000 

2,600 
900 

1,164 
595 

1,288 
300 

4,650 
327 
500 
970 



1 

I 

I 



8 



6500 



50 

70 

75 

150 



100 
215 
100 
(11,000 
125 
73 

450 



100 

100 
50 

50 

100 

70 

15 




50 



? 



t 



9 



350 
2,250 



418 



1,920 
228 



1,500 



1,026 



2,099 


450 

2,000 

2,800 

2,298 

750 

(124,000 



1,500 



Fund and in- 
come. 



Yearly expend- 
itures. 



10 



10 























30,000 






2,500 












5,000 





11 



10 



75 

75 

150 

200 

127 



350 

220 

120 

01,500 



150 



1,200 



1,000 




115 



60 

100 

100 

67 

20 

1,800 



75 

80 



I 



H 
^1 



I 



12 



10 



75 

75 

100 

200 



200 



120 

1,000 

75 

110 

700 



({900 




115 

60 
100 

100 

125 

47 

20 



50 
67 



estate appropriation. 
/AJm, 4,200 pamplilets. 




13 



10 


35 




2 



3 

4 
5 
'6 
7 
8 



13 I 9 
10 



200 11 
12 
I 13 
500 14 



15 
12 16 



400 17 

I 18 

375 19 
20 







25 
64 



1,200 



35 

39 



21 

22 

23 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 



CXXXVin REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Statistics of additional public libraries numbering eodi 



83 
84 

35 

30 
37 
36 
39 
40 
41 
42 



45 
46 
47 

4S 

49 

50 
51 
52 

53 
54 

55 

66 

57 

58 
59 
60 
61 
C2 
63 
64 
65 



66 
67 



Xame. 



Mutual Library Association 

Webster Library Association 

Wenham Library Association 

Williamsbui'gh Library Association 



Location. 



South Weymouth, Mass . . . 

Wobstor, Mass 

Wenham, Mass 



Librarian or secretary. 



Alfred H. Wright. 
Edwin W. Brown . 
J. Choate, jr 



Wniianisbiirgh, Mass Willinm A. ILitrks. 



Williamstown -Public Library "Williamstown, Mass. 



Ann Arbor City Library 

Bast Sar^naw Public Librarj* 

Pent Water Township Library... 

Ladies* Library 

Borneo Fire Department Library. 

43«< Public School Library 

44 I Floral Club Library 

Ironton Library Association 



Anyi Arbor, Mich . . . 
East Sa^naw, Mich. 
Pent Water, Mich. . . 

Quincy, Mich 

Borneo, Mich 

Saginaw City, Mich. 

Austin, Minn 

Ironton, Mo 



Maryville Library and Lecture Ass'u Marj-ville, Mo 



Hampton Library Association 

Wolfborough Public Library Asso- 
ciation. 

Hackcnsack Library and Beading 
Boom. 

Seymour Library Association 

Hampton Librarj* 

Cathedral Library of the Diocese of 
Long Island, b 

Fredonia Librarj' Association 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory. 

American Society of Civil Engineers . 

Free Library and Beading Boom of 
the Brick Church ChapeL 

Library of the Now York Produce 
Exchange. 

Starr Institute 

The Bameveld Library 

Pioneer Libnuy 

Cleveland Library Association 

Kirtland Societj^^ of Natural Sciences 

Cincinnati Observatory 

South Amherst Library Association. 

Library of the Society of Natural 
Sciences. 

Library of the Moravian Archives.. 

Darby Library Company 



Hampton, N. H 

Wolfborough, N. H . 



Hackensack, N. J , 



Auburn, N. Y 

Bridgchampton, N. Y 
BrookljTi, N. Y 



Fredonia, N. Y 

New York, N. Y. (Central 
Park). 

New York, N. Y. (104 E. 
20th St.). 

New York, N. Y. (228 W. 
35th St.). 

New York, N. Y.( White- 
hall st). 

Bhlnebeck, N. Y 

Trenton, N.Y 

Lenoir, N. C 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Mount Lookout, Ohio 

South Amherat, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 



Charles H. Foote. 
Mre. S. A. Crane. . 

W.L. Smith 

John Bipley 

R A. Barnes 

M. P.Owen 

C. A. Glower 

Mrs. Dr. Wheat . . 
J. W. Wilkinson . 
Fred. D. Snyder . . 
S. Albert Shaw... 
Wra-C. Fox 



Mrs. A. Friend 



B. B. Snow, secretary. 

John F. Youngs 

Bev. C. Ellis Stevens . 



Miss Fanny Dewitt 

Prof A. S. Bickmore, saperln- 
tendent 



G. Leverich. 



E. Jasper 



SamnelDmry 

Miss S.Bichardson 

G. W.F.Harper 

A. P. Massey 

S. G. Williams, cor. secretary. . 
Prof. Ormond Stone, director . . 

Mrs. H. L. Shepard 

E. H. Fitch, acting librarian . . . 



Bev. Edmund de Schweinitz. 
Mary Taylor 



Bethlehem, Pa 

Darby.Pa 

aBeorganizcd. 6 To bo removed to Garden City when the Cathe<1ral of the Incarnation is completed. 
e For first five months. d Conchological section. e Also 3,300 unbound volumes. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



CXXXIX 



300 tolumea or upwards for 1S76, ^o. — Conclnded. 



z 
a 

S3 



o 



3 






6 



< 



g 



I 



>^ 



1S63 Sabacription . . 
ISCT Subscription . . 
18S8 : SabAcription . . 

1876 Subscription . . 

1S74 ' Free 

1860 I-^ee 

1875 Free 

1863 Free 

1874 Sabecription . . 

1877 [Free 

1867 jFree 

18f» Subscription.. 

alS7C Subscription . . 

1876 ' Subscription .. 
1865 1 Subscription . . 
1867 Subscription . . 

1870 Subscription . . 



Social. 

Social. 

Social . 

Social. 

Public 

PubUc 

Public 

PubUc 

Social. 

Social . 

School 

Social. 

Social. 

Social. 

Social. 

Social. 

Social. 



1876 Subscription . . | Social 
1876 Subscription . . Social 



1876 Free 



1876 Subscription 
Free 



1832 



IMS 



Social 



Social .... 
Scientific. 



Subscription . . i Scientific. 



Free Social 



1872 Free 



1862 
1875 
1875 

mi 



Subscription . . 
Subscription . . 
Subscription . . 
Subecription . . 



Free 

1866 Subscription 
W70 Free 



1742 

1743 ; Sabacription 



Miscellaneous 



Social.... 
Social.... 
Social . . . . 
Social . . . . 
Scientific. 
Scientific. 
Social . . . . 
Scientific. 



Historical 
Social 



1,079 

1,148 
520 
853 

1,100 
623 

4.176 
448 
300 
400 

3,000 
640 
393 
500 
750 
600 

1,360 



3,510 
1,000 

700 
dl.OOO 

02,200 

2,950 

1.350 

8,233 
1,280 

455 
12,000 

437 
1,500 

350 

300 

/1, 500 
4,000 



i 



e 

^ 



I 
I 

I 



8 



9 



Fund and in- 
come. 



10 



50 ' 

45 

20 



150 



200 

100 

50 



200 
02 



80 
5 

100 



275 



250 



70 
225 
400 



50 
150 



150 



3,000 

4,025 

400 



3,500 
3,000 
22.r-00 
3,200 
1,100 



$0 





20,000 
800 



3,215 

1,227 

100 

8,000 









7,300 



6,955 



4,928 

1,000 

1,954 

20,000 








9 

a 

h 

II 



11 



Yearly expend- 
itures. 



i 



I 



3 



I 



13 



$90 

275 

25 



210 



700 

150 

80 



♦77 
23 



150 



200 

150 

60 



200 
150 
108 



30,000 

10,000 





9,000 





326,000 



7,000 



70 
10 

600 



0861 



100 

120 

329 

5,000 



40 




650 



200 
100 
108 
700 
40 
10 

100 



0174 



800 



80 

329 

1,000 



200 



13 



$75 33 

105 34 

2 35 

' 36 

60 ' 37 

38 

I 

500 ' 39 



52 
35 



100 




60 
80 



600 



80 



0186 



400 

40 



1,600 



460 



40 

41 

42 

«43 



50 44 



45 
46 

47 
48 

40 

50 
51 
52 

53 
54 

55 

66 

57 

58 
50 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 

06 
67 



/Volumes and pamphlets ; the library also contains about 1,000 manuscripts. 



CXL 



REPOBT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Stati8tic8 of eidditional public Ubrariea numbering 





Name. 


Location. 


Librarian or secretary. 




1 


3 


3 


68 
60 


St Timothy's Workingmen's Club 
and Institute. 

Young Men's Library 

Titus ville Library Association 

The Hosers Free Librarv b ....... ... 


Philadelphia, Pa. (Roxbor- 

ough). 
Sewicklev. Pa 


I. Yanghan Merrick 

Miss Sadie Ague 

W iUiam J. Carpenter .... 
Rev. Jaa. P. Lane. sec-, tmi 


70 


Titusville, Pa 


71 


Bristol RI 


72 


Crompton Free Library 

Library of the Juvenile Society 

AiiDiifitA T^Air T.ilvTJLnr 


Centreville. RI 


Miss Clara Bartlett 


73 


Peacham, Vt 


John 0. Cowles 


7^ 


Staunton, Va 


Meade F. Whit© 


76 1 V- "M- n. A. rirrnlAtlTKr T.ihrftrv 


Stp.unt/111, Va -- 


William stiff 


76 


Stevens Point Library Association. . 


Stevens Point, Wis 


Julia £. Curran 



aSatimated. 



PUBUC LIBRARIES. 



CZU 



300 tolumen or upwards for 1876, ^c. — Continned. 



•0 



a 



I 

Pi 

•c 



& 



1B73 Sabscription 



1873 
1877 
1877 
1876 
1810 
1852 
1876 
1868 



Sabflcriptloii 
Subscription . 

Free 

Free 

Sabscription . . 
Sabscription . . 
Sabscription . . 
Subscription*. . 



I 



6 



Social 



Social 

Social 

Pnblicf 

PubUo 

Social 

Law 

Social 



% 



900 

1,000 
1,000 



2,075 

1.200 

1.440 

844 

800 



8 



200 



802 

50 

30 

146 

100 



9 



900 



1.506 



10,750 
4,900 



2,200 
2,400 



Fund and in- 
come. 



ii 



I 



o 

a 



lO 




3,000 




1.000 






11 



$450 

700 
al,500 
600 
400 
60 
220 



225 



Yeariy expend- 
itures. 



I 



3 

■^9 



I 



Id 



$150 

320 
1,000 



60 
220 



100 




13 



$380 
850 



275 

25 



350 
75 



68 

60 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 



MSTot yet open; building not completed, r 



CXLII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Adding the totals of the two preceding summaries to the statistics of the Special 
Report on Public Libraries, published by this Bureau in 1876 (see also the Report of 
the Commissioner of Education for 1875, p. cvii), we have the following aggregates for 
the 3,771 public libraries now reported : 

Total number of volumes 12,458,050 

Total yearly additions ( 1,592 libraries reporting) 457, 824 

Total yearly use of books (811 libraries reporting) 9,206,782 

Total amount of permanent fund (1,746 libraries rei)orting) |6, 761 , 497 

Total amount of yearly income (919 libraries reporting) 1, 399, 113 

Total yearly expenditures for books, periodicals, and binding (843 libraries 586, 279 

reporting). 

Total yearly exx>enditures for salaries and incidental expenses (711 libra- 742, 275 

ries reporting). 

It should be noted, however, that the figures for these items are but approximately 
true for the libraries of the country, inasmuch as they do not include the very consid- 
erable increase of the 3,647 libraries embraced in the Special Rejwrt on Public Libra- 
ries or the increase of the 76 libraries embraced in the Commissioner's Report for 1876, 
fix)m the dates thereof to the present time. 

BABLT AMBRICAU UBBABDCS. 

The Special Report on Public Libraries, cht^pter I, contains historical sketches of 
most of the important libraries formed in the colonial period. Skefches of a few ad- 
ditional libraries established before the Revolution were given in my last annual report. 
To these should be added the following brief notices of early subscription or social 
libraries at Concord, Mass., and Brookfield, Mass. , 

Concord. — "There is a pretty library belonging to a company, the books of which 
were raised by subscription." — (A topographical description of the town of Concord, 
Mass., in 1792. In the Massachusetts Historical Society^s Collections, first series, vol. 1.) 

Brool-fieM, — " Several gentlemen of learning, taste, and benevolence among us are 
endeavoring to promote and encourage improvements, and a social library is begin- 
ning to exist in the first precinct." — *(A description of the town of Brookfield • * • 
in addition to the account which is given in the Historical Discourse (A. D. 1775) rela- 
tive to the Settlement of Brookfield of the Rev. Dr. Fiske. In the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society's Collections, first series, vol. 1.) 

TABLE XVU. — SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

American philanthropists and educators may fitly congratulate themselves that our 
nation was the first to provide deaf-mutes with collegiate or superior instruction. 

The National Deaf-Mute College at Washington is doing excellent work in all it« 
departments. It has already furnished well trained deaf-mutes to several of the State 
institutions in which elementary and secondary instruction is imps^rted. This coor- 
dination in the responsibility of deaf-mute instruction is having a most beneficial 
effect upon the several institutions engaged in the work. 



SCHOOLS FOB THE DEAF AND DUMB. 



CXLIII 



Table XVII. — Summary ofstaUsiics of instiiuiUms far the det^and dumb. 



Alabama 

Arkanflas 

CaUfomia 

Colorado .' 

Connecticat 

Georgia... 

lUinoia 

Imliaiia 

Iowa 

ynTifliiii .............. 

Kentacky 

Looifliana 

Maryland 

Haaeachiifletts 

Mkbi^an 

Hlniiesota 

Mississippi 

Missoori 

Nebraska 

Xe-»rTork 

li^oTth Carolina 

Ohio 

Oreg<m 

PenoBjlTania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas '. 

Virginia 

Vert Virginia 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia. 



3 
1 

O 

I 



Total 



Instmctors. 



I 



o 



6 
8 
5 
2 

21 
4 

23 

1« 
8 
G 
5 
3 

10 

15 

bl3 

6 

3 

11 
4 

72 
bU 

25 
3 

24 
3 
5 
4 

68 
5 

10 
9 



43 I 340 



a 
1 

«M 

o 

I 

S 










1 

2 

ai 

3 



Number under instruc- 
tion during tbc year. 




1 

2 
1 
2 
4 
1 
2 

7 
1 
6 
1 
3 




1 
bl 
1 
3 
8 



50 



o 
H 



50 

63 

79 

26 

291 

85 

459 

863 

156 

111 

40 
120 
147 
280 
103 

50 
230 

55 

1,104 

113 

533 

28 
471 
647 
100 

56 
107 

66 
182 
107 



5,743 



< 



80 
88 
49 
12 

177 
45 

258 

223 
82 
54 
55 
24 
75 
75 

153 
68 
25 

127 
30 

601 
55 

299 
15 

270 



52 
87 
68 
39 
113 
94 



3,243 



«5 



20 
25 
30 
14 

114 
40 

201 

140 
74 
61 
56 
16 
45 
72 

133 
35 
25 

103 
25 

503 
58 

234 
13 

201 



48 
19 
89 
27 
69 
13 



2,453 



|l 
'I 
II 
i| 



I 



170 

130 

102 

30 

2,178 
277 

1,260 

1.158 
436 
178 
636 
218 
213 
2C7 
663 
187 
eS5 
598 
78 

3,431 



1,680 

43 

1,864 



148 
473 
126 
483 
350 



17,522 






9 



6 

55 



a 







2 


00 
3 

13 

19 
5 


11 
4 
8 
1 



5 


72 
6 




11 



1 
6 




30 



254 



alhree of these are mutes. 



b Including those in the departments for the blind, 
e Since reorganization in 187L 



CXLIV REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Table XVII. — Summary of statiBtice of inatitutionB for the deaf and dumb — Continued. 



SUtes. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Georgia 

niinoia 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia. 



Total 



Libraries. 



i 



o 



JS 



500 




50 

2,200 
800 

8,000 

8,050 
600 
150 
600 
300 

2,000 
635 
al,200 
700 
100 
600 
436 

4,107 
200 

2,500 


5,015 



300 
ol,700 

350 
1,000 
3,000 



85,003 



ii 

o 



10 

100 



500 

15 
100 



25 






20 





126 

321 



100 



13 



75 

26 





150 



1,581 



Property, income, &c. 




a$50, 000 

35,000 
a200,000 

15,000 
250,000 

85,000 
416,432 
650,000 
121. 500 

35,000 
150,000 
225,000 
270,000 
135,000 
0400,000 
110,000 

40,000 
105,000 

40,000 
620.615 
alOO.OOO 
800,000 

600,000 
050,000 
125,000 

40,000 

0175, 000 

065,000 

100,000 

600,000 



6, 458, 547 



Is 

CO 



a$18,000 

64,000 

036,000 

<n,ooo 



12,000 

e99,500 
65,884 

/48,350 
22,000 
20,972 
15,000 
38,000 
13, 125 

043,500 
21,8Q0 
11,000 
40,500 
12,980 
^139, 627 

o42,500 
84,299 
6,000 
49, 817 
06,000 
24,000 
14,720 

040,000 

028,000 
31,500 

%117, 525 



1, 113, 599 



f § 



$0 



900 



41,287 













605 

3,153 











M27,C32 







79, 817 












1,911 



255,305 



« 

M 



a m 

II 

a 

M 



o$13,500 
10,000 

e34,420 
7.000 
54,460 
14.607 
89,816 
65,884 

/55,000 
22,000 
20,869 
8,000 
37,834 
25,239 

043,260 

21,000 

11.000 

32,711 

9,000 

250,267 

042,500 
85.499 



94,073 



22,297 
13,143 
036,179 
25,084 
31,500 
53,292 



1,229,434 



o Including departments for the blind. 

6 For salaries and contingent exx)enses ; $150 are allowed for each pupil in attendance. 

c Current expenditure for both departments; excludes expenditure for building. 

dFrom State tax. 

e Includes $20,500 for specif purposes. 

/Includes $20,000 for building. 

g Also $7, 383 fh>m counties. 

A Partially from other sources. 

iCon^cressionAl appropriation, of which $69,525 were for building. 



SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF AND DUBIB. CXLV 

The deaf-mnte instraotor ib necesaarily a ''specialist." To bring an nnfortonate 
popil, hitherto isolated and expressionless, into intelligent commnnication with the 
world is the obligation that rests npon him. Naturally, ''What language shall be 
employed r' becomes the question of questions in his work. That accumulation of 
recorded experiments which furnishes the ordinary teacher a practical test of every 
theory upon any matter of his profession is of little advantage in deaf-mute instruction, 
which belongs virtually to the present day. Fortunately, however, the teachers eur 
gaged in the work have established the freest interchange of opinion and experience, 
so that whatever is gained by one becomes immediately available for all ; the most 
important means of this interchange are the "conventions." The prominence given 
to the discussion of methods in the biennial convention of the Empire State Association 
of Deaf-Mutes, held at Elmira, N. Y., in September, 1877, and in the Conference of 
English Instructors, London, July, 1877, must be attributed not merely to the impor- 
tance of the subject, but, in some degree, to the impulse imparted to language study in 
general through the labors of specialists, to the increased attention given to vocal 
culture in ordinary schools, and to the exjwriments made by Edison and Bell in the 
hope of devising some apparatus for the assistance of the deaf. 

From reports of twenty-six institutions in our own country it appears that the sign 
language is taught in all, while fifteen employ also articulation teachers ; and three, 
viz, the Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf-Mutes, of New York, the 
Clarke Institution for Deaf-Mutes, at Northampton, Mass., and the Horace Mann 
School for the Deaf (formerly the Boston Day School for Deaf-Mutes), make articular 
tion a specialty. In short, the schools in our country are not limited to either sys* 
tern, but endeavor to take advantage of both. 

The following considerations, taken from an article by Dr. I. L. Peet, in the last 
annual report of the New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb; 
embody the reasons that have led American instructors generally to prefer the manual 
method for the instruction of deaf-mutes as a class: 

1. All the cases of success that have been so marked as to attract public attention, 
either at home or abroad, in the more recent or more remote {leriods of the existence 
of the art, fix>m Bonet to Bell, have been the results of devoted individual attention. 

2. The underlying principle controlling all theories, methods, and regulations in 
organized schools which have grown out of public and private beneficence should be 
^ the greatest good to the ^atest number." 

3. With the loss of hearing as the receptive faculty comes the loss of speech as the 
expressive. The cong^enital deaf-mute naturally thinks in pictures. Pictorial forms, 
therefore, constitute his method of expression. Then, as alpnabetic language becomes 
the vehicle of his thoughts, he is in possession of that mode which constitutes at pres- 
ent the most important feature in the commerce of ideas. 

4. That instruction in articulation has the efiect of retarding the acquisition of 
alphabetic language, and of detracting from the vigor of mind essential thereto, is ap- 
parent when we consider (a) that the pupil does not, as in either of the other methods 
of expression, have an appreciative consoionsDess of the e£fect he is producing: {h) 
that the methods employed to impart skill in articulation are burdensome to noth 
teacher and pupil; (o) that it consumes a great deal of time that can ill be spared 
froia the more important work of becoming familiar with the hidden meaning and 
idiomatic use of words and phrases; and (d) that in the most satisfactory cases it 
does not facilitate the enjoyment by the deaf-mute of mixed society. 

For both the semi-deaf and semi-mutes Dr. Peet, in the article quoted, strongly 
advocates articulation. The advantages of the articulation system were presented 
very clearly before the conference in London by Mr. B. S. Ackers, whose exhaustive 
study of all systems is due to the sad circumstance of the deafness of his own daugh- 
ter. Through the devoted e£forts of Mr. Ackers, a training school for articulatiou 
teachers is soon to be opened in England. The school will be under the charge of Mr. 
A. A. Kinsey, who spent twelve months in Germany studying the methods of the best 
articulating schools, and subsequently visited the leading institutions of this country 
and studied Professor Bell's system of " visible speech." 

In Spain and Italy remarkable success has attended instruction in articulation, as ia 
set forth in an article by Don Carlos Nebr^da y Lopez, director of the National College 



CXLVI BEPORT OF TH£ COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

'for the Deaf and Dimib and the Blind at Madrid, which was read before the second 
convention of articnlation teachers, held at Worcester, Mass., in 1874, and in an aittcle 
by Rev. Ginlio Tarra, in the report of the committee for the education of poor deaf- 
mutes in the province of Milan, Italy, for the year 1874-^5. In this institution only 
'Hhe pure oral intuitive method" is employed; Rev. Qinlio Tarra is the principal. 

The question of the relative importance of the sign language, the manual alphabet, 
and articulation has entered this year largely into all the literature of deaf-mute edu- 
cation. In the January and April numbersof the American Annals appeared the trans- 
lation of an article by Maxime Du Camp, entitled ^'The National Institution at Paris," 
which article was published originally in the Revue des Deux Mondes. The writer 
raises decided objection to both the manual alphabet and articulation methods. His 
objections to the latter are ably met in a work entitled ^'Quelques mots sur la m^thode 
d'articulation," by J. Hugentobler, director of the Institution for Deaf-Mutes at Lyons. 
The subject is also fully discussed in the report prepared for the Massachusetts exhibit 
in the Philadelphia Exhibition. 

The course of study in the deaf-mute institutions in the various States corresponds 
to that in the public schools, with the addition of industrial training. The necessity 
of the latter is too evident to admit of discussion, but a perplexity has arisen there- 
from : it frequently happens that, as soon as the poorer parents find their children 
able to earn even a pittance, they keep them from school to secure their slight assist- 
ance. The difficulty is not easily met; on the one hand ore the positi^te needs of the 
pareuts, on the other is the permanent ii^ury to the children and to society. It is one 
of the many conditions bearing upon the question of compulsory education. 

The subject of church work among the deaf and dumb was selected for discussion 
by the managing committee of the Church Congress held at StAffbrdshire, England, 
October 6, 1875. Two able papers were read : one by Rev. Samuel Smith, chaplain of 
the Royal Association in Aid of the Deaf and Dumb, London; the other by Dr. D. 
Buxton, F. R. s. L. They set forth the history of the efforts since 1822, the increase of 
public interest, and the gradual systematizing of this branch of christian activity. 
Recent accounts indicate an advance since 1875. 

The report for 1876 of the Church Mission to Deaf-Mutes in our own country shows 
that in spite of commercial embarrassments the year was a successful one for this enter- 
prise. The Philadelphia mission, under the immediate direction of Rev. H. W. Syle, 
has proved very efficient. Peculiar interest attaches to this branch of the mission 
firom the fact that ReV. H. W. Syle was ordained a deacon in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in Philadelphia, October 8, 1876, which is supposed to be the first instance 
in the history of the world of the admission to holy orders of a person deprived of 
hearing and speech. On the 25th of Jannary, 1877, Mr. A. W. Mann was ordained 
in Grace Church, Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. Mann continues to labor among the deaf-mutes 
of the West, under the direction of the Church Mission. 

The records of the various institutions for deaf-mutes present the fullest data attain- 
able concerning the causes of deafness and of muteness, and are attracting the careful 
ntt'Cntion of social scientists; thus the work undertaken for a limited class has its reflex 
influence upon society in generaL 

TABLE XVin.-- SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND. 

Additional statistics in reference to schools for the blind will be found in Table 
XVIII of the appendix. 



SCHOOIiB FOB THE BLIND. 



CXLVn 



Tablb Xyni.-— AfflMNary <tf ttoHffieg ofmSkooUfar %%€ hVM. 



CalifamiA 

Georgia 

Sliiioi* 

Tndiana 

lowB 

TfanitM 

Xentooky .4 

Tioniidima 

Maryland 

KasMehiiBetta . . 
IfichigMi 

KiMiasippi 

Hebraaka 

XewTork 

5'orth Carolina. . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

PennaylTanla ... 
Sooth Carolina . . 

Tenneaaee 

Texas 

Virginia 

Vest Virginia . . 
Wtooonsin 

Total 



I 

e ^ 

\\ 
|i 

I § 

o o 



I 



2 

12 

a28 

« 
32 
27 
82 

« 
20 

8 
23 
46 
63 

8 
11 

7 



79 
(c) 
66 

3 

38 

a5 

10 

8 

7 

al4 

21 



80 666 



O 'O 




5 


4 

8 
8 



6 
8 
10 
80 


2 
2 



80 
6 
6 


26 
1 
6 



2 
2 
8 



162 



I 



I 
>Z5 



12 

82 

20 

63 

121 

110 

U4 

42 

06 

80 

66 

128 

46 

13 

26 

108 



873 
06 

164 
10 

177 

a47 
62 
64 
42 
29 
92 



46 
119 

89 
173 
667 
672 
400 



874 

40 

629 



88 



1,662 



962 

18 

969 



187 



229 

46 

270 



Libraries. 



i 

I 

► 

o 
u 

I 



100 
676 
120 

1,000 
770 

1,000 

900 

99 

1,000 
100 
171 

2,464 

(«) 
160 
255 



1,076 
400 



100 
900 
(c) 
1,006 



1,600 

100 

1,240 



2,179 



7,701 



16,226 



28 
60 



850 
20 

860 

• 

89 

158 




45 



25 



6 

lot 



(•) 



40 



1,608 



• For both departments. 5 Only one institntlon reported this item. 

eScported with deaf and dumb department. (See Table XVn and summary.) 



CXLVm REPORT OF THE COMICISSIONER OF EDUCATIOK. 



Tabob XYIH,— Sumnuiry ofBtaUsUcs ofschooUfar the hlind — Continued* 



States. 



Alftbama 

ArlEADSM 

CalifomiA 

Georgia 

lUinois 

T Tyi^iftp a. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentncky 

Louisiana 

Marjland 

Kassaohosetts . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Kebraska 

New York 

Nortli Carolina. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . 
South Carolina . 

Tennessee 

Texaa 



Virginia 

West Virginia. 
Wisconsin 



Total. 



Property, income, Ac. 



2 

^ i 

h 



(a) 
$30,000 

(a) 

75,000 
140,000 
500,000 
300,000 

40.000 

100,000 

d800 

105,000 

299,410 

(a) 

30.000 

15,000 

100,000 



5 ft (^ 

O O U 
*• "2 O 



I 



I 
I 



a 

1 



I 



I 



9 
CO <H 



009,702 

(tf) 
600,000 

<il,000 
190,000 

(a) 

90,000 



(tf) 
(a) 
185,000 



3,490,912 



(a) 
19,500 

(a) 

13,500 
80,117 
31,542 
11,997 
10,130 
20,235 

6,000 
11,925 
30,000 

(a) 



10.000 
21,000 



$0 



31,000 

292 

1,280 



480 







4,970 

17,944 



s 



S 3 



I 



o 
H 








90,321 

(a) 
070,000 

4,000 
39,000 

(a) 

17,000 
17,180 

(a) 

(a) 
/19.500 



14,577 
6240 




7,288 








12,401 



462,947 



90,472 



M18,000 
11,400 

el57, 000 

13,792 

31,307 

34,062 

68,828 

10,130 

i*.140 

6,400 

26,011 

70,473 

543,500 

4,500 

10,000 



244,901 
542,740 

70.000 
4,000 

71,648 



17,000 
17,180 



40,401 



1,036,503 



« 



2 ^ 

3 



(a) 
no, 845 

(a) 

13.000 

27,001 

32,208 

58,013 

10,130 

22.125 

4.800 

25,872 

58,163 

(a) 

4,500 

9,500 



247,000 

(a) 

50,824 

4,300 

74,912 



22.000 

16,922 

(a) 

37,400 

17,301 



747. 416 



aBeported with deaf and dumb department. d Value of the apjNiratus only, and does not indnde 

(See Table JLVil and summary.) that of grounds or buildings. 

5 For both departments. e Includes amount appropriated for new buildings. 

e Includes |90,000 for buildings. / $2, 500 were for special purposes. 

It cannot be doubted that the work of the educator is too mnch removed from public 
notice, isolated from popular sympathy as if still doomed to the traditional obscurity 
of the cloister. If this is true of education in general, how much more so of the 
efforts made to train the unfortunate classes. We raise imposing; structures and mul- 
tiply ingenious apparatus for the deaf and blind, but the laborious process which gives 
them purpose we neglect. 

We slight the precious kernel of the stone, 
And toil to polish its rough coat alone. 

Public men may do much to discourage such indifference and, by the example of 
their personal attention, draw to the work the public interest for which it languishes. 



EDUCATIONAL BEKEFACT10N& CXLIX 



The immediate advantage of sach direct notice on the part of repTesentative men is 
forcibly suggested by the visit of the President of the United States and party to the 
Kentucky Institution for the Blind at Louisville. Everything had been done to give 
full expression to the spirit of the occasion. It was not simply that the school was in 
holiday attire and that voices and instruments made joyous melody, but the impor- 
tance of the visit naturally prompted a retrospect of the cause represented — an exer- 
cise always inspiriting, and doubly so when the work reviewed is noble in its purpose 
bat necessarily drudging in its methods. 

In his address of welcome. President Bell called attention to the following interest- 
ing particulars of the history of instruction for the blind : One hundred years have not 
elapsed since Valentin Haiiy opened the first school for the blind in Paris. His dis- 
covery that the tactile sense in the fingers could be converted into an excellent sub- 
stitnte for eyes and his later discovery of how to make embossed letters, lie at the 
foundation of all useful means for instructing the blind. Institutions for the blind 
made slow progress in Europe, but they have multiplied rapidly in the United States, 
numbering at present twenty-nine, of which six are under the superintendence of 
blind men. Mr. Bell also briefly outlined the work of the American Printing House 
for the Blind, the only chartered institution for printing for the blind in the world. 
It is much the largest in its productions and much the most varied in the character of 
its works, being the only printing estabUshment of its kind in the world that runs 
its press by steam. The press was invented for this company, and has no equal ; the 
devices for work are unique. When the enterprise began, the price of stereotyping was 
|5 a page ; now, through the inventions of the superintendent, Mr. Huntoon, the work 
is done at a cost of ten cents a page. The stereotype plate may be made from a paper 
page or may consist of a brass plate, which costs but a small sum and requires little 
room for storage. 

In response the President expressed his hearty appreciation of the general work and 
of the prosperity of this individual institution, and was turning to introduce a gentle- 
man of the Cabinet when Professor Himtoon led forth a little blind boy, scarcely more 
than an infant in years, who presented a bouquet to Mrs. Hayes. The incident gave 
touching emphasis to the meaning of the assembly. The members of the Cabinet 
present. Secretaries McCrary, Key, and E varts, expressed in turn their pleasure on the 
occasion. Mr. Evarts said : '^Almost all that the world see with their eyes, in order 
that they may comprehend with their minds, you succeed in comprehending with your 
mind through the arts and skill, the patience and love, of your more fortunate fellow- 
citizens ; there is some reason why the reflections, the sentiments, the opinions, and 
declarations of the blind may give some instruction to those whose eyes are often mis- 
led in the glare of the sunshine and open day." 

TABLE XIX.— GIFTS AND BEQUESTS TO EDUCATION. 

The following summaries show for what objects, to what kinds of institutions, and 
in what States the large sum of three millions of dollars was given or bequeathed for 
educational purposes in 1877. 

The amount is nearly one million seven hundred thousand dollars less than that for 
1876. Here the influences of the business depression and probably of the recent ex- 
citing political contest over the Presidency are sl^own. 

Of the total amount, nearly one million three hundred thousand dollars were given to 
universities and colleges, and about six hundred and fifty thousand dollars to scientific 
and professional schools. Of this latter amount, schools of law received only $10,000, 
and medical schoola only |22,000. 



CL 



RKPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Tabus XJX.-^StaHatioal wummary of UntfactioM for 1877, hy States. 



States and Tenitoiies. 

• 


1 


1 

1 

9 

1 

1 


1 

1 


• 

• 

1 

1 


i 

1 


4S 

a 

o 

1 


o § 


AlAKama ,r 


$10,600 




























OalifimiU.... r 


53,689 

8,000 

105^078 

6,100 

800 

89,290 

140,925 

109,200 

75,965 

8,400 

53,400 

00,240 

72,800 


$2,139 

2,000 

27,301 




$10,000 








Colorado ................ 










OoniMcticnt ^r. 






$10,000 


$5,000 




TlAlAwam .,, 






$5i000 


Florida. ...TTT.,-,,.-...T 














fliMtFcHfL 


20,000 
53,091 

4,200 
45,291 

8,400 
11,450 
60.000 

1,500 


$5,200 

724 

105,000 










UlinoiB .,.,,--,..,-,., r- 


20,300 








Tn^lana 








ToWA ... ........ 


3,250 


















Kentucky 

TiAiiiitifiiiA ................ 




24,750 






7.70$ 










'M' ftlnA - 




6,900 






50,000 


If Arvlftiid ................ 










IfflkltllftnhlllMHM 


821,847 

18,036 

40,103 

2,873 

183,008 

5^550 


283,839 

17,264 

2,140 


6,000 


600 






17,000 


Michigan 

Minn^^4ota- ,-.,,,,... 




127 






19,058 
1,500 






Ifi^ffafipp* 










Hiaeoari 


U7,440 
5,550 


41.000 




2,000 


20,000 


VAbnifikA ............... r 








TfAvadA 












Vew Hanpffhirer T 


46,850 

404,110 

303,787 

3,620 

102.402 

11,750 

196,866 

117,750 

43,728 

18,531 

27,060 

22,776 

169,081 


15,000 










11.000 


STew JeriBV 


2,900 


257,519 
30,892 








New Yo^k 


182,307 


150 


8,607 


4.096 


Nwth Oftrolina . . . , 






Ohio... 


137,619 

1,000 

144,100 




2,400 




6,400 


80^640 


Oregon .............. .... 








Pnnifiylv^nin, ... r ....... . 


1,500 


89,039 








Rhode Iflland 








South Carolina 


15.000 

7.360 

25,000 












Tennewee r . . . . x r . , 




876 








Texas 








2.000 


Vennont 










10,600 


Virginia 


130.000 


38,881 




200 






WestYlrginla 








Wisconsin 


25,839 

ISO 

31,008 


5,000 










100 










150 

• 




Utah 












"Washington ..,,.., 






























Total 


8,015^256 


1,273,991 


201,205 


415,079 


10.850 


22,874 


163,918 





EDUCATIONAL BENEFACTIONS. 



CLI 



Table XIX. — StaUstieal summary ofbtnefactioM, ly States — Continued. 



States and Tenitorifls. 



Cidilbnii*... 
Cokmdo.... 
Ooonecticiit 
Delaware.. . 

Florida 

Georgia 

miiiois 



150,000 



$10,000 



0^500 
1,000 
0,000 
1,100 

800 
14,090 

800 



I 



$08,510 



I 

II 



i| 

B 

3 



I 



$3S.000 



8,777 



Iowa.. 



18,027 



407 



JUndaiina. 



ICaiylaDd 

Kaanclniaetta. 



lffii>i<iippl 



Nobraaka 

^erada 

New Hampshire 

Xew Jeraey 

XewTork 

North Carolina. . 

Ohio 

Onigtm. ........ . 

PennaylTania . . . 
Shodelabrnd... 
Soatii Carolina.. 



15,000 
1,078 



0,500 
240 



48, 4U 
600 

10.000 

878 

2,588 



16, 010 
145 



Texaa 

Vermont 

Virginia : 

WeatVirgfaiia 

Wiaconsin 

District of Colombia. 

Utah 

Waahiagton 

Total 



15,050 

55,000 

1,000 



035 



23,000 
4.000 



55 



8,000 



171, 118 



5,800 

85,700 

122,405 

880 

0,408 

10,750 

8,050 

2,000 

24,728 

10,705 

60 

6,600 



14,789 



81,008 



482,557 



53,000 
80,320 



8,277 
02,750 



5,521 



268,089 



12,000 
3,000 



54^767 



OLn 



BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Table XIX. — Statiatical 9uinmary of henefaeHon$ to itiitiiutUmB of various kinds for 1877- 

ContinuecL 



InstitationB. 



TTniTenities and colleges. . . 

8chool« of science 

Schools of theology 

School of law 

Schools of medicine 

Institatlons for the superior 

instmction of women. 

Preparatory schools 

Institutions for secondary 

instruction. 

Libraries 

Institutions for the deaf 

and dumb. 

Total 



$1. 273. 901 

201,205 

415, 97» 

10,850 

22,874 

163,076 

171, 118 
432,557 

268,030 
54,767 



8,015,256 



1664,700 

176,865 

246,222 

200 

20,247 

130,200 

113,358 
801,488 



51,767 



1, 704, 547 



Is 

si 

I s 






^4 

I 



$226,241 $202,800 
10,468 



110,043 . 20,502 



2,127 
28,212 

56,035 
U6,758 

6,510 



556, 104 223, 302 



i 



I 

lit 



$30,000 

13,648 

20,205 

150 



1,200 

1,055 
2,880 



70,128 



« . 

tci « 

a 8 

a 



$63,100 



7,727 



10,636 



81,463 



i 

9 

a 

s 

n 



$88,250 

724 

1,200 

10,000 



4.364 

770 
705 

263.420 
3,000 



370,532 



TABLE XX.— EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS. 

The following is a snmmary of the selected list of books published daring the year 
1877 which forms Table XX of the appendix to this report. To many persons this 
book list, appearing year by year, has proved of great value as a guide to reading and 
private study. It will also be found a useful purchasing list for the numerous small 
libraries which are springing up so abundantly since the publication of the Special 
Report on Public Libraries by ^his Office in 1876. 

Table XX. — Summary of the number of educational publications. 



. Number of firms in — 

Califomia 2 

Connecticut 2 

Illinois • 5 

Kentucky 1 

Maryland 1 

Massachusetts 18 

Michigan « 2 

Missouri 2 

New Hampshire 2 

New York 46 

Ohio 6 

Pennsylvania 13 

Tennessee 1 

Virginia 3 

Wisconsin 1 

District of Columbia 1 

Total 106 



Number of books on — 

Archieology, fine arts, and music. . 25 

Bibliography and literature 50 

Dictionaries and encyclopedias .... 9 

Education 42 

General science 38 

Geography 6 

History 39 

Language 44 

Law 15 

Mathematics 34 

Mechanics and physics 20 

Medicine and surgery 30 

Natural history 22 

Philosophy and logic 13 

Political and social science 12 

Theology and religion 32 

Total 431 



EDUCATIONAL BENEFACTIONS. 



CLm 



TABLE XXI. — SCHOOLS FOB THE FEEBLE-MINDED. 

EleTen schools for feeble-ipinded children report 355 instractorB and 1,781 pupils, an 
average of five to the teacher. 

This fact alone is significant of the peculiarly difficult nature of the work. Noth. 
ing but unfailing interest and unflagging industry can accomplish much. 

Table XXI. — Summary of $tati$He$ of ichooU for feeble-minded youth. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

e 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 



Namow 



Connecticnt School for ImbecQe* 

niioois Asylum for Feeble-minded Children . . . 

lowm Asylnm for Feeble-minded Children 

Slentacky Institution for TMnoathig Feeble-, 
minded Children. 

PriTiUe Institution for the Education of Feeble- 
minded Youth (Barre, Mass.). 

Maasachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble- 
minded Youth. 

HiUflide School for Backward and Feeble Chfi- 
dren (FayvUle, Mass.). 

Idiot Asylum, BandaU's Island, K. Y 

New York Asylum for Idiots 

Ohio State Asylum for Idiots 

PennaylvaniA Training School for Feeble- 
minded Children. 

Total 



I 



o 



I 
i 



12 
60 
10 
22 



21 



4 

50 

104 

01 



855 



Number of in- 
mates. 



i 



48 

103 

82 

07 

67 

63 

8 



148 
271 
147 



1,052 



4 



80 
70 
88 
80 

10 

85 



81 
110 
180 
101 



84 
182 
100 
127 

78 

88 



140 

207 
451 
248 



720 



1,781 



204 
2 



$14. 975 
68,000 
15,000 
28,000 



128 



10 



53 



201 
458 



1,050 






25,000 



40,810 
70, 178 
57,535 



322,408 



$14, 975 
68,000 
18,000 
20^000 

38»485 

25,000 



47.067 
77,589 
52,725 



356,741 



TABUS XXIL — SUMMABT OF PATENTS FOB IMPBOVEMENTS IN SCHOOL FUBXITUBE. 

The following summary shows the patents granted by the GoTernment for inventions 
of school furniture and appliances during the year: 

Table XXII. — Summary of patents for improvements in sokool furniture. 



From Connecticut 3 

Georgia 1 

Illinois. 3 

Indiana 2 

Iowa 1 

Kentucky ••• 1 

Maine • 1 

Massachusetts 5 

Michigan 1 

Missouri 1 

New Jersey •.. 4 



From New York 18 

Ohio 4 

Pennsylvania 3 

Tennessee 1 

Virginia 1 

Wisconsin 4 

District of Columbia 1 

Foreign 3 

Total 08 



CLIV 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSrONBR OP EDUCATION. 



Table XXII. — Summary ofpatmUfor impravemenU in school fumiUare — Continned. 



Improvements in— 

Adding machine 

Adding pencil 

Apparatus for teaching arithmetic. .. 

Apparatus for teaching spelling 

Attachment to parallel rulers ...••... 

Blackboard 

Blackboard eraser 

Blackboard rubber. 

Book-cover protector 

Blotter and ruler combined 

Chart for object teaching 

Combination writing instrument 

Combined blotter and paper clip 

Combined blotting pad and ruler 

Combined eraser and pencil 

Combined erasive tip and pencil-point 
protector. 

Combined pencil holder and sharpener. 

Combined pencil sharpener and point- 
protector. 

Combined slate and book carrier 

Combined slate and scholar's com- 
panion. 

Copybook • 

Copying book , 

Device for teaching musical transposi* 
tion. 

Device for teachiog penmanship 

Draughtsman's instrument 

Drawing slate 

Educational appliance 

Educational globe 



Educational toy 

Folding seat for school desks 

Fountain pen 

Fountain pen holder 

Galvanic battery 

Geographical clock 

Gymnastic apparatus 

Orthographic and numerical frame... 

Paint pencil or crayon 

Paper folder and cutter 

Parallel ruler 

Pencil sharpener 

Pen-holdiug pencil-point protector ... 

Scholar's companion 

Behooi chart 7 

School desk 

School desk and settee 

School desk seat 

School furniture 

School slate 

Slate 

Slate clean'er 

Slate frame 

Slate-frame attachment 

Slatepencil sharpener 

Student's chair •• 

Ventilation and disinfecticm of build- 
ings. 

Ventilator for building 

Writing desk 

Writing ink . .. •'. 



Total • 58 



EDUCATION m FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



The documents and publications relating to education in foreign countries form a 
separate part of the library of the Office under the charge of the translator. The 
papers and periodicals received from other countries may be tabulated as follows : 



• 


Dailies. 


Weeklies. 


Monthliea. 


Enelisli ....••...••..... 


Paget. 

8 

4 
8 


Pages. 
136 

76 
108 

16 


Poffet. 
400 


Frencli ..•.....•.......................•.....••..■•■■.••••••••.... 


360 


Oflrmnn ...,.^^,-r-^,,,, ,,.,,^,,^, ,,,,,,,,» ,,,t,,-,- 


376 


Datch 




Ttftlian , 




28 










Total 


20 


836 


1,164 







This gives, on the average of 26 working days to a month, about 116 pages a day 
which the translator must carefiiUy examine, making necessary not«s and abstracts; 
and, if the English matter be deducted, a daily average of 72 pages of matter in other 
languages. 



EDUCATION IN FOBEIGK COUNTRIES. CLY 

This stateraenty however, includes neither reports nor doonments coming into the 
Office ; what these add to the translator's work may be illustrated by a single example : 
during the month of October the Office receiyed fifteen reports and treatises on educa- 
tion, filling 2,360 pages. These were written in German, Spanish, Italian, English^ 
Dutch, and Latin, and embodied discussions and historical statements of great impor- 
tance. 

I here present a synopsis of educational &cts drawn from the various periodicals, 
reports, and documents which have been received firom foreign countries. 

L— >SUB0FK. 

Aprebia-Husoabt.— 4k AusnoA, canadtational BMiiarchy: Ax«a, 116^006 aqiiftre mllMi popnlatioii, 
21,565,435. Capital, Yleimft; popnlatioii, 1,030,770. Minister of pablic instractioii, C. von Stremftyr. 

Austria had, in 1875, 15,166 elementary schools, 235 of which were higher element- 
ftiy schools; the lower elementary schools were attended by 2,065,100 pupils and the 
higher by 69,583. Only 66 per cent, of the school population receive instruction. The 
nnmber of school rooms in Austria is 25,872, or less than two for each school-house. 

Induttnal tdiooh, — Austria began the organization of industrial instruction at a 
later day than Germany, but she has developed it rapidly and with extraordinary 
success. While ranking among the ficst nations in Europe for the encouragement 
given to polytechnic education, Austria had no industrial school for the people. Es- 
tablishments in the country were greatly in want of foremen. This stirred up public 
opinion to such a degree that the government had to establish a system of institutions 
for imparting instruction in trades and business to a large number of workmen and 
their children. The Realschulen were at first reorganized in such a way as to lead &om 
polytechnic training to the higher special industries. Then, below the Realschulen 
designed for the middle class, schools were established more popular in character 
aad more specially industrial, adapted to prepare foremen for different important 
branches of industry. Some of these are review schools (Fortbildungsschulen), and 
merely review the ordinary branches of school instruction with a view to their prac- 
tical application, or impart this knowledge in connection with a more special course 
of preparation for apprenticeship ; others devote themselves exclusively to preparation 
£o>r apprenticeship, and still others assume as a preliminary an apprenticeship to some 
trade or branch of business. 

Austria possesses three 'higher schools for weaving at Vienna, Reichenberg, and 
Briinn ; 23 lower schools for weaving, 2 schools for lace making, a school and work- 
shop for the whole group of mechanical industries at Klagenfurt, a school for building 
at Vienna, a special school for watchmaking at Vienna, and 15 schools for giving 
instruction in the arts of working in wood, marble, and ivory, 6 for instruction in 
making toys, 4 for instruction in making baskets and mats, and 7 for instruction in 
making arms and other articles of metal. Several of these institutions have been 
acknowledged a public benefit by the rural population of the empire. The schools 
for teaching woodcarving, for instance, have created a new kind of business in the 
mountainous distriots of Bohemia, Austrian Silesia, and Moravia, where great quan- 
tities of cheap toys for children are manufactured. Even amoqg the schools that give 
instruction in woodwork Only, each is required by the government to specialize suffi- 
ciently to accommodate itself to the particular needs and resources of the region in 
which it is situated. In the Tyrol, the school of sculpture at Imst is specially designed 
to develop artistic cabinet work and ornamental furniture ; at Innsbriick, the indus- 
trial school applies itself to figures ; that at Mondsoo, to groups of animals ; that at 
St. Ulrich, to the sculpture of religious statues, and that at Wallem, to the commoner 
kinds of furniture and to cases for clocks. 

b. HcsGAJtT, odutitntional monMchy: Area, 118,172 squsre miles; popalation, in 1876, 15,50p,455. 
Capital, Bada-Pesth; population, 270,479. MinlBtor of public inatmotion, A. von Trefort. 

Hungary had, in 1875, 11,743 communes, with 13,455,030 inhabitants and 15,387 
•chools; 1:1,831 of these schools were supported by religious communities and 1,556 by 
the state. 

The school population was 2,149,597, of which number 1,452,090 attended the «l6- 



CLVI BRPORT OF THE COHlilSSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 



mentary schools, 11,837 the advanced elementary schools, 22,057 the private schools, 
and 18,047 the Gymnasien and Rcalschulen. The school attendance has considerably 
increased since 1869. In that year only 47 per cent, of all the children of school ago 
were at school, while in 1875 we find over 70 per cent, in attendance. The total 
nnmber of teachers was 19,610, and their average salary 319 florins. 

Of the 58 teachers' seminaries, 48 are for males and 10 for females. The total num- 
ber of students in 1875 was 2,651, viz, 1,905 males and 746 females. 

There are now 200 Kindergarten in Hungary and 5 seminaries for the training of 
Kindergarten teachers. 

The 146 Gymnasien have 1,768 professors and 27,144 students. There are, besides, 35 
Realschulen, with 431 professors and 8,066 students. 

BsLOiuif, constitutioiiAl monarchy: Area, 11,373 square miles; popnlatioii, 5,336,636. Capital, BrnS' 
sels ; population, 384,846. Minister of the interior, C. Delooor ; chief of the educational section, L6<m 
Lebon. 

The Annuaire Statistiqne de la Belgique for 1877 gives the following account of the 
present condition of education in the Kingdom of Belgium: 

Primary educatian. — The number of piimary schools was 5,520, or 1.23 for every 1,000 
inhabitants, in 1851 ; and 5,856, or 1.08 for every 1,000 inhabitants, in 1875. The num- 
ber of pupils was 487,148, or 10.8 per cent, of the inhabitants in 1851; and 669,1^, or 
12.4 per cent., in 1875. 

The number of 6coles gardiennes or salles d'asile (Kindergarten) increaaed firom 406 
in 1851 to 929 in 1875, and the number of pupils from 24,102 in 1851 to 97,382, or 404 
per cent., in 1875. 

The number of schools for adults was 990 in 1851 and 2,615 in 1875. These schools 
were attended by 158,060 pupils in 1851, and by 204,673 in 1875. 

The total expenditure for primary schools was 2,651,639 francs in 1843 and 24,806,428 
francs in 1875. Of the latter amount, 10,606,317 frtincs were paid by the government-, 
2,697,234 francs by the provinces, 8,871,536 francs by the communes, and the remainder 
was derived from school fees and from charitable contribations. 

Of the 45,309 conscripts examined in 1876, 8,246 could neither read nor write, 2,015 
could read only, 19,288 could read and write, 15,222 had received a higher education 
than those just mentioned, and 538 were not reported upon. From the foregoing it 
appears that 76.17 per cent, could read and write and that 4.45 conld read only. 

Secondary schools (ioolea moyennes), — The number of these schools was 198 in Decem- 
ber, 1875, viz : 10 royal athenaeums, 50 middle class schools supported by the state, 
31 communal schools aided by the state, 3 exclusively communal schools, 84 schools 
under the direction of the clergy, and 20 private schools. The number of pupils in all 
these establishments was 17,881 in 1876, against 11,922 in 1860. The government con- 
tributed 1,443,447 fr«ncs to secondary schools in 1876. 

Superior education, — Belgium has four universities, viz, two state universities and 
two free universities. The former are situated at Ghent and Li^ge, and the latt«r at 
Brussels and Lou vain. The following table shows the number of students in each fac- 
ulty of the universities at different periods : 





St'ite universities. 


Free universities. 


Faculty of — 


Ghent 


Li^go. 


Brussels. 


Louvain. 




1839-'40. 


1876-77. 


1839-'40. 


1876-'77. 


l839-'40. 


1876-77. 


1839-'40. 


1876-77. 


Philosophy and lit- 
erature. 
Sciences ........... 


33 

74 
61 
67 


87 

54 
96 
82 


88 

•45 
64 
81 


95 

174 
198 
163 


43 

37 

148 

51 


59 

117 
197 
242 


195 

89 

100 

62 

44 


106 
163 


liHW ...... r^-^rrr-r-- 


323 


^edicine . , , ^ , - . r - - 


296 


Theoloirv 


134 


















Total 


225 


269 


228 


630 


279 


615 


490 


1,052 





jSducation in poeeign countries. clvii 

• 

The expenditares of the two state nniTeisities arooiinted to 1,026,240 francs in 1876. 

Sekools offime arts. — Belgitun has an Academy of Fine Arts at Antwerp, with 1,661 
popils; 78 academies and schools of design in various localities, with 10,106 pupils; 2 
large conaervatories of music at Brussels and Li6ge, with 916 and 618 students; and 86 
■mailer conservatories and schools of music, with 7,905 pupils. 

MUitaty schools, — ^The military schools for training officers of the army and the 
regimental schools for the further instruction of common soldiers were attended by 
6,345 papils in 1875^ There are, besides, courses for illiterate soldiers, which were 
attended by 7,914 individuals in 1875-^6. The school for the children of soldiers, at 
Alost, had in December, 1875, 275 pupils. 

Sdufols of offricuUiwef horticulturef and veterinary surgery, — These schools, which are 
state inatitations, had, in 1876-77, 215 pupila, viz : The school of veterinary surgery 
at Bmasels 96, the agricultural institute at Gtombloux 61, the practical school of hor- 
tiealtnre at Vilvorde 23, and the horticultural school at Ghent 35. These four insti- 
tatioDs in 1875 issued 208 diplomas of capacity. 

eoDBtitatioiial monarchy: Are*, 14,553 aqnare mfles; popnlatioii, 1,003,000. Capital, Copen- 
hagen ; popnlation, 250,000. 



sekools, — The number of primary country schools is 2,781 ; the number of 
Bale teachers, 2,929 ; the number of female teachers, 59 ; the number of children of 
•diool a^, 200,761; the number of children attending public schools, 194,198; and 
the number of children attending private schools, 13,994 ; making the total number of 
children under instruction 208,192. The number of primary schools in cities is 113, 
with 422 male and 54 female teachers, and 23,353 pupils; 6,161 pupils attend the Real- 
sehnlen. 

J^McAers' seminaries, — Denmark has 5 teachers' seminaries, with 233 students. 

Sstondary schools, — ^The total number of secondary schools is 26, 15 of which are Gym- 
Baaen. The number of teachers is 314. 

Si^erior edmcoHon, — ^The University of Copenhagen has 60 professors and 1,250 stu< 
dents, 20 of whom are females. The university library contains 275,000 volumes. 

Special edueation, — Denmark has for special education a royal veterinary and agricult- 
vnl school, with 16 professors and about 200 students ; a polytechnic school, with 13 
profesBoiB and 150 students; 2 academies of fine arts, 1 technical school, 8 navigation 
achoola, a military academy, and the usual institutioni^ for the unfortunate. 

YtlLASD, a dependraioy of Boasia: Area, 144,222 aqnare miles; itopnlation, 1,857,035. Capital, Helaing- 

fors; population, 34,570. 

Btor^mization of the schools, — An imperial decree of April 28, 1876, ordered the sup- 
pRssion of the Gymnasien, and their gradual combination with the recently established 
kigber elementary schools, which received afterward the name of elementary institutes 
(ilketsopistot). In 1875 these institutes had 236 teachers and 2,420 pupils. There 
vere besides several female schools, with 732 pupils. 

TiASCX, TCpabtic: ATe% 201,000 square miles; population, 36,102,021. Capital, Paris; population, 

1,088,806; minister of public instruction, M. Bardoux. 

EdmeaUon at Paris,— The city of Paris has spent, since 1875, 25,000,000 francs for the 
improvement of the primary schools. There are now 140 schools for boys, 142 schools 
for girU, and 113 infant schools, with a total number of 117,946 pupils. Of these in- 
Aimtlona, 141 are under the control of religious persons and 254 under lay teachers. 

TBoekertl* examinations, — During the year 1876, 2,559 male candidates presented them- 
•rirea for examination, of whom 1,758 failed to pass. The female candidates were 
Bore sooceasfhl : of 4,548, more than one-half, 2,487, received diplomas. 

Kae university, — ^The Association Protestante of Paris has resolved to establish aa 
iadepeiident university {imiversit^ libre) aimiJar to those at.Brassela andMadii^. 



CLVIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Women at the univereity. — ^The dean of tbe faculty of medicine at the UniTeraity of 
PariB states, in answer to an inquiry from the dean of an English medical school, that, 
since 1865, 32 women have entered the school. Of this numher 9 have obtained diplo- 
mas and 23 are still at their studies. The nationality of the students was : English, 
6 ; Russian, 12 ; and French, 6. The dean sa3r8 that the conduct of these ladies has 
been blameless and their devotion to their studies remarkable. 

New school law. — The following is an abstract of the project of a school law, prepared 
by the ministry of public instruction and laid before the assenfbly by M. Bardoux, 
minister of public instruction and fine arts : 

Article I. Every commune has the right to establish absolute gratuity in her pub- 
lic schools. 

Abt. II. Communes which do not wish the assistance of the state for the establish- 
ment of free schools have to defray expenses for this purpose ftom their own resourcea. 

Art. III. State subsidies are granted to communes in case the school tax does not 
suffice to cover the exx>enses for public instruction. The minimum of taxation shall 
be 4 centimes in the franc [of the taxes raised] ; the maximum, 10 centimes. 

Art. IV. As soon as absolute gratuity is established in a commune it must be 
applied to all her public schools without distinction. Under extraordinary circum- 
stances the local authorities may, with the permission of the minister of public instruc- 
tion, make a temporary exception to this rule. 

Art. v. The mode of taxation for school purposes in communes which desire state 
subsidies under the present law shall be regulated by a special decree of the ministers 
in council. 

Art. VI. The provisions of all former laws, as far as they are contrary to the pres- 
ent law, are hereby repealed. 

School of art and man^fact!mre at Paris, — ^This school is intended to qualify young men 
for special professions and trades, and to impart aptness, general intelligence, and a 
taste for seeking knowledge. The course of instruction is limited to three years, 
during which period it is obligatory. It includes lectures, daily examinations, draw- 
ing and graphic exercises, chemical manipulations, working in stone and wood, phyidGS 
and mechanics, and the construction of buildings and other works. The students are, 
in addition, expected to visit the workshops and manufactories. They board and lodge 
at respectable private houses in the immediate vicinity of the sohooL Every year 
there are general examinations in each branch of science and art. The students of 
the third year are allowed to compete for diplomas, a programme of examination being 
made out for each specialty. The number of students annually entering the school is 
from 175 to 200. 

Agricultural education, — France has, for agricultural education, a farm school in each 
department, a higher agricultural (central) school, and a national agronomic institute, 
a sort of normal school of agriculture. The farm schools are intended to furnish 
a good example of tillage to the farmers of the district and to form agriculturists 
capable of working intelligently as farmers or overseers. The schools are open to 
pupils of at least sixteen years of age who have received a good primary education. 
The officers or teachers selected and paid by the government are a director, a head 
workman, a nursery gardener, a veterinary surgeon, and several* special assistants, 
such as shepherds, silk growers, &c. The special course extends through three years. 
The director works the farm school at his own risk, and must so conduct it as not only 
to give a good example of tillage but as profitable a return of crops as other farms. 
The farm schools were attended in 1876 by about 1,000 students. 

Obrmaxt, coBBtitatioiikl empire: Area, 212,091 square miles; populatioii, 42,727,360. Capital, Berlin; 

population, 960,858. 

The different States which comprise the German empire contain 60,000 popular 
schools (Volksschulen) with 6,000,000 pupils, 3:30 Gymnasien, 14 Progymnasien, 484 
Kealschulen, and a large number of private and sj^ecial schools. The empire itself 
exercises no control over education, the administration of which is left to the sevenil 
States. 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTBIES. 



CLIX 



For superior education Germany has 21 nniversitiefl. The following table giyes in 
alphabetical order a list of these nnivenities and the number of professors and stu- 
denUiin 1877: 

List of (German umvenUtetin 1877. 



UniTenitles. 




Berlin 

Iknm 

Breslan 

£r]angen ... 
Freiburg ... 

Gieaaen 

G^ttingen .. 
Greiftwald . 

HiJle 

Hddelberg 

Jens , 

Kiel 

EfinigBbeig 

I^ipsig 

Xartmrg... 

HanJeh 

Mtbuter.... 
Rostock.... 
StnMbnrg. 
Tubingen... 
Worxborg. . 

Total 



236 

119 

105 

59 

55 

58 

122 

02 

104 

110 

76 

64 

S3 

158 

70 

122 

20 

89 

02 

80 

71 



ll 

o IS 



4,311 
986 

1.255 
431 
850 
347 
034 
510 
857 
834 
586 
245 
630 

2,938 
403 

1,312 
825 
152 
658 

1,103 

1,106 



1.922 20.282 



Pedagogy in German uniiMrfities, — The following list shows the number of lectures a 
week on pedagogy in the various German universities : Berlin, 6 ; Bonn, 4 ; Breslan, 3; 
£rlangen,4; Freiburg, 3; Giessen, 3; G5ttingen,6; Greifswald, 4 ; Halle, 5; Heidel- 
berg, 3 ; Jena, 13 ; Kiel, 3 ; Leipzig, 8 ; Miinster, 4 ; Tlibingen, 5 ; Wtirzbnrg, 4. 

Technical and industrial schools in Germany, — In Saxony, contrary to a practice almost 
universal elsewhere in Germany, instruction for trades and for business is made to 
follow immediately that of the daily primary school. To this circumstance is due the 
establishment of the schools of building at Leipzig, Dresden, and other places, of the 
group of special schools at Chemnitz intended to give preparation for mechanical, 
manfifacturing, and chemical industries, industrial art, &c., and, in addition, of a 
great number of lower schools for weaving, lace making, needle work, and wood carv- 
ing- 

In North Germany the model of the industrial establishments of all grades is that 
of Hamburg. The general school and the special school for building, open in the 
evening and on Sunday for apprentices and workmen and every day to pupils who 
have the time at their disposal, imparts remarkable instruction in all respects. The 
industrial school for girls, which was founded in 18G7, is managed in the same spirit, 
and with a success equally marked. 

Of all countries in Germany, Wtlrtemberg was tlie first to give large development 
to popular industrial instruction. The great special school for building at Stuttgart 
nambeis 700 students, of whom it demands for admission only a thorough primary 
inatmction or the qualification of apprentices or workmen in this branch of industry. 
The state aida the school by a yearly appropriation of $16,000. The course requires 
from two to five years. Wtlrtemberg has also several good schools for weaving, of 



CLX BEPOET OP THE COMBflSSIONEB OP EDUCATION. 

which three received awards for excellent methods at the Vienna Exx>08ition. In aU, 
there are fifty industrial schools in Wiirtemberg. The Grand Duchy of Baden has also 
had very good industrial. schools in operation for many years, and these have exercised 
a marked influence on the industries of the country. 

Although introducing this kind of X)ractical instruction at a later date than some of 
the neighboring countries, Bavaria already possesses from a hundred to a hundred and 
fifty industrial schools, some of them elementary, Just beyond primary schools ; others 
somewhat higher, eight of them serving as model schools for eight districts ; and still 
another devoted to special industries, as building, the construction of machines, draw- 
ing and sculpture applied to the making of furniture and objects of art of all kinds. 

The single polytechnic association of the district of Wiirzburg has established 
within a few years 111 industrial schools or courses, of which 16 are for apprentices 
and workmen. These dififerent establishments employ 315 teachers, and teach German, 
French, writing, book-keeping, arithmetic and the metric system with special refer- 
ence to application to commercial affairs, geometry, design, modelling, outlines of 
natural history, hygiene, political economy, &c. 

a. Baden, grand dnctay : Area, 5,851 square mflea ; population, 1,507,179. Capital, Carlarohe ; population, 

42,805. Director of the superior council of education. Dr. 6. Kokk. 

By the law of September 18, 1876, Baden has introduced the so called mixed school 
system. Children of all denominations now attend the same school and no sectarian 
schools are tolerated in the grand duchy. The same law of 1876 makes gymnastic 
exercises compulsory in all the popular schools ; the communes are required to fur- 
nish a hall and the necessary g^^mnastic apparatus. 

b. Bavabia, constitutional monarchy: Area, 29,203 square miles; population, 5,022,390. Capital, 

Munich ; population, 108,829. Minister of public instruction. Dr. von Lutz. 

Bavaria has 7,016 primary schools, with 10,«599 teachers «id 841,304 pupils ; 1,671 
industrial schools for girls, with 1,837 teachers and 71,635 pupils ; 11 teachers' semi- 
naries, with 786 students; and 35 preparatory normal schools, with 1,276 students. 
For secondary education there are 75 Latin schools, with 748 teachers and 6,738 
pupils ; 28 Gymnasien, with 438 teachers and 2,640 students ; and 6 Healgymhasien, 
with 66 teachers and 362 students. The 36 technological schools number 426 pro- 
fessors and 3,745 students, and the 260 professional evening schools have 827 professors 
and 14,501 students. There are besides 2 schools of art, with 40 professors and 475 
students ; a central school of forestry, with 6 professors and 1M5 students ; 947 special 
agricultural schools, with 18,260 pupils; and 78 charitable institutions, with 3,000 
inmates. The society for the assistance of teachers' orphans in Bavaria had in 1876 
a capital of $50,000; the annual expenses amount to about $8,000. 

e. PfiUSBiA, constitutional monarchy: Area, 137,006 square miles; population, 25,742,404. Capital, 
Berlin; population, 960,858. Minister of public instruction, Dr.JPalk. 

New adkool Inw, — The ministry of public instruction has had various projects for 
a new school law under consideration for some time, but no definite action has as yet . 
been taken. The financial question seems to offsr considerable difficulties. Statesmen 
are discussing the question whether the state, the province, the district, or the com- • 
mune should bear the expenses of public education. The ministry favors a division of 
the expense between the province and the commune, the former to pay the teachers' 
salaries and pensions and the latter the cost of buildings and grounds. 

Statistics. — The condition of education continues excellent. There are at present in . 
the kingdom 34,988 primary schools, with 57,228 classes, 57,936 teachers, and 4,007,776 
pupils; 176 teachers' seminaries tmd other normal courses, with 7,453 pupils; 37 
schools for deaf-mutes, with 179 classes, 235 teachers, and 2,351 pupils ; 13 schools for 
the blind, with 31 classes, 88 teachers, and 560 pupils; 215 higher female schools, with 
1,355 classes, 2,206 teachers, and 43,247 pupils; 90 higher burghef schools, with 802 
teachers and 15,971 pupils; 17 Bealschulen of the second order, with 312 teachers and 



EDUCATION IK FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CLXt 

6,896 stndents; 79 Realschnlen of the first order, with 1,399 teachers and 31,249 stu- 
dents; 33 Progymnasien, with 265 teachers and 3,900 students; 228 Gymnasien, with 
3.744 teachers and 74,608 stndents; 81 a^cnltural and horticultural schools, with *SS2 
teachers and 2,042 students ; 6 schools of forestry, with 27 teachers and 237 students ; 
:& schools of mining, with 79 teachers and 989 students; 45 technical and industrial 
schoolB, with 520 teachers and 8,958 students; 9 schools of huilding, with 143 teachers 
and 3,184 students; 12 schools of commerce, with 90 teachers and 1,649 students; 31 
navigation schools, with 1,007 students; and several military and naval schools. At 
the examination for the army in 1876, 2,749 recruits out of 77,194 were without a 
•nfficient primary training. 

Supertinon. — Dnring the last three years the clerical school inspectors have nearly 
aU been replaced by lay inspectors, of whom th«'re are now 161 in the kingdom. 

EdmcaHoK in Berlin. — Special efforts have been made by the city of Berlin to raise 
the schools to the highest point possible. The following data concerning that city 
will be found of interest: The public popular schools (olfentliche Yolksschulcn) and 
the higher female schools (huhere Tochterschulen) are under the control of the 'city 
school board, which also superintends all the private schools. The higher public schools 
for boys are under the direct control of the municipal authority, Berlin ha<l in De- 
cember, 1876, 250 schools, viz: 159 public schools (13 Gymnasien, 10 Realschnlen, 5 
higher female schools, 20 lower preparatory schools, 95 communal schools, 16 schools 
noder the control of societies, churches, «&c.), 2 Jewish schools, and 89 private schools. 
The commnnal schools have together 1,285 classes, with 67,955 pupils, or about 54 to 
each class. The largest school in Berlin has 20 classes, with 1,169 pupils. The staif 
of teachers of communal schools consists of 95 head teachers, with an average salary 
of |1,200, a free dwelling, or |200, and fuel; 884 class teachers, with an average salary 
of $800; and 310 female teachers, with an average salary of $500. The total expendi- 
ture of the city of Berlin for primary education amounted to $1,134,436 in 1876. 

i. SAX03rr, coBstitntional monarchy: Area, 6,777 aqaaro miles ; popnlation,2, 760,566. Capital, Dre«deti; 
popolatioD, 107,205. Minister of public inntmctlon, Dr. von Gerber. 

Saxony has made the so called complementary schools (Fortbildungsschulen) com- 
pulsory for every youth below the age of 17 who does not attend a day school. In 
poor localities the expenses of these schools are defrayed by the government. The 
ins^Tiction is generally given in the evening and on Sunday. Besides these establish- 
inents several popular schools of agriculture and industry have been founde<l, as also 
a large number of evening schools for girls, in which German, arithmetic, needle- 
'«'ork, natural history, and cookery are taught. Saxony has at present 19 teachers' 
seminaries, to the support of which the government annually contributes $405,000. 
The director of a seminary receives a salary of 4,875 marks (1 mark = 23.8 cents) ; 
the first assistant teachers receive from 2,000 to 4,200 marks and the second assistant 
teachers irom 1,200 to l,o00 marks. All of them receive, besides, a free dwelling and 
fnel. 

i. WdrriMBBBO, constitutional monarchy: Area, 7,675 square miles; population, 1,881,505. Capital j 
Stuttgart ; population, 107,273. Director of the chief e<lucation deportment, Dr. von Roemer. 

The most important event in Wiirteraberg dnring the last year was probably the 
official investigation of the sanitary condition of schools. Commissions were ap- 
pointed to visit every school in the kingdom. The commissioners were specially 
charged to examine not only the school-houses but also the surrounding dwellings and 
grounds, which are frequently in a dangerous condition. They had also to ascertain 
whether the pupils had the necessary amount of space, light, and fresh air in the 
school rooms, whether the school benches were properly constructed, &c. The results 
of this investigation will be published, and it is expected that a great number of 
sehool-hooses will have to be entirely torn down, and that better school furniture will 
be introduced. 

There is at present in Wiirtemberg a great lack of teachers. In some communes< 
there are 150 to 165 pupils to one teacher, and in some more than 200. 
E — XI 



CLXn REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



Great Bbitad{ aio) Ireland, constitutional monarchy: Area, 121,305 square miles; population, 
33,805,419. Capital, London ; population, 3,266,987.— a. England axd Wales. 

Elemenlary day schools. — In the year eDding August 31, 1876, the inspectors visited 
14,273 day schools in England and Wales to which annual grant>s were made, con- 
taining 20,782 departments under separate teachers, and furnishing accommodation, 
at 8 square feet of superficial area per child, for 3,425,318 pupils. There were on the 
registers the names of 2,943,774 children, of whom 1,041,219 were under 7 years of 
age, 1,799,785 between 7 and 13, and 102,770 above 13. Of these pupils, 2,412,211 
were present on the day of inspection and an average of 1,984,573 were in daily at- 
tendance throughout the year ; 1,783,303, having made the requisite number of attend- 
ances, were qualified to bring grants to their schools, 501,497 without individual 
examination and 1,281,806 on passing a satisfactory examination in reading, >rritiug, 
and arithmetic ; 1,142,612 were actually presented for such examination, and, while 
636,303 passed the prescribed test without failure in any one of the three subjects, 
87.09 pupils out of every 100 examined passed in reading, 79.42 in writing, and 70.15 
in arithmetic. 

The inspectors also visited 602 schools which do not fulfil the conditions on which 
annual grants are made. In these schools 36,088 pupils were present on the day of 
inspection. 

Elementary nigkt schooh, — The night schools examined during the year were 1,474 in 
number ; on the average, 49,858 pupils above 12 years of age were in attendance each 
night ; 48,001 pupils were qualified for examination by having made the required num- 
ber of attendances during the night school session. Of these, 39,076 were actually 
examined, and out of every 100 pupils so examined 88 passed in reading, 70.94 in 
writing, and 58.66 in arithmetic. 

Training colleges. — The inspectors found 23,053 certificated teachers at work in the 
aided schools, while the 40 training colleges were attended by 3,007 students. 

The following table of statistics shows the rate of progress in the period which has 
elapsed since the passage of the elementary education act of 1870 : 



Estimated population 

If umber of schools inspected 

Annual grant schools : 

C Day ■ . , 
Number of departments J 

, . . C Day schools . . 
Accommodation ^ „. ,^ , , 
( Night schools 

Present at examination: 

Day scholars 

Night scholars 

.Average attendance: 

Day scholars 

Kight scholars 

Number of teachers : 

Certificated 

Assistant 

PupU 

Studying in training colleges — 

Simple inspection schools : 

Accommodation 

Present at inspcctioo 

Average attendance 



Year ending August 31 — 



1870. 



22, 



1. 



090,163 
8^919 

12,061 

2,504 

878,584 



1. 



434.706 
77, 918 

152,389 
73,375 

12,467 
1.262 

14.304 
2,097 

53,982 
39,122 
16,609 



1873. 



23,356,414 
11,846 

15,929 

1.395 

2, 582, 549 



1,811,505 
85,621 

1,482,480 
45,973 

16,810 
1,970 

24,674 
2,896 

82,917 
52,496 
80,099 



1874. 



23,648,609 
13,163 

17,646 

1,432 

2, 861, 319 

10,507 

2,034,007 
36,720 

1, 678, 759 
48,690 

18,714 
2,489 

27,031 
2,982 

01 160 
1)0,304 
82,192 



1875. 



23,944,459 
14, 140 

19,245 

1,392 

3, 146, 424 

13,055 

2,221,745 
87,666 

1,837,180 
48,382 

20,940 
2,713 

29,667 
2,975 

82,688 
51,976 
25,096 



1876. 



24, 244. 010 
14,970 

20.782 

1.474 

3, 426, 318 

14,810 

2,412,211 
41.183 

1,084.573 
49.858 

23,053 
3,173 

82.231 
8.007 

67,471 
36.0^ 
23,159 



EDUCATION IN FOHEIGN COUNTRIES. CLXIII 

School aocommodation, — The schools in England and Wales visited by the inspectors, 
vith reference to annual grants, which provided in 1869 for 1,765,944 pupils, or for 
8.34 per cent, of the whole. population, were in 1876 sufficient for 3,426,318 pupils, or 
14.13 per cent, of the estimated population. In 1876 accommo<lation was provided by 
1,.596 board schools for 556,150 pupils, and 328,671 were in average attendance. The 
number in average attendance in voluntary schools since 1869 has increased by 
593,503, or 55.83 per cent. 

School attendance, — The average attendance in aided schools (day and night) has risen 
from 1,225,764 in 1870 to 2,034,431 in 1876. There were, in 1876, 2,943,774 name« of 
day scholars on the registers of inspect^jd day schools, of whom 2,412,211 were present 
on the day of inspection, and this is the number of children, out of at least four and a 
half miUions for whom elementary schools are required, who received more or less 
of efficient instruction in such schools. Of the 1,041,219 day pupils below 7, only 
501,497 had made the number of attendances requii-ed to bring grants to their schools. 
Of the 1,902,555 pupils above 7 borne on the registers of aided schools, l,1.35,.'il7 day 
pupils attended 250 times and upwards; 105,791 attended 150 times and upwards ; and 
40,498 pupils attended 150 times. There are two and a half millions of children l)e> 
tween the ages of 7 and 13 who, as appears from the tables of the registrar gen^^ral, 
might be found in elementary schools. Much remains to be done to secure the I'egnlar 
attendance at school of a large number of children who ought to be, but are not, under 
daily instruction. 

Teaching force. — The 14,273 elementary day schools in England and Wales inspected 
in 1876 provided accommodation, in 20,782 departments, for 3,426,318 pupils. The 
average daily attendance in these schools amounted to 1,984,573, so that each depart- 
ment, while providing accommodation for 165 pupils, had an average attendance of 
only 95. It has been calculated that under the operation of the education acts the 
average attendance will rise to 120; and, assuming that at least 3,250,000 children 
in England and Wales ought to be in daily attendance at public elementary schools, 
it would follow that about 27,000 separate departments under certificated teachers 
will be required as the geueral school supply of the country. 

There were on the Slst of December, 1869, 12,842 pupil teachers, 1,236 assistant 
teachers, and 12,027 certificated teachers at work in schools under inspection. These 
numbers by the 3l8t of December, 1876, had risen to 30,626 pupil teachers, 2,9*21 assist- 
ant, and 23,328 certificated teachers; while the pupil teachers in the first of the five 
years of their service have increased from 3,:{92 in 1869 to 6,676 in 1876. The extent 
to which the training colleges have contributed to the existing supply of efficient 
teachers in England and Wales is shown by the fact that, of 10,554 masters employed 
in schools in 1875-76, 6,437, or 61 per cent., had been trained for two years; 1,220, or 
11.6 per cent., for one year; and 361, or 3.4 per cent., for less than one year; while 
2,536, or 24 i)er cent. , were untrained. In like manner, of 12,499 schoolmistresses, 6,435, 
or 51.6 per cent., had been trained for two years; 1,168, or 9.3 per cent., for one year; 
289, or 2.3 per cent., for less than one year ; and 4,607, or 36.8 per cent., were untrained. 
The following table shows the number of teachers in receipt of salaries of certain 
specified amounts : 

Salariet of certifioated tea<^ter8 for the year ending August 31, 1876. 

MKM. 

Under £50 146 

£50 and less than £75 1,196 

£75 and less than £100 3,198 

£100 and less than £150 3,952 

£150 and less than £200 1,118 

£200 and less than £250 349 

£^0 and less than £300 96 

£300 and over 42 

Total 1Q,WI 



CLXIV REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

WOHRX. 

Under £40 726 

£40 and less than £45 ^ ^ 6»« 

£45 and less than £50 * 738 

£50 and less than £75 6,221 

£75 and less than £100 2,611 

£100 and less than £150 8:^ 

£150 and less than £200 . 82 

£200 and over 9 

Total 11,905 

Local organization. — Since the year 1873 the school hoards have made consider- 
able additions to the school supply of the country. In the year ending August 31, 
1876, the number of board schools increased from 1,140 to 1,604, while the accommo- 
dation in these schools rose from 387,227 to 556,539, and the average attendance from 
231,381 to 333,234. Boards have been established in London, which has a population 
of 3,266,987; in 123 boroughs, with a population of 5,543,956; and in 1,6(57 parishes, 
with a population of 4,018,833. The total population under school boards is thus 
12,829,381. 

The following items are taken from the report of Sir Charles Reed, of September 26, 
1^77 : Number of schools under the London school board, 242 ; number of departments, 
592; number of places, 163,008; being an increase since last year of 25 schools, 86 de- 
partments, and 29,:^ school places. The number of pupils on the roll was 164/214 ; 
average daily attendance, 132,956, or 80.9 per cent, of those on the roll. 

By the Ist of April, 1877, by-laws for enforcing the attendance of children at school 
had been sanctioned by Her Majesty, on the application of the school boards in Lon- 
don, with a population of 3,266,987 ; in 109 municipal boroughs, with a population of 
5,453,724; and in 612 civil parishes, with a population of 2,500,652— total, 11,221,363. 

Compulsory attendance imder by-laws is now the law for 50 per cent, of the whole 
population of England and Wales, and for about 84 per cent, of the whole borough 
population. 

School attendance committees, — The elementary education act of 1876, which came 
into operation on the 1st of January, 1877, provides for the appointment of a school 
attendance committee for every borough and parish for which a school board has not 
l>^en elected. Such committees have been appointed in all but 3 of the 103 munici- 
pal boroughs which are not under the jurisdiction of school boards. 

h. luKLAND: Population in 1876, 5,317,410. Capital, Dublin ; population, 814,066. 

According to the official report for the year 1875, the number of pupils of national 
schools was 347,814, taught by 9,929 teachers and assistants and 288 teachers of needle- 
x-ork. The convent schools had 37,056 pupils and 1,681 teachers. 

There has been a reduction in the number of young offenders under detention in 
reformatory schools during 1876 as compared with 1875 : the number of inmates being 
^35 boys and 225 girls, 1,099 in all, on the 31st of December, 1875 ; and 860 boys and 
239 girls, 1,160 in all, on the 31st of December, 1876 — showing a decrease of 61 on the 
total number during the year. The number of certificated industrial schools in Ire- 
land on the 3l8t of December, 1876, was 50, viz, 41 for Catholics and 9 for Protestants. 
The number of inmates was 4,768, viz, 1,841 boys and 2,927 girls. 

e. ScoTLAKD : Population in 1876, 3,527,811. Capital, Edinburgh ; population, 215,146. 

In December, 1875, there were 2,329 public schools under school boards in Scotland, 
with 307,955 pupils on the rolls and an average attendance of 233,130, taught by 3,418 
principal teachers and assistants, and 3,024 pupil teachers. There were 165 evening 
schools, having 12,343 pupils on the roll and an average attendance of 9,803. In these 
schools there were 203 principal teachers, 103 assistant teachers, and 65 pupil teachers. 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTBIES. 



CLXV 



The Bchool boards report that dnring the last school year, in carrjiDg out the com- 
pulsory clanses of the education act, 7,499 parents have been summoned to appear be- 
fore their respective boards, and that notice has been sent to 421 employers ; that 279 
parents and 1 employer have been prosecuted; that 197 of the former were convicted, 
of whom 135 were fined and 20 imprisoned. The number of children who during one 
year have been brought into school by the operation of the compulsory clauses is esti- 
mated at 2t:J,054. Of these children, 15,516 belong to towns and 12,538 to rural par- 
ijihes. 

Elementary schools. — In the year ending August 31, 1876, the insx>ectors visited 2,817 
day schools to which annual grants were made, containing 3,051 departments under 
separate teachers and furnishing accommodation for 456,428 scholars. There were on 
the registers of these schools the names of 433,749 children, of whom 98,789 were under 
7 years of age, 306,234 were between 7 and 13, and 28,726 were above 13. Of these 
scholars, 376,647 were present on the day of the inspector's visit to their resx>ective 
schools, while 329,083 were in daily attendance throughout the year. 

General ataHstics of education in Scotland. 



Beportmenta 



Estimated popnlatioxi 

Xomber of schools inspected 

AtmhiaI grant schools : 

cl>ay 

"<Night 

. . c i^y »ci»ooi» • • 

AccomxDodation . . ^ „. .^ , , 

( Night schools 

Present at inspection: 

Day scholars 

Night scholars 

Average attendance : 

Day scholars 

Night scholars 

Number of teaichers : 

Certificated 

Amistant 

PnpU 

Stadyiog in training colleges 

Shople inspection schools : 

Accommodation 

Present at inspection 

Arerage attendance 



Year ending Angust 31— 



1873. 



3, 



430,023 
2,108 

2,307 

63 

2M,072 



230,025 
2,773 

220,508 
3,449 

2,657 

4 

3,610 

755 

3,647 
3,200 
1,221 



1874. 



8, 462, 016 
2,600 

2,677 

102 

872,000 

1,170 

297,247 
4,645 

263,748 
5,555 

3,165 

66 

3,833 

822 

10,502 
17,329 
10,840 



1875. 



3, 405, 214 
2,000 

2,046 

106 

301,538 

810 

844,131 
0,186 

303,536 
10,628 

8,811 
120 

4.262 
050 

15,464 

13,537 

8,810 



1876. 



3,527.811 
2,024 

3,051 

258 

456,428 

1,040 

376,647 
13,008 

820,083 
15,354 

4,140 

160 

4,640 

1,023 

6.558 
6,677 
3,462 



Sckool attendance. — The efforts of the school hoards are in some cases hindered hy 
the serious cost of prosecuting parents who fail to discharge their duty to their chil- 
dren, and hy the long interval (three months) that must elapse after a conviction 
before proceedings can be taken against offenders. 



CLXVI BEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



The following table shows the total number of children from 5 to 14 years of age: 



Age. 



5to6.. 

6 to 7 . 

7 to 8. 
8to9. 
9 to 10 

10 to 11 . 

11 to 12 

12 to 13 . 

13 to 14. 



Number of 
children. 



Total 



90,824 
86.610 
85,853 
81,905 
79,830 
81, 478 
70,022 
78, 141 
76,671 



737,334 



Number of 
children 
on the roll. 



32,774 
54,319 
56,382 
57,156 
57,049 
54.592 
46.875 
34,180 
16,992 



410, 319 



Percent- 
age. 



36.08 
62. 7 J 
65.67 
69.78 
71.46 
67.00 
6L66 
43.74 
22.16 



55.65 



Gbebce, constitntional monarchy: Area, 19,941 square miles; population in 1870, 1,457,894. Capital, 

Athens; population, 44,510. 

The numberof primary schools was, in 1875, 1,227, and the number of pupils, 81,449. 
For secondary education there were 15 gymnasia and 144 Hellenic grammar schools, 
with 7,780 pupils ; 23 private institutions, with 1,589 pupils; and 10 higher schools for 
girls, with 900 pupils. The University of Athens had 43 professors and 1,352 students. 

Italy, constitutional monarchy: Area, 114,296 square miles; population in 1877, 27,769,475. Capital, 
Home ; population, 244,484. Minister of public instruction, De Sanctis. 

Primaij" education is compulsory throughout Italy. The number of public day 
schools in 1877 was 37,642. In addition to the«e there were 9,560 private schools. 
The number of pupils in the public day schools was 2,299,758. The number of teachers 
of public schools was 37,632. The normal schools numbered, in 1875, 193, and the 
number of students, 8,460. 

For secondary education there were, in 1875, 107 g3rmnasia, with 9,296 pupils, and 
80 lyceums, with 5,132 pupils. 

For superior education Italy had, in 1877, 17 state universities, viz : Bologna, 5^1 
students; Cagliari, 72; Cantania, 153; Genoa, 440; Maccrata, 47; Messina, 96; Modena, 
216; Naples, 2,648; Padua, 907; Palermo, 360; Parma, 187; Pavia, 642; Pisa, 553; 
Rome, 624; Sassari, 77; 8iena, 153; and Turin, 1,435. The foregoing institutions are 
entirely supported by the state. There were besides 4 free universities, which are 
supported by provinces and communes. They are Camerino, 28 students; Ferrara, 
57 ; Perugia, 63 ; and Urbino, 55. 

Netheslands, constitutional monarchy: Area, 20,527 square miles; population in 1876, 3,865,456. 

Capital, The Hague ; population, 104,095. 

Primary education. — ^The condition of primary schools in 1875 is reported as follows: 
The total number of public and private schools was 3,817, with 11,975 teachers. The 
number of pupils in the same year was 487,070, viz : 255,464 boys and 231,606 girls. 
The evening and review schools were frequented by 48,500 pupils, viz, 26,689 males 
and 21,811 females. 

The total expenditure for primary education in 1875 was 7,127,001 florins (the florin 
= 38.5 cents). Of this amotmt 698,465 florins were supplied by the government and 
the rest by the provinces and communes. 

The minimum salary of teachers was 200 florins and the maximum 3,000. Thirty- 
six teachers received pensions in 1875, the minimum being 100 florins and the max- 
imum 1,134 florins. 

Teaohere^ »eiiiinarw».— In 1875 the Netherlands had 3 state teachers' seminaries, with 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CLXVII 

95 stndeBts, 33 of whom were females. The expenditure for the Beminaries in the 
ame year was 126,605 florins. 

In/ami $chooU. — The number of public and private infant schools in 1875 was 705, 
aEkd the number of teachers 2,222, viz, 39 males and 2,183 females. The number of 
pupils in the same year was 73,018^ viz, 38,852 boys and 34,166 girls. 

Secondary ediicaii<m. — According to the official report for 1875-76, the total number 
of burgher schools was 35 and the number of pupils 3,992; the number of higher 
burgher schools was 51, with 3,812 pupils. The number of pupils of the two agricult- 
JsnJ schools was 28. The polytechnic school had 263 students. 

The total expenditure of the state and of the communes for secondary education 
UDoiinted to 1,691,518 florins. 

Superior instruction. — The higher institutions of learning consist of the universities 
St Leydon, Utrecht, and Groningen, the athenaeums of Amsterdam and Deventer, and 
the so called Latin schools, the number of which is 51. The total number of students 
in the oniversities was, in 1875-76, 1,684, viz : 980 in Leyden, 527 in Utrecht, and 177 
in Groningen. The athenaeum of Amsterdam had 381 students. The total number of 
popils of the 51 Latin schools was 1,260. The state grant for higher education in 
1875-76 amounted to 829,219 florins. 

Higher schools for girls. — The number of higher schools for girls has increased from 
4 in 1874 to 9 in 1875. The total number of pupils was in the latter year 691. 

Dmtriii^ schools. — The Netherlands have also 39 drawing schools, with 168 teachers 
tnd 3,904 papils ; 11 navigation schools, with 25 professors and 541 students ; 2 schools 
fefthe blind, with 120 inmates; a school for deaf-mutes, with 131 inmates; and a vet- 
mnary school, with 49 students, 

PoKTUCAi., ocnuititiitional monarchy : Area, 38,510 square miles; population, 4,420,332. Capital, Lisbon; 

population, 275,286. 

Primary schools. — In 1862 there were in Portugal 1,336 public schools for boys and 
127 for ^irls. In 1874 there were 1,987 of the former and 458 of the latter, with 1,987 
male and 458 female teachers. The total number of pupils was 113,097. 

Secondary schools. — There are 17 secondary schools, called lyceums, with 6,883 pupils. 

Superior education. — For superior education Portugal has the University of Coimbra 
aad several polytechnic and other special schools. The university had, in 1874, 947 
stodenta. 

yr-JMOA absolute monarchy: Area, 8,444,766 sqnare miles; population, 85,685,945. Capital, St. Peters 

burg; population, 667,926. 

Th« Hchool population of Russia is 12,213,558, viz, 5,803,656 boys and 6,409,902 girls. 
Of this number only 6.9 per cent, attend school. 

The sum assigned in the budget of the school year 1877 for education is 15,971,289 
Ttrtibles (the rouble =73.4 cents). There are eight universities (not reckoning that of 
Helsiii;j;ibrH, in Finland), with 5,629 students. Of these 85 study theology, 583 philoso- 
phy, l,t529 law, 30 Eastern languages, 6?2 mathematics, 550 natural sciences, and 2, ICO 
Bfepdicine. There are 53 ecclesiastical seminaries, with 12,227 students ; 195 6>innasieu 
and Progymnasien, with 50,701 pupils; 56 middle class schools, with 10,888 pupils ; 19 
■lilitary schools, of which the number of pupils is not given. For females there are 
Gymuasien and Progymnasien, with 34,878 pupils. The number of normal schoola 
68 and the number of students 4,968. The total number of elementary schools in. 
m is 25,491, with 1,074,559 pupils. 



, easHiitistional monarchy: Area, 182,758 square miles; population, 16,835,506. Capital, Madrid! 

population, 475,785. 

Primutry education. — Spain has 22,625 public schools, of which 16,294 are for boy* 
and 6,331 for girls; the number of private schools is 5,135, of which 2,901 are for 
and 2,234 for females — making a total of 27,760 primary schools. The number 



CLXVjn BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

of male pnpils in the public scliools Acas 745,686, and of female pupils 441,773; making 
a total of 1,187,459. The private schools have 194,513 pupils, viz, 96,753 boys and 
97,760 girls. 

Sweden, o<m«titatloiial monarchy : Area, 170,079 square miles ; population, 4,429,713. Capital, Stock- 
holm ; population, 157,215. 

Elementary schools, — The number of pupils between the ages of 9 and 14 is 734,165. 
The total number of popular elementary schools is 8,127 and the number of pupils 
842,098. The total nimiber of elementary teachers is 7,815, of whom 5,039 ore males 
and 2,776 females. 

Secondary schools. — For secondary education Sweden has 96 schools, with 967 teach- 
era and 12,245 pupils. 

Superior education. — For superior education there are two universities, viz: Upsala, 
with 104 professors and 1,480 students; and Lund, with 69 professors and 523 students. 

Special education. — For special education Sweden has two polytechnic schools, a 
royal academy of fine arts, a pharmaceutical institute, a forest institute, a veterinaiy 
school, and a school for midwives. 

SwiTZKBLAKD, Confederate republic : Area, 15,233 square miles; population, 2,759,854. Capital, Berne; 
population, 36,001. Director of the federal statistical bureau, Dr. J. J. Kummer. 

Polytechnic education. — The federal polytechnic school at Zilrich had, in 1876, 690 
students, against 701 in the preceding year. 

Superior education. — Switzerland has three universities, viz: Basel, with 65 pro- 
fessors and 199 students ; Berne, with 77 professors and 351 students ; and Ziirich, 
with 79 professors and 349 students. 

Education of teachers. — There are 32 teachers' seminaries. The course of study in 
these institutions embraces i)edagogy, religion, German, French, arithmetic, geome- 
try, history, geography, natural history, singing, playing on musical instruments, 
penmanship, drawing, gymnastics, and agriculture. 

Turkey, absolute monarchy: Area, 1,742,874 square miles; population, 31,939,738. Capital, Constanti- 
nople; population, 600,000. 

A law relating to public instruction, designed to spread education over the empire, 
was issued by the government in October, 1839; but there has been no attempt of any 
kind made to execute the law in subsequent years. 

n.— Asia. 

Jai*ak, absolute monarchy: Area, 156,604 square miles; population, 32,794,897. Capital, Tokio; popu* 

lation, 674,447. Acting minister of education, Tanaka-Figimaro. 

The following account of education in Japan is condensed from the third annual 
report of the minister of education, dated Tokio, 1877, covering the transactions of the 
year 1675: 

Elementary instruction. — The number of elementary schools in all the seven grand 
school districts was 24,225, of which 21,988 were public and 2,237 private schools. 
This, as compared with the preceding year, shows an increase of 4,292 public schools 
and a decrease of 84 private schools, the net increase being 4,208 schools. The total 
number of elementary school districts was 45,778. The number of teachers was 44,501, 
of whom 40,511 were male and 538 female teachers of public schools, and 3,196 were 
male and 256 female teachers of private schools. As compared with the preceding 
year this shows an increase of 7,691 male and 81 female teachers of public schools, and 
a decrease of 192 male and an increase of 51 female teachers of private schools. The 
total number of pupils was 1,926,126, of whom l,ti77,591 were male and 426,438 female 
jpupils of public schools, and 84,408 were male and 37,629 female pupils of private 
schools. This shows a total increase since last year of 211,358 pupils. 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CLXIX 

The population Ib eetimated at 34,008,087, of whom 5,167,667 are children of school 
age (6-14), or 15.2 per cent, of the whole population. The nnmher of children of school 
age who received education during the year was 1,828,474, and the nnmher of those 
of school age who received no education was 3,339,193. Of those who received educa- 
tion, 1,365,305 were males and 463,169 were females. 

Normal icKools. — The number of normal schools was 90, of which 8 belonged to the 
government and 82 were instituted by local authorities. The total number of teachers 
of normal schools was 588, of whom 583 were males and 5 females. The number of 
students was 7,696, of whom 7,589 were males and 107 females. The number of stu- 
dents to whom certificates were granted by the government normal schools was 232, and 
the number of those who received certificates from local normal schools was about 665. 

Colleges. — The Tokio Kaiseigakko had 40 professors, of whom 21 were natives and 19 
foreigners. The number of students was 324. The annual expenditure of the college 
was 173,940 yen (yen =99.7 cents). 

The Tokio Igakko (medical college) had 29 professors and 488 students. The total 
exx>enditure during the year was 112,462 yen. 

Besides the above colleges, there are 6 schools of special sciences under the control 
of local authorities, namely, an agricultural school, 3 medical schools, a school of law, 
and a school of surveying. The number of teachers in these schools was 10 and of 
students 124. 

Foreign language mskooU, — The foreign language schools are institutions in which 
students are instructed in a foreign language and in a general course of study con- 
dnct'Cd in that language. There is one foreign language school in which French, 
German, Russian, and Chinese are taught. Besides this institution, there are 96 for^ 
eign language schools in which the English language is used, 4 in which French and 2 
in which German are used; number of teachers engaged in all these schools, 411 — 341 
natives and 70 foreigners. The number of pupils was 6,765, of whom 6,392 were males 
and 373 females. 

The Tokio female school was greatly enlarged. The number of teachers was 10 and 
of pupils 127. 

Financef, — ^The income of the public schools was 6,238,096 yen during the last year, 
an increase of 1,874,862 yen over the preceding year. The total expenditure was 
4,210,473 yen, or 1,015,195 more than during the preceding year. 

The following letter from Hon. David Murray will explain itself: 

MoMBUSHO (Department op Education), 

TokiOf Japan, July 14, 1877. 

Dear Sir : Tour favor of June 6 was received by the last mail. I can easily make 
plain the facts about the suspension of schools. 

Many erroneous statemeuts appeared in the Tnglish papers here, chiefly caused by 
mistranslations of government notices. When the appropriation was reduced in Jan- 
nary the department at once began to cast around for ways in which to bring its 
expenses within the reduced appropriation. 

It had under its direct control the following institutions, viz: University of Tokio, 
Me<lical College of Tokio, Tokio English Language School, Tokio Foreign Language 
School, Tokio Normal School, Tokio Female Normal School^ Tokio Girls' School, Osaka 
English Lanpuacro Soliool, Osaka Normal SchooL Nagasaki English Language School. 
Nagasaki Normal School, Hiroshima English Language School, Hiroshima Nonual 
School, Aichi English Language School. Aichi Normal School, Niigata English 
Language School, Niigata Nonual School, Miyagi English Language School, and 
Miyagi Normal School. 

ill these schools were mainly supported by the annual grant made to them by the 
Mombusho; they were all governed and managed by directors api)ointed by the Siom- 
hasho. The otier objects on which the department expended its appronnation were 
(1) administration, (2) the erection of school buildings for the above scuools, (3) the 
preparation and publication of school books, (4) the collection and manaj^ement of an 
educational museum and library, and (5) an annual grant for the maintenance of 
elementary schools in the provinces. 

When the crisis came it was not easy to decide which of these could be best cut off 
or curtailed. Finally, after much consideration, it was resolved (1) to reduce the 
administration to its most economical point ; (2) to leave the apprm)riatiou to ele- 
mentary schoolfl virtually unchanged ; (3) to maintain the schools of Tokio ttii^O«»»i&Sb 



CLXX REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

with reduced appropriations, but still eflSciently ; (4) to consolidate the pcirls' school 
of Tokio with the fomale normal school, for economy of administration. [This is one 
point of the special inquiries you make. The female normal school has not been 
abandoned, and the girls' school has been attached to this as a department. This was, 
no doubt, a matter to be regretted: it gave, as you say, the impression that female 
education was being relin([uished ; but such is not th^case, certainly no more than 
necessity has required. ] (5) To transfer as far as possible to the local governments 
the support and management of the normal and English language schools ; negotia- 
tions were at once be^un with the local governments, and with only one or two excep- 
tions, the schools established by the department have been assumed by the local gov- 
ernments ; the negotiations in regard to the English language school at Nagasaki have 
not been successful, and it may have to be closed. 

Under this new arrangement it cannot be claimed that the institutions will be ag 
well managed: fewer foreign teachers will be employed, and the appliances of educa- 
tion will be less liberally provided; but it was better than abandonment. It has been 
a most gratifying circumstance that the local communities have been unwilling to lose 
the schools which had been opened, and cooperated heartily with the local govern- 
ments in arrangements for their continuance. 

Such, my dear general, seems to be a full answer to the very natural inquiries you 
make. 

We cannot deny to ourselves that our educational schemes have been going through 
a very severe trial ; and as the resources of the country are quite likely to be much 
constricted for some time to come, the officers of the department are busily consider- 
ing in what way the system may be modified to meet the prospective changed condi- 
tion. A new educational law is under consideration, and when issued will be intended 
to meet a condition of things in which less can be done for education by the central 
department and more left to local enterprise. How best to secure the benefits of local 
enterprise, and at the same time retain the necessary safeguards which will insure 
good plans of study, good teachers, liberal equipments, &c., is a problem of no little 
difficulty, but with which we are just at this moment brought face to face. 

I hope the impression here is we'll founded that the war is nearly at an end. It will 
be a happy day when it is. And yet, as in our o\\'n case, troubles do not end when the 
war ends. 

With high respect, I am, very sincerely yours, 

DAVID MURRAY. 

Hon. John Eaton, 

Commissioner of Education, 

. m.— Africa. 

EoTPT, a dependency of Turkey in Africa: Area, 1,406,250 square miles ; population, 16,952,000. Cap* 

ital, Cairo; population, 349,883. 

The government schools, which were first erected in 1868, have at present about 
8,000 pupils. Egypt has besides these a largo number of missionary and foreign 
schools. One of these schools at Alex^andria has 500 pupils. 

IV.— South Ambbica and North America. 

Argextixb Confedebatiox, federal republic : Area, 515,700 square miles; population in 1869, 1,877,490, 
Capital, Buenos Aj-res; population, 177,787. Minister of public instruction. Dr. O. Leguizamon. 

The number of primary schools is 1,816, of which 1,327 are public and 489 private. 
The number of pupils is 109,941, of whom 85,672 are in public schools and 24,269 in 
private schools. The number of teachers is 2,868, viz, 1,593 males and 1,275 females. 

For secondary education there arc 17 colleges, with 453 students, and for superior 
education there is a university, with 1,495 students. 

Brazh^, constitutional monarchy : Area, 3,287,964 squaro miles; i>opnlation, 9,448,233. Capital, Rio do 
Janeiro ; popnlation, 274,072. Minister of the interior, A. da C. Pinto e SQva. 

Brazil has 5,890 primary and secondary schools, with 187,915 pupils; 19 higher re- 
ligious seminaries, with 1,368 students; 1 polytechnic school, with 399 students; 2 
medical faculties, with 950 students ; 2 faculties of law, with 406 students; a commer- 
cial school, with 57 students ; a musical observatory, with 108 students ; and several 
charitable institutions. 

The regulations relating to compulsory attendance are enforced only in the capital 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. CLXXI 

of the empire and in a few provincial towns. The great distance of many dwellings 
torn school-houses has made general compulsion hitherto impossible. 

Caxapa, Dominion of Cuiada, British i>08ses8ion: Arpo, 3,483,952 nqoare miles; jMpnlfttion in 1871, 

3,602,321. Capital, Ottawa; population, 21,545. 

The Dominion of Canada consists of the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island. The prov- 
inces have full power to regulate their educational affairs. A statement of the condi- 
tion of these is here presented. 

0. OsTABio : Area, 121,260 sqnare miles; popolation, 1,620,851. Capital, Toronto; population, 46,092. 
Minister of education, Adam Crooks. Deputy minister of education, J. G. Hodgins. 

The following information is derived from the report of the minister of education for 
the year 1876: 

Income and expenditure. — The total receipts for all public school purposes for the year 
1876 amounted to $3,3i^,655, showing an increase of $28,201 over the total receipts of 
the preceding year. The total expenditure for all public school purposes amounted to 
13,006,456; increase, |13,375. 

Sdiool population. — ^The school population (5-16) was 502,250; increase, 1,167. The 
namber of children of school age attending school was 464,364; increase, 13,559. 
Nomber of pupils of other ages attending school, 26,173 ; increase, 2,737. Total num- 
ber of pupils attending the schools, 490,537 ; increase, 16,296. The ages of pupils were : 
1,321 under 5 years of age; 253,994 between 5 and 10; 212,499 between 11 and 16; 
22,723 between 17 and 21. The number reported as not attending any school is 9,260 ; 
decrease, 1.549. These were between the ages of 7 and 12 years, which are the ages 
fixed by the statute during which all the children should receive instruction in some 
BehooL The average attendance, viz, the aggregate daily attendance divided by the 
legal number of teaching days in the year, was 212,483 ; increase, 13,909. 

Teachers. — In the 5,042 schools reported 6,185 teachers have been employed; in- 
crease, 167; of these, 2,780 are males and 3,405 females. The teachers are reported 
to be of the following religious persuasions : Church of England, 942 ; Church of Rome, 
7r9; Presbyterians, 1,874; Methodists, 1,973; Baptists, 344 ; Congregational ists, 74 ; 
Lotherans, 29 ; Quakers, 23 ; Christians and Disciples, 60 ; Protestants, 35 ; Plymouth 
Brethren, 16 ; Unitarians, 3 ; other denominations, 33. The highest salary paid to a 
male teacher in a county is $800, the lowest $120 ; in a city, the highest $1,000, the 
lowest $500 ; in a town, the highest $1,000, the lowest $200. The average salary of 
female teachers in counties is $240 ; in cities, $314 ; in towns, $267. 

Sckools. — The number of schools reported is 5,042 ; increase, 208. The whole num- 
ber of school-houses reported is 4,926, of which 1,417 are brick, 514 stone, 2,253 frame, 
and 742 log. The number of Roman Catholic separate schools is 167, with 25,294 
pnpil» and 302 teachers. There are 104 high schools in the province, with 8,541 pupils. 
The Toronto normal school had 7,706 students, of whom 3,861 were males and 3,845 
females. Ontario has besides 16 colleges, with 700 student^, and 297 academies and 
higher private schools, with 7,9^ pupils. 

Public librariea. — The nimiber of free libraries, exclusive of subdi visions, is 1,450; 
number of volumes, 281,586. The number of Sunday school libraries reported is 2,532 ; 
number of volumes in these libraries, 387,757. Other public libraries reported, 159, 
with 142,954 volumes. 

EducaUowU progress. — The following data will show what has been accomplished 
educationally in Ontario during the last thirty years : In 1842 the number of publio 
schools was only 1,721 ; in 1851 this had increased to 3,001 and in 1876 to 5,042, and 
the number of pupils attending them from 168,159 in 1851 to 490,537 in 1876. The 
amount paid for the support of the public schools has been increased from $468,644 
in 1851 to $3,006,456 in 1876. 



CLXXn REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

h. QUEBEC: Area, 210,020 square mile«; i>opulatioii, 1,191^516. Capital, Qaebeo; populaiioo, 9O.0B6; 

Saperintendent of public instruction, G. Ouimet. 

The statistics following are derived from the report of the superintendent for tho 
year 187(>-77 : 

The Province of Quebec had, in 1876-77, 3,631 elementary schools, with 146,777 
pupils on the rolls and 107,651 in average attendance ; 84 model schools for boys, with 
7,274 pupils on the rolls and 5,870 in average attendance; 39 model schools for girls, 
with 4,337 pupils on the rolls and 3,615 in average attendance ; 149 mixed model 
schools, with 7,324 boys on the rolls and 5,592 in average attendance, and 7,068 girls 
on the rolls and 5,335 in average attendance ; 54 academies for boys, with 10,363 stu- 
dents on the rolls and 8,853 in average attendance ; 129 academies for girls, with 19,261 
pupils on the rolls and 16,653 in average attendance ; 37 mixed academies, with 1,471 
pupils on the rolls and .1,037 in average attendance ; 71 Catholic elementary schools, 
with 2,478 pupils ; 3 Catholic superior schools, with 192 pupils ; 128 Protestant element- 
ary schools, with 3,553 pupils; 9 Protestant superior schools, with 553 pupils; Wd 
independent elementary schools, with 7,879 pupils ; 62 independent superior schools, 
with 4,299 pupils ; 42 colleges, with 8,307 pupils; and 3 normal schools, with 309 pupils. 
The total number of educational institutions of all kinds is 4,571 ; the total number 
of pupils, 232,765, viz, 117,686 boys and 115,079 girls; and the total of average attend- 
ance, 178,621. The number of male teachers is 1, 146, and that of female teachers 4,776. 
The province has 219 public libraries, with 187,2% volumes. 

e. Nova Scotia: Area, 18,660 square miles; population, 387,800. Capital, Halifax; population, 29,582. 

Superintendent of education, A. S. Hunt. 

From the annual report for the year 1876-^77 the following data have been derived : 
The whole exjjenditure for education amounted to $681,134, of which the govern- 
ment contributed $204,266. The number of school sections was 1,770, showing an 
increase of 16 over the preceding year. During the winter term there were 1,731 
schools in operation, with 80,788 pupils and an average daily attendance of 46,380; 
during the summer term, 1,871 schools, 83,941 pupils, and an average daily attendance 
of 47,000. The total number of teachers and assistants was, winter term, 1,829 ; sum- 
mer term, 1,947. There were 76 new school-houses built in 1877, and 58 more begun. 

d. Bbttibh Columbia: Area, 213,000 square miles; population, 10,586. Capital, Victoria; population 

in 1871, 4,510. Superintendent of education, J. Jessup. 

The number of children between the ages of 5 and 16 is 2,734, of whom 1,888 attend 
schobL To these may be added 50 pupils above 16 years of age, making 1,938 in all, 
viz, 1,071 boys and 867 girls, an increase of 253 over last year. The above numbers do 
not include the three principal centres of population, namely, Victoria, Nanaimo, and 
New Westminster, from which no statistical reports have been received. — (Keport of 
superintendent, 18f6-'77.) 

e. Pbince Edward Iblajo): Area, 2,173 square miles; i>opulation, 94,021. Capital, Chariottetown ; pop- 

ulation, 8,807. Secretary of the board of education, Donald McNeilL 

The province had, in 1876, 417 schools, with 15,431 pupils on the rolls, viz, 8,150bo3r8 
and 7,281 girls. The average daily attendance was 8,799. One hundre<l and fifty-seven 
schools were taught by females, at salaries varying from $113 to $129. The salaries of 
male teachers varied from $146 to $324. The normal school was attended by 154 
students. 

No reports have been received from New Bnmswiclr and Manitoba. 

Jamaica, British colony: Area, 6,400 square miles; population, 441,264. Capital, Kingston; pcpnla- 

tion, 40,000. Superistendent of schools, John Savage. 

The totAl number of children of school age (5 to 15) is 123,824, and the total number 
of children attending school, 46,000. The number of elementary schools is 486; that 
of endowed schools^ 25 ; and of normal schools, 7. The latter are frequented by 124 
pupils. 



EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



CLXXIII 



Iflxzco, fedezal republic: Area, 743,048 square mfles; popnlfttioxi, 0,843,470. Cspital, Kexioo; popn- 

lation, 200,000. MiniBter of the interior. T. Garcia. 

Mexico baa 338 primary schools, with 22,407 pupils ; a preparatory school, with 602 
papils; a business college, witb 640 pupils; a lawscbool, witb 158 students; a school of 
medicine, with 126 students ; a school of engineering, witb 58 students; a school of fine 
arts, witb 600 students; an industrial school, witb 157 students; and a school of agri- 
enltore and veterinary surgery, witb 29 students. 

Y. ~ Australasia. 

Xiw South Wales, British colony: Area, 323,437 square miles; population, 503,961. Capital, Sidney; 
population, 134,755. Secretary of the <M>i]ncil of education, W. WUkins. 

The following statement, drawn from tbe official educational report for tbe year 
1876, shows tbe progress made during tbe last ten years : 

In tbe ten years from 1867 to 1876, inclusive, while the x>opulation of tbe colony 
ncreased from 431,412 to 629,776, or 46 per ceilt.,the number of public scbools has 
ncreased from 259 to 503, or 92.2 per cent. In addition to these, 279 provisional 
Bebools and 1 10 half time schools are now in operation, these classes of scbools having 
been brougbt into existence for tbe first time under the public scbools act. The total 
increase of tbe number of scbools, other than certificated denominational scbools, is 
therefore 633, being at tbe rate of 244 per cent. On tbe other band, tbe number of 
certificated denominational scbools has fallen from 310 to 181, or 41 per cent. Tbe net 
increase of all scbools, from 569 to 1,073, is 88 per cent. 

The number of pupils enrolled, baving been 47,663 in tbe first quarter of 1867 and 
111,269 during the year 1876, has increased by 63,606, or 133 per cent. Tbe amount of 
fees has increased at tbe rate of 100 per cent. 

The number of new school-bouses erected was 199, to whicb may be added 61 otbers 
in course of erection. • 

The total number of teachers, assistants, and pupil teacbers bas increased from 971 
to 1,583, or 63 per cent. Tbe number of teacbers who have been under training is 681. 

The following table exhibits for tbe quarter endiug December 31, 1876, the number 
of pupils enrolled, tbe average attendance, and tbe relative proportions of these num- 
bers: 



Localitiea. 



Cities and suburbs 

Lirge towns 

Snail towns 

Mining districts . . . 
SonldistricU 

Total 



I 



I 



27,742 
4,369 

13,807 
7,338 

24,113 



70,050 






■9 c. 

.2 « 



18, 350. 6 
2, 017. 5 
0, 070. 3 
4. 875. 

10, 634. 1 



51,857.1 



• * B , 

h ^ s 3 

S « a 9 



66.1 
66.7 
67.7 
66.4 
68.0 



67.3 



5iw Zkalaxd, British colony: Area, 106,250 square miles; population, 300,075. Capital, Auckland; 
population, 21,500. Superintendent of education, J. Williamson. 

New Zealand baa 140 scbools, witb 8,284 pupils on tbe rolls and 4,929 in average 
attendance. Tbe number of teacbers is 178. Tbe Auckland College and Grammar 
Sobool has 7 teacbers and 164 students. 



QCSKSBLAXD, British colony: Area, 678,600 square miles; population, 181,288. Capital, Brisbane; 
population in 1871, 10,413. Secretary of the board of education, E. Butterfleld. 

On the 1st of January, 1876, tbe education department found 222 primary scbooU 
in operation in tbe colony, of wbicb 156 were state scboolB, 42 proyiBional BcbooU, wsA 



CLXXIV REPORT OF THE COMBdlSSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

25 non-vested schools. During the year, the total number increased to 263. Fifteen 
new state schools and 24 new provisional schools were opened. 

The total number of children enrolled in 1876 was 36,271, against 33,778 in 187.5 — an 
increase of 2,493. The mean number enrolled was 24,369 in 1875 and 26,949 in 1876— 
an increase of 2,580. The average daily attendance was 18,534. 

The number of teachers employed was 617, of whom 335 were males and 282 females. 
The time devoted to secular instruction in all but infant schools is five hours on every 
day of the week except Saturday and Sunday. The number of ordinary school days 
in the year was 220. 

The children attending the schools vary in age from 4 to 16. They are admitted to 
infaut schools at the age of 4 and into other schools at the age of 5. The gross expen- 
diture of the education department for primary schools in 1876 was £73,131. 

Tashaxia, British colony: Area, 26,215 square miles; population. 104,217. Capital, Hobari Town; 
population, 19,092. Presideyit of the board of educatten, Henry Butler. 

During the year there were 154 schools in actual operation ; total number of children 
on the rolls, 12,271 ; average daily attendance, 5,703. During the year 1876 there were 
158 schools in operation, and the nimiber of children on the rolls was 12,231. The 
total expenditure in 1876 amounted to £15,484. 

YlCTOBiA, British colony: Area, 88,198 square miles; population, 823,272. Capital, Melbourne; popu* 

lation, 54,993. Minister of public instruction, W. CoUaixl Smith. 

The following information is derived from the report of the minister of public in- 
struction for the year 1876-77 : 

The estimated number of children of school age (6-15) is 196,047 ; the following table 
shows the attendance of children at school : 



Children in attendance at — 



Private schools 

Colleges, grammar schools, Slo 

Keformatory schools 

Industrial schools 

Total 



Of sflkool age 
(6-15). 



22,863 
833 
135 
856 



24,687 



Under and 

orer school 

age. 



6,075 

202 

84 

116 



6,477 



Total 



28,038 

1,035 

210 

072 



31,164 



The number of state and capitation schools in operation during the year 1876, with 
the pupils attending them, is shown in the following table : 



1876. 



State schools and state night schools 
Capitation schools 

Total 

I>educt for schools closed 

Baluice 



Number of 
schools. 



1,457 
67 



1,524 
26 



1.498 



Total number 
of children 
enrolled dur- 
ing the year. 



222,373 
12, 913 



235.286 
3,726 



231,560 



Average at- 
tendance 
throughout 
the year. 



103,026 
5,788 



108,814 
2,056 



106,758 



Of the estimated number of children of school age, 196,047, there were 152,147 at- 
tending schools supported by the state, 750 capitation schools, 22,863 private schools, 
833 grammar schools, 991 industrial and reformatory schools; 7,000 were taught at 
home, and 11,463 were educated up to the compulsory standard and removed from 
achooL 



INSTRUCTION IN ART. CLXXV 

Druant officen. — Truant officers have been sent to all the centres of population, with 
a view of prosecuting parents who persist in neglecting the education of their chil- 
dren. One hundred and fifty-eight prosecutions have already been made, which have 
resulted in 157 convictions and 1 dismissal. 

Teachers, — The total number of teachers was 3,576, of whom 1,325 were head teach- 
ers, 757 assistant teachers, 529 work mistresses, and 965 pupil teachers. 

DfSTRUCTIOK IN ART. 

The interest awakened throughout the country by the Centennial Exhibition in the 
whole subject of art in its relations to industries, and in its special development in 
works of strictly high art. continues. In my report for 1876 a compreheuHive state- 
ment was made of the art exhibitions, museums, schools, and academies which were 
either opened for the first time in the centennial year or which were then reopened. 
All these institutions seem to be prospering; and all the art schools, both those 
of high art and those especially aiming to teach the industrial applications of art, 
are crowded with eager pupils. In the cities and towns in which drawing has been 
for some years taught in the public schools, the evidences of progress have been 
BO apparent as to commend the study to all classes. Art loan collections are be- 
coming a recognized feature in many cities and towns, and it is safe to say that at 
present interest in all matters pertaining to art is more generally diffused throughout 
the community than at any former period in the lustory of the United States. 

The economic relations of art are beginning to be understood, and the fact that such 
principles of art knowledge can be given in the public schools as shall enable the 
pupils to become available as producers in art industries is beginning to be appreciated. 
When confidence in this public school training in industrial art shall have become 
geaeral, a very marked increase in the art productions of the United States may be 
expected. 

A movement looking to the combination of a mart for the sale of art' works witu 
classes for giving practical training in art industries has been initiated in New York, 
under the designation of the Society of Decorative Art, which promises to become per- 
manent and to be followed by the establishment of similar societies in other cities. 

8ome knowledge of the history of art and of the sBsthetic development of man seems 
to be more and more considered an essential part of higher education by the colleges 
and universities. The public lectures on art, the frequent exhibitions, the increasing 
number of art publications, and the attention given to art topics in the current maga- 
zine Uterature, all evince the awakening interest of the public in art matters. 

In pnbUc collections of works of art, as well as in all museums of natural objects 
and in public libraries, a notable change has taken place during the last few years, 
owing to a fuller recognition of the educational value and possibilities of such collec- 
tions. 

So fSar as relates to art museums this change may be ascribed largely to the influence 
of the example set by the character and management of the South Kensington collec- 
tions, which, in turn, grew out of the Hyde Park World's Fair. The value of such 
collections in developing the public taste and in affording direct instruction to those 
who wish to apply the arts to industries, which has been widely recognized in Great 
Britain and in the continental countries of Europe, is beginning to be understood in 
this country, and an art museum no longer means, as it has done until very recently, 
simply a collection of paintings, of statuary, and possibly of a few engravings ; it now 
comprises nearly everything to which artistic treatment may he applied. Art is 
rapidly beconung comprehensive, and the artist is free to use whatever material may 
suit his purpose. Art, long divorced from the interest's of the conmion people, becomes 
allied to the common industries and the common needs of all, and the artisan and the 
artist, as in the best days of art, are rapidly recognizing their mutual relation and 
dependence. 
The foundation of the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, which 



CLXXVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

is the outcome of the Centennial Exhibition, jnst as South Kensington was the out- 
come of the Hyde Park Exhibition, is the first working example of such a museum 
and school in this country. The collections of examples of industrial art which are to 
be seen in the halls of the Memorial Building at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, ex- 
cluding, as t^ioy do, canvass, marbles, and engravings — formerly the sole stock of 
an art museum — are calculated to impress the beholder with a new sense of the possi- 
bilities of industrial art and of its immense importance to a country in an economic 
point of view. 

The Massachusetts State Normal Art School, Boston, under the direct charge of 
Prof. Walter Smith, State art director, has been the pioneer in this field, and is doing 
excellent work in the training of those who shall be able to disseminate widely the 
kind of instruction essential to the development of a large number of workers in in- 
dustrial art, which must be preliminary to any important development of art indus- 
tries in this country. The collections of the Boston Museum of Art, while rich in 
works of high art and in the material necessary to train artists, are also well provided 
with examples of the application of art to various industries. 

The loan collections of the Metropolitan Museum, in New York, have been arranged 
with special reference to their educational infinence : the development of this mnseum 
into an institution similar to that of South Kensington having been the design of ita 
founders and the plan which has been kept constantly in view, though the high art 
features and the archaeological specialty of the museum have been in no way neg- 
lected. A great expansion of its work in the way of schools and direct instruction, 
not as yet attempted, may be anticipated when it removes to the permanent quarters 
providing for it in Central Park. In the selection of the site and in the plans of the 
buildings, every provision for this anticipated growth and varied development has 
been made. 

In direct training of pupils in industrial art, the Woman's Art Schools of the 
Cooper Union have been conspicuous. The Schools of Desigu in Philadelphia, Cin- 
cinnati, St. Louis, and Pittsburgh have given much attention to practical instruction 
in art industries. The Lowell School of Practical Design, Boston, Mass., is a fr(^e 
school for technical instruction in the direct application of art to manufactures. The 
Free School of Art of Cooper Union, the Franklin Institute Drawing Classes, Phil- 
adelphia, and the night art classes of the Maryland Institute, Baltimore, give free 
instruction to boys and men in mechanical and free hand drawing. The Free Insti- 
tute of Industrial Science at Worcester, Mass., gives theoretical and practical training 
in the industrial arts. 

In high art training the leading schools are those of the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts, Philadelphia ; the National Academy of Design, New York ; the classes of 
the Art Students' League, New York ; the Brooklyn Art Association ; the Yale School 
of Fine Arts, Yale College, New Haven, Conn. ; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ; the 
School of Design of the San Francisco Art Association; the Chicago Academy of 
Design, and the Art Department of Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 

In collections of statuary, t*he Metropolitan Museum of New York, with its inmiense 
Di Cesnola collections from Cyprus and a few fine modem marbles, leads. Of collec- 
tions of casts of statuary, the Corcoran Art Gallery at Washington ; the Pennsylvania 
Museum of Fine Arts ; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston ; the School of Design, San 
Francisco ; the Yale Art School ; the Art Gallery of Amherst College, Amlierst, Mass., 
and the Art Gallery of Illinois Industrial University possess the largest and finest. 
Several of the other galleries and colleges also have good collections. 

Of collections of paintings by old masters, the New York Historical Society, with 
the Bryan collection, the Metropolitan, with its collection of the Flemish school, and the 
Tale School of Fine Arts, with the Jarvis collection, possess the most important. Of 
' more recent paintings, the Corcoran Art Gallery, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts, the Lenox Library, New York, the Yale Art School, the Wadsworth Athensum, 
Hartford, Conn., the Mnseum of Fine Arts, Boston, and the Athenseum Art Gallery, 



INSTRUCTION IN ART. 



CLXXVIl 



St. Joimsbury, Vt., possess the most important collections. Of colleges and other edu- 
cational institutions that have larger or smaller art collections and give more or less 
instniction in art, may be named : Tale, Amherst, Cornell, University of Michigan, 
Illinois Industrial University, College of Notre Dame, Ind., Louisiana State Univer- 
sity, Rochester University, Syracuse University, University of Vermont, Vassar Col- 
lege, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Smith College, Northampton, Mass., South Hadley Seminary, 
Mass. 

The following abstract from the 18 pages of statistical tables of the art institutions, 
which were given in my annual rex>ort for 1876, contains simply a list of the names, 
places, date of founding, and the chief officers or instructors of the art museums and 
art training institutions in the United States, for the purpose of including them in the 
present report and thus preserving the record complete. 

The full statistics of the art collections and of the facilities possessed by the schools 
are in the tables of the report for 1876, and will be contained in the Special Report on 
Art Education in the United States now in the course of preparation by I. Edwards 
Clarke, a. m. 



CL XXVIII REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



t 

a 
o 



I 



9 



§ 



B 
O 



F 

•mm 





g pq O 

O hi h4 



'popimoj ix9q^ 



n 



aoooQOQOoSaoo&ooSQOao aowaowSaoao S 



• 


s 









o 




o 


a» 




o 


a 


S 


viM 


> 


► 


S 
.3 


s 


S 


t 




8> 


n 


}z; 


}Z5 





At' 




2 a 



d CO '<«■ lO CD t^ 00 



b 



INSTRUCTION IN ART. 




L 



CLXXX REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

Statisitca of institutions affording art instruatioHj including all training in industrial art, for 
1876; from replies to inquiries hif the United States Bureau of Education. 





Name. 


Location. 


s 


PrincipaL 




1 


9 


3 


4 


1 


School of Design of the San Fran- 


San Francisco, Cal . 


1873 


Samuel Purdy, secretary ; J. Boss 




cisco Art Association. 




Martin, assistant secretary; Vir- 
gil Williams, director. 


2 


Yale School of the Fine Arts 


New Haven, Conn. 


1864 


Prof. John F. Weir, director. 


3 


Art Schools of Chicago Academy 


Chicago, 111 


1887 ' L. W. Volk, president ; G. P. Gook- 




of Design. 




' ins, director; Paul Brown, secre- 










tary. 


4 


Illinois Bidnstrial University 


nrl>ana,Ill 


01870 


J. M Gregory, LL. D., president of 


1 








university. 


5 


Maryland Institute Schools of Art 


Baltimore, Md ... 


1848 


Prot D. A. Woodward. 


1 


and Design. 








fl 


Postmi Art Hnb 


Boston, Mass 


18S5 


Charles A. Barry, secretary. 
BeiUamin £. CotUng, M. d., cnistor 


7 


Lowell Institute Drawing Classes. 


1840 










of the institute; G^orgeHolllngs- 










worth, prindpaL 


8 


Lowell School of Practical De- 
sign. & 


Boston, Mass 

• 


1872 




9 


Msssaohnsetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, department of architect- 


Boston, Mass 


1861 


WilUam R. Ware, s. B., professor of 
architecture. 


10 


Msssaohusetts Normal Art School. 


Boston, Mass 


1873 


Prod Walter Smith, State artdiroc- 
tor, principal ; William T. Meek, 
curator. 


11 


School of Drawing and Painting, 
Museum of Fine Arts. 


Boston, Mass 


1876 


Prot W. K. Ware, secretary of per- 
manent committee ; Otto Gmnd 
mann, principal 


12 


Worcester County Free Institute 
of Industrial Science. 


Worcester, Mass. . 


1865 


Prof C. 0. Thompson. 


13 


St- Lonli» Art School 


St. Louis. Mo 


1872 


Conrad DiehL 


14 


Manchester Art Association 


Manchester, N. H . 


1871 


H.W. Herrick, president; Joseph 
B. Sawyer, secretary. 


16 


Art Classes of the Brooklyn Art 
Association. 


Brooklyn, N. Y . . . 


1861 


William H. Husted, secretary. 


10 


Cornell IJniTersity, courses in ar- 
chitecture and in the mechanic 
arts. 


Ithaca, N.Y 


1866 


A. D. White, ll. d., preaident of tha 
university. 


17 


Art Students' League 


New York, N.Y.. 


1876 


F. Waller, president ; Howard Po- 










land, corresponding secretary. 


18 


Cooper Union Art Schools : 










It "Woman's Art School . - - - , 


New York, N.Y.. 


1852 


Mrs. Susan N. Carter. 




2. The Free School of Art 


NewYork,N.Y.. 


1857 


F. G. Tisdall, Jr., ph. d., director. 


10 


Ladies' Art Association... 


New York, N.Y.. 


1870 


Mrs. J. B Collin, corresponding 
secrotary; Miss Alice Donlevy, 
















curator (studio, 806 Broad- 










way). 


20 


Art Schools of the National Acad- 
emy of Design. 


New York, N.Y.. 


1826 


D. Huntington, president; L. S. 
Wilmarth, director of schools. 



STATISTICAL ABSTRACTS. 



CLXXXI 



StaiisUca of insHtutions affording art in»trucHon^ ^c, — Continued. 





Name. 


Location. 


1 


Principal. 




1 


9 


3 

1869 


4 


a 


TTiA PalAtiA f!lTi>» 


New York, N.T.. 


Hon. Koah Davis, president; Saml 
J. Jelliffe, corresponding secre- 














tary. 


22 School of Design, Yaasar College e . 


Poughkeepsie, N. Y 


1877 


Prot Henty Van Ingen. 


33 '■ College of Fine Arte of Synunue 


Syracuse, N. Y — 


1872 


Profl George F. Comfort, dean. 




University. 








24 


School of Design of the University 


Cincinnati, Ohio.. 


1809 


Thomas S. Noble. 


•f Cincinnati. 








2S 


Toledo Universitv of Arts and 
Trades. 


Toledo, Ohio 


1872 


Charles J. Shipley. 


X 


Franklin Tnstitnte Drawing Classes 


Phihidelphia,Pa.. 


1824 


J. B. Knightk secretary of institiiie. 


27 


Art Classes of the Pennsylvania 


Philadelphia, Pa.. 


1800 


Christian Schnsseleb 


Academy of the Fine Arts. 








28 


Philadelphia School of Design for Philadelphia, Pa . . 


1847 


MissKCroasdala 




Women. 








29 The Pennsylvania Moseam and 


Philadelphia, Pa.. 






School of Industrial Art 








30 


Pittsburgh School of Design for 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


1885 


Hngh NewelL 




"Women. 







a University founded in 1867, school of architecture in 1870, art gallery in 1874, school of design in 1876. 
b This course of free instruction, open to pupils of both sexes, is provided by the trustee of the Lowell 
Insiitate, and is in the rooms and under the direction of the Massachusetts liistitute of Teohnology. 
cThe opening of this school will take place in September, 1877. 



STATISTICAL ABSTRACTS. 



My report for 1876 was not printed in snch numbers as to satisfy more than half 
the correspondents of this Office, though its contents were more varied and the year 
covered by it was in all respects the most important since the foundation of the Office. 
In the hope that Congress will see fit to order a larger edition of the present volume 
than its predecessor did of the last, I venture to reprint some parts of certain statis- 
tical tables which appeared in that report ; the present report omits the correspond- 
ing tables this year. 



CLXXXn REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 




*9i«m9j^ 



CO 



•opin: 



'aopvpUUOJ 991X{8 

sd^vmuf JO joqnma lo^ox 



o 



S ® g 8 ® 8 



e» •« o o 



S 2 



«o o 



^ «o o 

»0 rH lZ5 



ta 00 rH <« o c« 



C5 



s 



§ § S 8 



o 



III 

m 



9 



*0[«nx9j 


^ 


•or»K 


n 



a» CO 



t«^otai»c0om '^Nrt 



-« ;5 «> 



CI O 74 



' n 

1-1 fH ffl ""' iM O 



I 

•I 



I 




■5* 






o 3 



i^n 



if 



t^ eo 



M^S 




»« 



ii 

ill 



«•& 



in 

III 

III 

§1 



I 



W| 



mi 



M 



• 4 Ah 

I S & 
CO O PQ 



OB 



1 = 

1 -S 



i 

I 

8 



S 

o 









CQ OS 



ft 






5 fl 

o •< 
S ® a 

w w & 

III 
III 



m 



fit- 

nil 

'Its 



i 



5 u 






rHCicQ'«tocDt«aoa»o^oeo'<i«>ioor«ao 



ORPHAN ASYLUMS. 



CLXXXIII 



« r- o M 

H C4 O 



S '=^ S S S g 






M 

s 



s g 



CO. 






8 «^' 



tA 



8 S S ^^^ S 



g 5; *=» 8 



^ §$ 



3 







^^?i&n^^s^?^^n^fiVi^fi^^^^%^^^^'Q>^^9^s:^ 



CLXXXIV REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONED OP EDUCATION. 



CO i-l f-1 



S ~8 S3 3 !: s 



■2 

d 
o 

I 

i 



5 




'S' 



■s 






6 

I 




SS:S3S^SSS5@333S&SS^?f: 



ORPHAN ASYLUMS. 



CLXXXV 



SS 



>4 e 
n 10 



§2 



f^ fH O • 



^ CO CO CO r» OJ r» 




? SSS:?^SSSS!<23SS&SSSSS83SSS;SS|S|§3§ 



CLXXXVI REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



I 

§ 

o 

I 

« 

s 

r 



"S> 



I 

I 

i 

-< 



OB 



•otBmaj [ |« 



Pi 



•opjK • 



C C5 



L^ o o OS K a ?4 

« ?i I- r- 1-1 5i ■* 

55 QC Oi »3 « ii 

S oC •»» « ^« o 



cs £5 Q © o C* f- 



C9 3C 



£ 



- _ t- 

O O i-t ^^ Li 5£ i5 

CM 



'noi^opirooj ooais 
g99«ani} JO joqiuna i«)ox ^ 



r;©C'je50©o©»-ci«'Mr*«»^«'^r550 



r: M 






94-^aor>Ot««-^u)'«t«ociOfH«D'^aoaOk2f-4 




1 



CC K 







SSS82;5S2S22i;2S§c5?5S5^S 



ORPHAN ASYLUMS. 



CLXXXVII 



SJ52§8 a 5? S • S -^ 8 ;S S 8 *- 8 S S S 5 g S ® S S * 5 §5 g? S ?S 



-oo- 



S8:j§|^?23SSS;:SS^5S5S^S 



S8 






»• 2 

-« 09 
ft f- 



00 ^ 



CI 






09 >H C4 






•« o 



* 8 S 



00 



rt r-* 



e* CO 



S SS 



d lA »0 ^ ^ C4 r-l 



00 00 CO CI ««i CO 



S^ 



o o n u) o oo e 



-OO' 



c« 



n c« i-i iH 



e<i eo rH CI 



d 



«0 fH 





<4» 

I 



! 



i 
I 



I 







i 



I 







CLXXXVIII REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION, 




'opnizo^ 



SSSS'^S^SS'^S 



*»l«K 



^^a^s-'^-sss 



ssssssse 



« g 5 ^ 



'nopvpimoj 90ii;s 



gSISS§S5g| 



S SS S S 3 

1^ eo "^ 




*9ivin9j[ 


^ 


•9l«K 


n 



to CO ^ 04 lO 



CO t-i e<s fi CO CQ 




-♦a 

§ 
I 

CO 

So 



4 



I 



« 



i 





g I j <> u 
W ■& a I I 

|5 



1i 



<^ 9 9 S 

^ - I a 




o 


■& 


U 


•«( 


M 


s 


a 


.a 


g 


t 


t; 


O 


• 


19 


< 


:d 


*> 


A 


^ 




S 


Ȥ 


£ 


£ 






ORPHAN ASYLUMS. 



CLXXXIX 







3 


« 


s s 


. '^ 10 o 


o 


S 




S 3 



s 



^ o m «0 
•^ 5 r« ^H 
o a o t« 



n o « o 09 -^ 



a <D 




aS ^ ^ > S 




« » S 0^ « 

SSS3333SSo3 



cxc 



BEPOBT OF THE COlfMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 






CD O «0 O 




INFANT ASYLUMS. 



CXCI 



i 

m 
% 

r 



m 



I 
n 

I 




I 

I 

QQ 



8 



So 

»-« 

I 

I 

s 

e 

J 

I 

1 

J 



I 



CXCII REPORT OF THE C0BiMI8SI0NER OF EDUCATION. 



CO 
So 



u 



«0 

a 

1 

8 

••• 

^^ 

I 

I 




INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS. 



cxcni 



SSSSSS^'^S 




aas5s 



CXCIY REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



to 

is 

.1 
c 



s 

> 

4 



I 







MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 



CXCV 



S«?JS 



e e 



CO M M n 



s 



^ 2 



8 



9 



S3 



M »• 



a 2 



O 00 



s a •- 8 



^ ^ e> 

g ^ 8 



S 2S 



S 



6*5 



SSi^S^I 



e s *• 



SS 



Sl-S 



00 



CI 



fc. tr-ii-iieieMco^wio 



e« 



« -^ s 



ei 



a 

9 



M 



, _ ^ 'O '8 

R A eu Pl4 A4 



•a - 



•O T3 ^ *© 



s 



jllllll 



s 9^ a s 
|l||ll|l|||s|s 




e 
e 



9 



i ^ ^ ^ 

»2 ^ ^ ;z; n H (S 



t ^ S S V w 9 *!l4 




aasaSSiS9S»S38SSSSoSS89:$^999$^99SSSS2S 



CXCVI REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 





z ^ 
I- 



*9psai9j 



9 '^ O Ok Ol «D 

g5 r-t CM »-t » 



•OIBK 



•nor^npimoj aaiqs 
B»)«niin JO jaquiiia [e)ox 



if il « 



'OlBinaj 



•oiT»K ' W 






(3 

o 
Q 

I 

& 

"^ 

t 



8 



I 



I 

CV4 



St 



I 






5:j 

04 






o 0» 



© •* ^ » tH 

CQ 



O 

<S3 

3 3 

jj^ >J >; 5z5 fc }zi 



o 



«Q 
V 



?J « *" 



8 



O C3 



S 8 S *=» § 



<D O O O 

^ O CQ QD 



U 

J3 es 



1g 



c* 



•2f 2lS5 



-5 ^ 



■ 
•A 



« ^ ^ 

*^ .a .a ^ 



S 



s s * ^ 



CO 



CO 
CM 



8 ^ 



r* s 



s 

or 



S S 



94 O -^ 



;^ s 



«H "♦ M CO 



4i ^ 

W W • p^ 



^ ^ 



u 



s 5 2 ^ 

Mo eS 
}Z5 - 



^ S o 






>* >< H 






1^. 






•si 







•a 

}Z5 



H h {H 

* • • 

}25 >Z5 >5 

44 ^^ ^' 

O O O 

h ^ ^ 

> ^ ^ 

« V 9 

Jzi >z; >?; 



>< >< JH tH t»< 

525 }z; }Z5 }z; >Z5 

jta M 4f .^ 4^ 

o o o o o 

^ H tH k" h 

^ ^ > ^ ^ 

e 0) & o ci 



fcM >< h j>i >j >; 

• ••••• 

Jz5 ;z; P^ {zj Jzi Jz5 

.if J4 A^ .a" ,« .a 

h bl »4 k ». h 

e o o o o o 

h H h h »>« >< 

> ^ ^ ^ ^ > 

O O Si e 4> Q 

^A ^ ^ ^ ^^ 




Siosssgsissss&ss^^^g^;:^ 



MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 



CXCVII 



5| :S5|aS355S3 




« 4) O 1) 

s s a a 

O O O 9 

n H S S 



^H ^^ 1^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ T^ T^ 



CXCVni REPORT OF THE COlfMISSIOKEB OF EDUCATION. 



a88**88'-S 



s 



'8 



a 

£3 
O 

I 



3 

I 

,S 

I 

45 

I 
I 




So 

I 

g 



s 

o 

i 
1 

a 
a 

o 

%* 
o 

I 

& 






BEFOBM SCHOOLS. 



CXCIX 



U'lVUllI} I19V9 JO 



s s 8 a s s s 

g S 8 «« S S S 



s s s 






I 
i 






3 



a 



I 

r 

I 

• 



^ 




*o[«iiiaj 



s 



s 



$ 9 CO 



So s s § 



C« Q O 



s 



*9t«K 



8 



ss^sass 



^ ^ 



sssgss 




i 




n 



f 

1 



^«co^-a«r<oo«o;5gg;5;gjor;oo«g53 



cc 



BEPOBT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



9B03 pinncre oSfvjdAy 



S § 5 

O iO (« 

•^ «-! a» 



8 
2$ 



S 









s 


S S 2S s 


s; 


s 


s 


7H 


s 


r-l 


r^ 


r^ 


1H 


K 


Q 












$ 


§ 


• 

• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 
• 



i I 



I 



'opiaraj 



CD o n ^ o o 



CO 



** 9 S S 8 8 



•ofK 



S S 3 3 S S 

i5 cl i-i iH 



s s s 

CM 1-1 



«0 O lO '« O ^ 91 






•s 

a 


O 

O 
I 

ss 



f 

I 




o a — 5 

gas a 




2lsi^3SSi§§sgcS^^eS3 SS^SS^;^^ 



REFORM SCHOOLS. 



CCI 



9) 



Cd 



09 



ss g • s s 




p< el »-i iH «<• t^ 



et>«^aoaor« •<o 




« ;« fil M 



mil sil^ 

ella g I S S 3 



i 8 t 

■y ^ ^ 



V4 

s 

.a 






si 1| 5 



g^ 






I I 

II 6 

« 1 f2 

S r is 

>► ^ O 



a 

•3 






s 

I 



1 



9 






5555!; 5 3 S S 



J I 
I 



s _ 

«-• o 

§ 



o 



^1 

1 



I 



CCJI 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Liai of additional orphan asylumSy indusiriaJ 9ohools, reform sckooU, fC't reporting in 1877. 

NOTK.~Thofte marked with the letter "a" are reported for the first time ; all others were reported in 

1876 in the list of those firom which no information was received. 



Kame. 



OBPHAH ABTLUIIB. 




Ladies' Protection and Belief Society 

Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Hsme 

Society. 

Episcopal Orphans' Home 

Crerman Protestant Orphan Asylum 

Hasonic Widows* and Orphans' Home 

Presbyterian Orphans' Home Society 

St Joseph's Orphan Asylum 

St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum 

Asylum for Destitute Orphan Boysa 

St Paul's Orphan Asylum 

German Orphan Asylum 

The New Orphan A^lum for Colored Children 

Protestant Orphan JKylum 

Benevolent Association's Home for Children a. 

Palmetto Orphan Home 

Church Orphans' Home 



IKDUBTBIAL SCHOOLS. 

St Vincent De Paul's Industrial School 

School for Nurses, Charity Hospital, B. I 

The Ladies' Deborah Nursery and Childs' 

Protectory. 
Bochester Industrial Schools 



mSCBLLAlfBOUS CHABITIU. 



Youths' Directorya 

Home for the Friendless 

House of Providence 

The House of the Gtood Shepherd. 
Aimwell School Association 



Location. 



BKFOBM SCHOOL. 



Truant School a. 



San Fr^pcisoo, Cal .. 
San Francisco, Cal .. 



Savannah, Ga 

Indiampolis, Ind. . . 

Louisville, Ky 

Louisville, Ky 

Louisville, Ky .•••.. 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La... 

Baltimore, Md 

St Paul. Minn 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Allegheny, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Columbia, a C 

Memphis, Tenn ... . 



Number of 

officers, 

teachers, 

and 

aoflintiMits 



I 



NewTork,N.Y 
New York, N.T 
New York, N.Y 



Bochester, N. Y. 



San Francisco, Cal .. 
New Haven, Conn . , 

Detroit, Mich 

Stony Point, N.Y... 
Phi]ad«»lphia^Pa... 



Boston, Mass., 



1 
5 



1 
1 



1 
2 



6 



14 
1 

2 
1 
5 
2 
6 

12 
6 
5 
8 
1 

10 
2 
2 
4 

16 



8 



4 

2 

12 

4 
8 



79 



44 

224 



14 

MOO 

62,800 

75 

56 



95 



1,800 



11,862 
783 



275 



Present in- 
mates. 



6 



100 
29 


20 
43 

7 
43 

4 
66 



2 
13 
100 
13 
14 
12 



55 



21 



49 






el29 



4 



86 
26 

82 
10 
SO 
20 
53 
169 



40 
9 
10 
70 
6 
42 
30 



100 
40 



49 

4 
27 



81 
60 



aNew to the Bureau. ^Estimated. cEach inmate is maintained at an annual cost of $112.92. 



CRIME AND EDUCATION. 



ccm 



Memoranda far 1877. 



Kune. 


Location. 


Bemarks. 


Hovw of th« Frimdlfim 


I^lvhavi^n. Conn .... 


See Home for the Friendless, New Ha- 
Ten; identical. 






Sheltar for Ckilored OrDhans 


Baltimon^. Md ..... r 


Has become Johns Hopkins Colored 
Orphan Asylnm. 






Soclil Fnkm 


Ke^n^ V. H 


Merged in Refonn Club. 
Removed. 


LidnatriAl Home (110 Lexington are.) . . 


New York, N.T 


Isdostrial Home for Women (228 E. 


New York, N.Y.... 


Removed. 


ait St). 






Wooaii's Aid Society and Home for 


New York, N.Y.... 


Name changed to Free Home for Desti* 


Tnising Young Girla. 




tnte Young Girls. 


The National Homestead 


(Gettysburg, Pa ... . 


Closed. 


Wecteni Provident Society and Chil- 


Philadelphia, Pa.... 


Name changed to Western Home lor 


dreo'i Home. 




Poor Children. 



CRIME AND EDUCATION. 

The increase of criminals is emphasizing the importance of penology in connection 
with education. The inquiry is coming up from many quarters, Are there no measures 
at the command of the public by which the increase of criminals may be checked f The 
frieods of prison reform are active in devising measares to restore to useful places in 
society as many as possible of those who have suffered some legal penalty ; it is believed 
that officers in charge of prisons were never more earnest or active in this regard. The 
collection of information in regard to prison administration and the treatment of dis- 
charged convicts has awakened a more intelligent interest in the public mind. The same 
istrae with regard to data concerning schools for the reformation of Juvenile offenders. 
OiBcers of these institutions cannot keep their records of admission, administration, 
and discharge too accurately, and will greatly promote the public interest in their 
responsibilities by a cordial response to all well meant researches looking to the solu- 
tion of questions of penology. Too often the best effort« of these officers are received 
with indifference on the part of the public. Their plans, methods, and results should 
be carefully studied, especially by educators and statesmen. It is gratifying to know 
that a careful and extended study of the statistics of these reformatories gives evi- 
dence that from 70 to 75 per cent, of the youth committed to them become worthy 
citizens. As a rule, such institutions in our country have been established to receive 
the youth committed to them on the decree of the magistrate. Their inmates, there- 
fore, may be said to have passed the penal line ; but in not a few instances admission 
has been secured at the request of parents or friends. There is on the part of many 
students of this subject a feeling that the taint of crime is tixed upon some of the in- 
mates unnecessarily. They call attention also to the great increase in the number of 
yonth, particularly in our cities, who are without parental care or reject parental con- 
trol, or who as truants or absentees are not reached by the general educational pro- 
tons. They are, therefore, very properly inquiring whether there cannot be special 
Bchools established in which these youth may receive proper care, restraint, and train- 
ing, aid, without having the taint of crime affixed, be turned aside from the paths 
which 80 certainly lead to crime. 

A| illustrating the character of communications on this subject received at the 
^ce, I invite attention to the following extracts from a letter written by Elisha 
^^is, M. D., who has been so long and so widely known as a physician and sanitarian 
^d through his labors in behalf of the dependent and criminal classes of society. 
Sxpressing his cpnviction that an industrial training school should be a true Kinder- 
pften in open fields and spacious workrooms, and that not the orphan and the semi- 
^Wile, but unruly and troublesome truants, the mischievous and obviously vicious 
°^ys who become now our habitual contrivers and wanton perpetrators of offences 



CCIV BEPORT OP THE COBiMISSIOl^B OP EDUCATION. 

and crimes, should be eliminated from the masses of children, and, by ready assent 
and various modes of legal commitment by parents and lawful guardians, be brought 
into these industrial homes and training schools. Dr. Harris continues : 

Let me bring this subject to your attention now and promise, when more at leisure, 
to elaborate it and submit certain propositions. 

The biological history of the habitual criminals in our country would startle some 
sound moralists by revealing the fact that the very attributes of these oft'enders which 
enable them to achieve distinction in the career of vice and crime are the normal 
powers of tnie manhood perverted. 

The registered industrial schools of England are proving that the worst source-s of 
crime can be nearly extinguished by means of the physical and moral training of 
those schools. 

In the United States we are proving that the common school system is deficient in 
regard to the special training of wayward, truant, and vicious children — nominally 
registered as common school pupils, but usually neglected or disobe<lient, or both. 

In order to find a broad basis for the generalizations and conclusions which ninst 
precede any good plans for the needed industrial training schools, do we not require 
a complete survey of the field f Do we not need to consult the best educators in each 
State and find the extent and requirements of the field f For example, in the city of 
New York, with 207,000 between the ages of five and fifteen years, there are probably 
2,500 such children as the industrial training school should have under culture. But 
if only 1,000 such children could be brought into such a school (after the four great 
refuge and protectory institutions and the Children's Aid Society have taken their 
greater numbers), their brain and muscle and great value to society, and their re- 
demption from evil and crime, would be true economy. 

These 2,500 (or the 1,000) must be trained industrially and physiolo^cally, or they 
will become the very leadei-s of the criminal classes and the progenitors of a class 
worse than themselves. 

The orphan houses, charitable foundations, juvenile asylums, and refuges in our 
country all fail to a<lapt biological science and physical education to the training of 
the body for the development of saving resources in the individual children who are 
falling, or greatly in danger of falling, into vicious or disorderly courses of life. 

The Agricultural Colony at Mettray and some of the farm schools have proved the 
economy and entire success of industrial training to save boys who were on the verge 
of ruin for want of a kind of education which no ordinary schools can supply. 

What are now termed industrial schools do not meet the special wants I am at 
present considering. But we must ascertain what our facts will show, when our 
prisons and reformatories for convicts are searched ; also see what the truants and 
disorderly children of our several States are. 

I am not certain that we can devise a supplementary kind of public school to treat 
and train on farms, in gardens, and in workshops and school chambers the residuary 
groups of youth that we now tenn truant, disorderly, wayward, and perverse, but 
not arraigned as oflenders. In the State of New York, however, we could, I believe, 
secure the maintenance of a farm and shop industrial school for every city and for every 
county of 50,000 inhabitants. We should do this to prevent crime and public burdens; 
like Sweden, New York cannot afford to let its children grow up to be public burdens 
or criminals. 

In making the investigation now suggested, the real illiteracy of about 50 per cent, 
of all convicts would appear, and the real want of industrial and sound bo<lily train- 
ing would also appear in more than half of all our prisoners and the reformatory 
inmates. 

The public school records will show how vast is the number of truants and untu- 
tored among the registered school children. The collated evidence of the relations of 
illiteracy and untrained bodies to criminal and vicious life in any one State and in 
several of the States would produce convincing results. Would it not induce needed 
efforts in each State to organize a limited system of industrial training schools, to 
which children would be voluntarily committed or brought by parents, guardians, 
school officers, and peace officers, to be saved by culture in self-sustaining industries 
and by special education of the mind and raorcil nature f 

Discussing the same subject, but from a different standpoint, I present the follow- 
ing from Hon. John Hitz, the consul general of Switzerland resident at Washington, 
who has done so much for the dependent classes of our national capital, and whose 
opinions are formed not only from the facts before him here but from a familiarity 
with the progress of industrial special education in Switzerland and other European 
countries: 

Under what category would you plaee such institutions as the Industrial Home 
School f Should they constitute a branch of refonnatory establishments, or, more 
properly speaking, '^correctional institutions/' and thus' become ac^uncts to the 



RECOBiM£NDATIONS. CCV 

jodiciary department of govemment ; or should the inBtitutioiiB of this kind consti- 
tute a part of the educational system of the land f Most decidedlv the latter. They 
are, properly speaking, very important adjuncts of the present public school system. 
The State of Michigan has oeen, so far as I know, the tirst govemment to recognize 
this fact, and calls its institution of this kind at Coldwater, very correctly, ^*The State 
Public School.^' These institutions are simply, or should be, State public boarding 
schools, where the beneficent aid of a good home is secured in training the child to 
beeome a nsefnl citizen, should its natural parent or guardian be dead, wholly dis- 
qoalified, or have abanaoned the same. 

Let us examine the public school system, see what means it uses to accomplish its 
object, and with what success. 

Take, for instance, this District. Attendance at the public schools is made obliga- 
tory by law, and, in consequence, to be equitable in its demand upon parents and 
guardians, admission is made iree. Is it only because there is insufficient accommoda- 
tion that certaiu children do not attend f Not at all. Is the absent child to blame f 
Ko. The answer is best given by hearing the story of each one of the fifty children 
now at the Industrial Home School — and I will add of at least five times as many 
▼horn we cannot take in for want of means. 

The public school system is the great conservator of the moral and intellectual inter- 
eits of the nation ; its officers and teachers are moral and intellectual sanitarians. 

The health boards of a city and their officers may be doctors by education, but they 
do not apply themselves to curing people, but to preventing people from becoming sicfc 
and requiring the services of a doctor. And so the trustees of public schools, officers, 
and teachers do not correct ofi'encesof the law, though some of them may be officers of 
the law: their duty is to prevent ignorance and ijta train of evils, and so obviate the 
necessity of resorting to the officers o^ law. 

It is a duty of the board of health and its officers to see to it that the streets and 
alleys of a city are swept and kept clean, nuisances abated, stagnant pools and marshy 
places drained : and this is done not to cure, but to prevent disease. Do not the board 
of education of our city and its officers, the trustees of the public schools and their 
officers, properly constitute a board of education for the moral and mental welfare of 
the community as much as does the board of health for the physical well-being of 
the citizens f Is it not true that the public school system of the present simxdy 
offers to keep clear the moral and mental highways leading to good and useful citizen- 
ship? Do^ the public school system really make any aggressive movement to drain 
the stagnant pools and malarial marshes of society? Is it not clearly its duty to do 
Bof— to see to the proper training of those who, in the future in a Republic, are 
likely to constitute an important element of the m^ority. Or shall this rather be 
left to the spasmoilic efforts of charity — and the efi'ects of this neglect to prevent 
moral and mental malaria be corrected in reformatories and correctional institutions? 
Certainly it is within the clear and indisputable province of the educational depart- 
ments of govemment to inaugurate measures calculated to prevent the cause of so 
much moral and mental malaria as is shown to exist by the constantly increasing 
demand made for admission to our reformatory and correctional institutions for juve- 
nile ofienders. 

Trace the causes of nine-t«nths of these offences a^inst the law among juveniles, 
and they can be summed up in the word ^'neglect,'' either parental or municipal. To 
amend this neglect by establishing reformatories will not excuse the body municipal 
from tfao evident failure it is guilty of in neglecting sanitary measures to prevent the 
development of the germs of moral and mental disease, viz, pauperism and crime. 

The proper authority to apply these measures is the Board of Education, as that 
ifl its broader sense implies instruction and consef|uent training. The means to be 
^ployed are (1) the enactment of laws for the punishment of wrongs to children; (2) 
the establishment of homes for dependent children where they can be reared to become 
good and useful citizens: in the interest of public economy t)iis is to be done at public 
expense. Neither abject poverty nor neglect can properly be chargeable to a child, 
yet they both lead directly to pauperism and crime. Neither is a child to be blamed 
for no home, or, what is worse, a bad one. Of all these the child is innocent ; and it is 
& sacred duty of the State to maintain this innocence and not remain an idle spectator 
ttntil it is lost, and then as a matter of law apply correctives. 

Until our system of public instruction shall have inaugurated effectual measures to 
^n these pestiferous moral and mental pools and marshes of society — thus killing 
^^^ germs or moral and mental disease, and so removing the cause which mainly fills 
^honses of correction, crowds the dockets of our police courts, and furnishes candi- 
dates in increasing numbers for ^juvenile reformatories — it will not in my opinion have 
accomplished the full scope of its duty. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

^ experience of the year gives new emphasis to the following recommendations, 
^^ch I hereby renew : 



CCVI BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

First. An increase of the permanent foroe of the Office. The exi)erience of the 
Office indicates clearly i hat the collection of ednoalional information and publication 
of the same, as required by the law regulating it, cannot be properly done with the 
present limited clerical force. 

Secondly. The enactment of a law requiring that all facts in regard to national aid 
to education and all facts in regard to education in the Territories aad the District of 
Columbia necessary for the iufomiation of Congress, be presented through this Office. 
For the purpose of enabling the Government to meet it« responsibilities with respect 
to the education of the people in the Territories, I recommend that the office of super^ 
intendent of public instruction for each Territory be created, to be filled by appoint- 
ment by the President ; his compensation to be fixed and paid as in the case of other 
Federal appointees for the Territories. 

Thirdly. In view of the large number of children growing up in ignorance on account 
of the impoverished condition of portions of the country, and in view of the special 
difficulties in the way of establishing and maintaining therein B(5hools for universal 
education, and in consideration of the imperative need of immediate action in this 
regard, I recommend that the whole or a portion of the net proceeds arising from the 
sale of public lands be set aside as a special fund, the interest of said ftind to be 
divided annually pro rata among the several States and Territories and the District of 
Columbia, under such provisions in regard to amount, allotment, expenditure, and 
supervision as Congress in its wisdom may deem fit and proper. 

Fourthly. I respectfully recommend that such provision as may be deemed advis- 
able be made for the publication of ten thousand copies of the Report of the Commis- 
sioner immediately on its completion, to be put at the control of the Bureau for distri- 
bution among its correspondents, in addition to the number ordered for distribution 
by members of the Senate and House. 

Fifthly. I also recommend that provision be made for the organization of an educa- 
tional museum in connection with this Office and for the exchange of educational 
appliances with other countries. 

CONCLUSION. 

The year, like the last, has been one of severe strain upon my assistants and m3^8elf. 
For all their cooperation they have my heartiest thanks. The tax upon us, as I have 
indicated, has been specially increased, first, by the historical inquiries incident to the 
year among our own educators ; secondly, by inquiries from foreigners stimulated by 
the exhibition at Philadelphia ; thirdly, by the exacting demands for the results of ex- 
periments in various sections of the country made by those called upon to encounter 
here and there the reactionary educational t-endencies. Much of this additional strain 
in the Office could have been lessened if there had been adequate means for publica- 
tion ; besides, the benefits of these efforts would have been much more widely diffused, 
and educators in embarrassment would have received aid in their struggles to advance 
public intelligence if the information furnished in manuscript form had aU been 
printed. 

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness for aid in prosecuting the work of the Of- 
fice for the year to the Secretary of State, the officers of the Smithsonian Institution, 
the Commissioner of Patents, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, and for the cordial cooperation of yourself and the President. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfuUy, your obedient servant, 

JOHN EATON, 

CommtMioiier. 
Hon. C. ScHURZ, 

Secretary of the Intenar^ 



ABSTRACTS 



OF THE 



OFFICIAL REPORTS OF THE SCHOOL OFFICERS OF STATES, 

TERRITORIES. AND CITIES, 



WITH 



ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES. 



IB 



OXCVI BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



* a 



^ 



*9[Vai9J 



^ e» o» o to 

•H Cl tH «0 



•9pjp[ 



CO 



*nOl)QpnilOJ 931I[B 

89^«niii| JO jdqtnna |ir;ox 



a 
o 

o 

I 

1-1 

**• 
T 

s 



I 



I 






CM 



►^ 2f ? -i • 

S * S 2 « 

s o & S 

k; ^ a 



•9XBIU0J 



*®PK W 



a 

o 



I 



« 






o 

CO 



^ ^ » »H 



ta 

• 

J" ^ 

<« ♦: 

a • 

^ s 

a. 9 

o *•' 



OB 
V 

> 

CS 



a 
I.. 

a 

X 



no • r-i oa o to 



O O 04 



<0 9 O 
1^ « CO 



es 



§ 



w ^ ^ 



»« 



p4 



ae 



2 8 






s s • § 



C3 t- 

8 -"' 



^ 3 






@ ss 



M O « 






•o 



1-t ^ 04 eo 






^ 







«9 



^rf cB 









C3 s 






^ ^ ^ 
o d 



pq 








.a 
>Z5 






-2 

o 
}Z5 



>Z5 



o 



o 



-2 

o 



o 



O 



•2 



-2 

o 



o 
>Z5 



-2 



Q 



•2 



AC 




S!oSS3SS!SSSS&SS^?^g2?^ 



MISCELLANEOUS CHARITIES. 



CXCVII 



?| :S55|g38SS52 




h iri »< (. 

t® iS c2 ^ 

^ V« <M <M 

9 9j 9 O 

S 6 a E 

o o o o 

U ^i) s s 



i 



^^?SS£SgS2SSSSoSSSSS!SSSSS:SS||gSSSS&§ 



CXCVm EEPOBT OF THE C0MMIS8I0NEB OF EDUCATION. 





a 

a 
o 

o 

I 

I 

I 

3 

S 

I 

.5 

I 

I 
I 

P4 







BEFORM SCHOOLS. 



CXCIX 






8 

I 



1 

J 



H 



I 

I 

i 

I 




r-iC4m-«io«»>ao 



• saassass^sasa 



cc 



BEPORT OF THE COMMISSIOKEB OF EDUCATION. 



'O'lVUlUJl 1(099 JO 



8 S 9 

^ ft S 



s 



s 









o 



d O S C4 O 

r« o o C4 g 

CO CO ec ^^ oo 




*etvtcKȣ 



o o m ko o o 

O 1-4 CO 



9 SS & S S 



gs 



•®l«K 



SS 3 oS S S 



^33 



2 !2 2 ® B; S 

«T If ^^ CO 00 

^ iS O io 



0(D^eOt«^Or-lfHiHe9iH'« 



^ S 5: S • a 



S3 

o 

I 



00 








SSS^^SSiddneocQMmm roeomco^^^ 



REFORM SCHOOLS. 



CCI 



2^ 
55 



s? 

•9 



CO 



s g ^ • s s 




^ ei »H »H ^ ^-t 



e (• lO <^ 00 00 i« 



s 



« CO 



f4 e 00 




15 ► 




^5$; ;; $ 9 s 2 



I 
I 

3 



I 



o 
e 

4S 



I 

I 






t 



6 



8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

agriculture, (2) literature, (3) science, (4) civil engineering, (5) snrveying, (6) building 
and architecture. The first 4 of these are termed regular, and lead eacn to a decree 
after 4 years of successful collegiate study. The other 2 are special^ and secure oi^ a 
certificate of proficiency after such study as may be necessary to complete them. 
Drawinff forms a regular part of the instruction in the first two years of the collegiate 
course; but during uie third and fourth years is obligatory only on the students of civil 
engineering. Telegraphy is also taught. Latin and Greek enter into the course in 
literature; Latin, German, and Fren^, with some liberty of choice respecting them, 
into the other 3 re^ar courses. Instructors here, 8; students in regular coUegiate 
course, 120; in partial courses, 47. — (Catalogue, 1877, and return.) 

PBOFESSIONAL. 

In theology some instruction is ffiven by President Muiphee in the ''School of moral 
science and theology," Howard Colle^, and by Chancellor Smith in the ''School of 
biblical literature," Southern University. TaUadega College also trains colored stu- 
dents for the ministry, and reported 18 students un<& 2 instructors in 1877. No report 
of theological students at the others, except of 1 at Greensborough in the catalogue 
for 1876-^. 

In laWf there appear in the catalogues for 1876-77, besides the school of law at the 
State university, with 2 professors, a law school at Howard College, with 2 professorial 
chairs, only 1 beiiu^ filled at the time of printing; a college of law at the Southern 
University, Greensborough, with 3 professors and 2 schools, 1 of common and statute 
law, and 1 of equity Jurisprudence. Course at the State university, 15 months; at 
Howard, "may oe completed in one session"; at Greensborough, not stated. Total of 
legal instructors, 6; of students at the University of Alabama^ 12, in catalogue for 
1876-77; in a return for the fall term, 23; in the other colleges, not eiven. 

In medicine^ we have again the Medical College of Alabama at Mobile, with its 3 
years' course of study, 8 instructors, and 50 students, and the College of Meoicine of the 
Southern University, Greensborough, with 5 instructors and only 1 reported student. 
Requirements for graduation: foil age, good character, 3 years' study of medicine, with 
attendance on 2 fml courses of lectures, the last one in this college, or a reputable prao- 
Hoe of 4 years and 1 full course of lectures. — (Return and catalogue.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

ALABAMA INSTTTUTIOX FOB THE DEAF AND DUMB AND THE BLIND, TALLADEGA. 

Returns for 1877 give 6 as the number of instructors and 60 as the number of pupils 
in the deaf-mute department here: and 2 as the number of instructors, 12 as the num- 
ber of pupils, in the department lor the blind. In the former, the branches of study 
attended to are reading, writing, arithmetic, mathematics, geography, history, and 
music; the employments are boot making, cane seating, wood carving, broom niaking, 
fjEuming and gardening. In the latter, uie studies are the ordinary English branches 
and music; the employments, cane seating and chair and broom making. 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 

[Term, 187e-1878.1 
Hon. LiBOT F. Box, 8kUM§upmiiittndmUqftdiiMM(m, Mfmigomtrif. 



ABKAM8AS. 



ABKARTSAS. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



POPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 



Yooth of school age (6-21) 
Enrolled in pablio BcboolA . 
Ayerage daily attendance. 



SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOLS. 



Namber of school districts 

Nomber of schools 

Nomber of school-hoases.. 
Cost of these 



TEACHERS AND THEIR PAY. 



Teachers in pablic schools 
AYerage monthly pay 



INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Whole receipts for pablic schools . 
Whole expenditures for the same . 



1875-»76. 



189,130 
15,890 



1,62.5 
$365,315 



461 



1344,074 
119,403 



1876-77. 



No returns. 

....do 

....do 



No returns. 

....do 

....do 

....do...... 



No returns. 
....do 



No returns. 
....do...... 



Increase. 



Decrease. 



OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

A hoard of oommisBioners of the school fund, composed of the governor, secretary of 
state, and State superintendent of public instruction, is charged with the management 
and investment oi the common school fund belongijig to the State, ai^d must make 
Boni-annual settlements with the State treasurer. 

A State euperintendent of public instruction, to be elected every two years by the peo- 
pl^ has general supervision of all other matters relating to the free common schools, 
ana is to make annual report of them to the governor. 

LOCAL. 

County examiners, one for each county, are appointed by the county court at the first 
sesBion after each general election, and are to examine and license teachers and perform 
most of the duties of county superintendents of schools. 

Boards of strict trustees, 3 for each school district and one-third changed each year, 
are chosen by the people of the district at their August meeting, for care of school 
houses, engagement of teachers, and local supervision and report of schools. — (School 
law of 1875.) 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

NO REPORT. 

The school law of 1875 calls not only for the presentation to the governor of an annual 
i^eport of everything relating to the public schools, but also for the publication of such 
leports. But up to the time of sending these sheets to the press no report for 1976-^ 
appears to have been published, nor has it been possible to obtain even a statistical 
sommary exhibiting the main facts as to the State schools for that year, though one for 
1877-78 has been kindly forwarded. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

LITTLE ROCK. 

Officers, — A board of school directors of 6 members, one-third liable to change each 
year; a board of visitors and examiners of 4 members, and a city superintendent of 
schools. 



I 



10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

Statistics, — Population in 1870, 12,380 ; estimated present population, 17,000. Youth 
-of school age (6-21), 6,462: estimated number between 6 and 16, the practical school 
age, 4,200 ; enrolled in public schools. l,96(h of whom only 95 were over 16 ; average 
daily attendance, 1,129, an increase oi 203 for the year 1876-'77; number of days of 
school, 180 ; number in which school was taught, 170. Teachers, 27, exclusive of super- 
intendent; expenditures, $12,068. 

AddiHonal particulars, — The schools are divided into primary, intermediate, grammar, 
And high, each of these divisions having 3 ^prades, with a regularly arranged course of 
study. The year past is said by the supermtendent to have been marked by encour- 
aginjB^ progress in discipline and methods of teaching throuffhout the schools, and by 
special advance in the junior class in the hi^h school, whicn was carried throush a 
thorough review of elementary studies in which it was found deficient. Two oi the 
schools are for colored children, ana one of these is taught quite successfully by colored 
teachers, whose work is considered by the superintendent quite as good as that in cor- 
respondiiig grades of the other school, where white teachers are employed. In all the 
schools corporal punishment is discouraged; is only resorted to where milder measures 
will not avail; and is not allowed to be administered till the day after the commission 
-of the offence, that unreasonable anger may have time to cool and that the parents nia^ 
be consulted. The consequence has been a great diminution in cases of severe disci- 
pline. The board of examiners says that especially gratifving care is taken to ground 
the pupils well in those elementary studies which are the foundation of all education, 
and that reasons as well as rules for operations are distinctly given. — (Report for 1877.) 

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Aiming to utilize to the utmost the teaching force of her State Industrial University 
at Fayetteville, Arkansas established in connection with it a normal department, to 
furnish a thorough course of instruction for whites desiring to tea<!h in the public schools. 
The training and course of study in this department, the latter extending through four 
years, are partly academic and partly normal. The former is attended to in the other 
departments of the university, the work in methods, theory, and art of teaching being 
reserved for the normal department. Drawing and vocal and instrumental music form 
a part of the instruction given in the university, while a chemical lal>oratory and 
■apparatus for illustrating x>by8ic8 add their advantages to those afforded by a small 
museum of natural history, a library of about 700 volumes, and a model school for train- 
ing in the methods and art of teaching. Diplomas are given to those who complete the 
-course. Number of resident instructors, including those of the other departments, 12 ; 
normal students, 41; normal graduates, 5. — (Report of the university and return for 
1876-77.) 

As the abovd mentioned department was meant only for white students, a branch of 
it was opened in September, 1875, at Pine Bluff', on the Aikansas River, to afford the 
■colored teachers of the State an opportunity to fit themselves for more thorough work 
in the schools for the children of tneir own race. It is under the same board of trustees 
as the other, and is governed by the same rules ; affords accommodations for more than 
100 students, and reports 27 male and 28 female normal students under 1 resident in- 
structor, with pupil assistants, and 13 students licensed and teaching school during 
vacation. The course is 4 years. Drawing is taught both separately and in conjunc- 
tion with every other branch where it is applicable. Vocal music forms a part of the 
•daily training. Instrumental music is optional. — (Circular of school and return for 
1876-77.) 

ANOTHER NORMAL SCHOOL. 

An institution entitled the Pine Bluff Graded Schooly mth normal departmenij appar- 
ently receiving some aid both from the public school fund and the American Missionanr 
Association, reports 35 normal students for 1877, of whom 9 received teachers' certifi- 
cates and engaged in teaching. Vocal and instrumental music, with drawing in line 
and perspective, was taught ; some apparatus for illustration of physics was possessed, 
and the normal students were taught m the graded school for practice. — (Return.) 

teachers' institutes. 

The law of 1875 requires that the State superintendent of public instruction shall 
hold a teachers' institute annually in each judicial district of the State, to be called a 
normal district institute. He is to arrange the programme for each institute and pre- 
side at it in person, though if he should mil to be present the assembled teachers may 
organize and hold the institute. 

County examiners are also to hold institutes for their respective counties, but in case 
of inability to attend in any instance, may appoint some suitable person to perform 
the duty. 



A&KAN8AB. 11 

The Arkansas department of the Eclectic Teacher indicates that both State and 
coonty (^cers are attending to this important duty. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBUC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The high school at Little Rock is the only one in the State of which any full account 
is riTen. It has a course of three years, is said by the city superintendent to have been 
▼ell taught, to be in prosperous condition, and to afford the basis for a strong high school, 
with the beginning of a systematic classification of the same. The curriculum is not 
yet as complete as could be wished, but the school officers prefer to wait, advancing 
slowly but surely toward a permanent and satisfactory condition. In the autnmn of 
1876 the study of Latin ana German, which had been required, was made optional. 
The result was an almost entire failure of the pupils to take that work, and the study 
of theme languages was consequently dropped till it should be again made obligatory. 
The board of visitors regret this, thinking that there can be no high school course 
worthy of the name in which these studies are not included. — (City report for 1877.) 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For full statistics of private schools for secondarv training, and preparatory depart- 
ments of colleges, see Tables VI^ V II, and IX in (he appendix and the summaries of 
them in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

The colleges which report for 1876-'77 are Arkansas College, Batesville : Cane Hill 
College, Bloomsborough ; Judson University, Judsonia, and St. John's College, Little 
Rock, All report preparatorv and collegiate departments, and have students in both, 
except Judson University, which was not oi)ened until 1875, and has as yet, besides 
the preparatory, only 9 students in irregular courses. All these colleges except St. 
John's are open to both sexes, and of the 14 graduates of 1877 at Arkansas and Cane 
Hill Colleges who received the degree of a. b., 8 were women. — (Returns to the Bureau 
of Education.) 

For statistics, see Table IX of the appendix and the summary of it in the Report of 
the Commissioner preceding. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

sciEimpic. 

The Arkansas Industrial VniversitVy at Fayettevillo, serving as the agricultural and 
mechanical college of the State, embraces a college of general science and general liter- 
ature; one of engineering: one of commerce ; also normal and preparatory departments. 
Provision is ma<& for 238 State beneficiaries, and an equal number of non-paying normal 
students,^ and both sexes are admitted. The beneficiaries are selected among the dif- 
ferent counties, in proportion to the population, and arc entitled to 4 years* free tuition, 
each of the courses, except the preparatory, covering that i>eriod. By recent action of 
the hoard of trustees, all male beneficiaries who are hereafter appointed will be required 
to take a course in agriculture and mechanics, ^^with permission to select such other 
studies as circumstances may allow.'* An experimental farm has been provided con- 
tiguous to the university. Agriculture and the mechanic arts will be more fully taught, 
it is stilted, when many of the young men shall have become better grounded in the 
rudiments of general knowledge. — (Catalogue for 1876 and announcement for 1876-77.) 
A^pegate of students in the 4 years' coiu-se, according to return, 253; students in par- 
tial connes, 3; graduate students, 3; professors and instructors, 12. 

PROFESSIONAL. 

It appears, from such information as has come to hand, that there are no legal, theo- 
logical, or medical schools in Arkansas. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

ARKANSAS DEAF-MUTE INSTITUTE, LITTLE ROCK. 

This institution was organized in 1868, and is under the control of the State govern- 
ment In 1876-77, it had 63 pupils under the instruction of 3 teachers. No employments 
^ue taught. The course of study embraces histonr, grammar, composition, arithmetic, 
geography, philosophy, writing, and drawing. In the ^ ^American Annals of the Dear 

* A written retam, however, giret 100 as the number of State scholarships, and states that there ars 
so other free BcholarshiiM. 



12 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

and Dumb" for January, 1878, it was stated that Mrs. Camthers, widow of the late 
lamented ]^rincipal, had returned to the institution as matron, and that the school was 
in as flourishing a condition as the embarrassed state of its finances would allow. — 
(Return, 1877.) 

▲BKANSAS INSTITUTE FOR THE BLIND, LITTLE BOCK. 

There have been 119 pupils under instruction here since the foundation of the schooL 
Its present number is ^; teachers and other officers, 7. All the branches of a common 
school education, with gymnastics and music, are taught, besides certain employments, 
such as broom and mattress making, seating of chairs, sewing, knitting, and basket 
making. — (Return, 1877.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

STATE ASSOCIATION. 

A report of the meeting of the State Teachers' Association, in the Eclectic Teacher of 
October, 1877, is the only one that has reached the Bureau. This report notes tiie as- 
sembling of the members in Little Rock, August 29, State Superintendent Hill being 
present as chairman, and the other officers, with one exception, answering to their names; 
but the number of members present is not given, nor is there any account of the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting beyond the appointment of a delegation to the National Edu- 
cational Association, the election of a new set of officers for 1877-^8, the nomination of 
a committee to report on a revision of the school law, and the passage of a resolution 
expressive of approval of Superintendent Hill and of readiness to cooperate with him in 
his work. 

It was thought best by the board of councillors to defer a meeting for discussion, that 
was to have l^n held in November, till some time in the summer of 1878. 

OTHEB EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS. 

In the Arkansas department of the Eclectic Teacher there appeared during 1877 various 
notices indicative of the holding of county teachers' institutes and the normal institutes 
required by law to be held annually in each judicial district of the State. There was, 
however, no such report of the instructions at these meetings as to call for farther note 
of them than this brief paragraph. 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 

[Term, 1878-1880.] 
Hon. James L. Dbmtom, State tuperinUndmt qfpuMie inttntetion, LiUU Boek. 



CALIFORNIA. 



13 



€AUFOB]VIA. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



POPUULTION AND ATTENDANCE. 



Children of school age (5-17) 

Enrolled in pnblio sdiools 

Arenige namber belonging. .. 
Avenge daily attendance 



Per cent, of this on ayerofe belonging 

Children in private schools 

Children 5-17 in no schools 

Mongolian children in schools 

Negro children in schools 

Inman children in schools 



DiennucTS and schools. 



Namber of school districts 

Districts with good accommodations.... 

Districts with sufficient greonds 

Districts with well improved grounds .. 
Districts with well ventilated schools. .. 
Districts with well fnmished schools . .. 

Districts with good apparatus 

Districts maintaining schools less than 

eight months. 
Districts maintaining schools eight 

months or more. 

Number of first grade schools 

Number of second grade schools 

Number of third grade schools 

Number of all grades (b) 

New school-houses erected 

Average length of schools in days 

TEACHERS AND THEIR PAT. 

Namber of male teachers 

Number of female teachers 

Whole number 

Teschiog in one school more than a year 

Attended county institutes 

Taking educational Journals 

Graduates of State Normal School 

Gradaates of other State normal schools 

Average monthly pay of men 

Average monthly pay of women 

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

T^tal receipts for schools 

Whole expenditure for schools 



1875-76. 



184,787 

al26,220 

91,784 

83,391 

.89 

14,625 

43,023 

383 

744 

283 



1,742 

1,410 
1,529 
656 
1,594 
804 
488 
913 

794 

964 
817 
556 

2,337 
99 

143.8 



1,129 

1,853 

2,982 

329 

1,298 

780 

254 

272 

(85 00 

68 15 



$3, 302, 604 
d2, 858, 601 



1876-77. 



200,067 

al35,335 

97,527 

89,539 

.91 

15, 344 

49,035 

266 

735 

294 



1,828 

1,414 

1,6.36 

659 

1,060 

785 

488 

652 

1,134 

914 
983 
627 
c2, 524 
122 
145.2 



1,184 

1,983 

3,167 

432 

1,819 

820 

282 

328 

$83 78 

69 68 



$3,610,163 
d2, 749, 730 



Increase. 



15.280 
9,115 
5,743 
6,148 
.02 
719 
6,012 



11 



86 
4 

107 



Decrease. 



117 
9 



3 

534 

19 



340 



166 
71 

187 
23 

1.4 



55 

130 

185 

103 

521 

40 

28 

56 



$1 53 



$.307, 559 



261 



50 



$1 22 



$108, 871 



The total eDrolmeot^ probably incladiDg dapllcates and perhaps nome beyond the aohool age. as weU 
>» those in private soboola. is driven as 140,468 in 1875-'76 and 143,658 in 1876-^77. 

.^Jhe first grade here inclades grammar and high schools; the second, intermediate schools ; the 
"^i primaries, in four divisions. 

^|he raperintendent's figures are 2,485; perhaps ezolnding hieh schools. 

« In addition to these ezpenditnres there appear elsewhere u>r ooonty institutes, ooonty boards of 
f^aiinaUon, postage, stationery, &c., #17,429 in ie75-'76, and $19,179 in 1876-'77, making the absolute 
^'^ ezpendltare for those years 1^,876,030 and $2,768,909. 



14 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



Statistical summary — CoDtinoed. 



EZPENDITCRE PER CAPITA. 

Cost of taition for each pupil on enrol- 
ment. 
Cost of tuition for each pupil on aver- 
age attendance. 
Cost of tuition for each pupil on daily 

attendance. 
Whole cost, including current expenses : 

On enrolment 

On average attendance 

On daily attendance 

VALUATION OF SCHOOL PROPERTY. 

Sites, buildings, and furniture 

School libraries 

School apparatus 

Total valuation 



1875-76. 



|14 12 
21 62 
23 79 



.17 21 
26 35 
28 99 



|5, 369, 984 
173, 213 
88,299 



.">, 631, 496 



1876-^77. 



|15 06 
22 04 
24 00 



18 24 
26 68 
29 06 



$5, 617, 917 
207,336 
107.990 



5, 933, 243 



Increase. 



iO 94 
42 
21 



1 03 
33 
07 



$247, 933 
34,123 
19,691 



301, 747 



Decrease. 



(From biennial report of Hon. Ezra S. Carr, State superintendent of public instruo- 
tion, for tiie two years above indicated.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 



GENERAL. 

A State superintendent of public instructiany elected by the people every 4 years, hae 
supervision of the public schools of the State, with the duty of visitation of them and 
of olennial report respecting them. Ho is also trustee of State schools for special train- 
ing and visitor of all incoriwrated literaiy institutions. He is allowed a deputy. 

A State hoard of education, composed of the governor, State superintendent, and the 
superintendents of 6 central counties, has power to prescribe a course of studies for the 
pnolio schools, with a uniform scries of text books, except for the city and county of 
San Francisco ; to adopt a list of books for district school libraries, and to grant and 
revoke for cause life diplomas to teachers. 

A State hoard of examiners, composed of the State superintendent and 4 professional 
teachers appointed by him, recommends to the State board highly approved teachers 
for ite life diplomas, and grants to others, according to their ascertained qualifications, 
diplomas for two, three, four, and six years. 

LOCAL. 

County superintendents of schools, chosen by the people every 2 years, have the usual 
visitorial and supervisory duties of such officers. 

City hoards of education, chosen by the citizens under local laws, have general over- 
sight of the school systems of their respective cities ; while county and city boards of 
examiners examine teachers, for the county and city schools, granting diplomas valid 
in their respective fields for one, two, and three years. 

District trustees, chosen by the people of their districts for terms of 3 years, one-third 
being changed each year, care tor the schools and school-houses of the districts for 
which they are elected. — (School laws of 1870 and 1874.) 

Women are eligible to school offices, and one now serves as deputy superintendent of 
public instruction. 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

GENERAL CONDITION. 

The summary of statistics given by State Superintendent Carr and condensed in the 
table on a preceding page shows that the enrolment in the schools has kept fair pace 



CALIFORNIA. 15 

with the increaae of school population ; that the average daily attendance at school han 
incieased in larger proportion than the average number belonging, and has gained 
somewhat on the increase of non-attendants at any school ; that there is a gain, too, iu 
the number of schools with good accommodations, sufficient grounds, and terms of eight 
months or more ; that although the list of first grade schools has somewhat diminished,, 
that of the second g^ade has been enlarged in more than triple measure beyond such 
diminution ; and that, with hicher receipts for school purposes, the expenses have been 
kept below the income through economy in building. 

There is only one thing which looks unfavorable, viz, that, while the number of 
teachers has increased, there seems from the figures to be a considerable decrease of 
certificated ones, whicii would indicate deterioration in quality beyond the gain in 
lames. But, on the other hand, the superintendent says, on page 3 of his report: ^*It 
is believed that at no time in the history of the State nave the teachers been as well 
qualified, or more earnest and zealous in their work.'* — (State report.) 

KINDERGARTEN. 

Three of these schools, one at Brooklyn, one at Los Angeles, and one at Santa Bar- 
bara, reported 32 children under training in 1877, with 1 instructor in each school, and 
the usual results, viz, quickened perception, improved sense of beauty and order, and 
the getting of profitable study out of apparent play. The school at I^s Angeles, sub- 
eequently to the return madeji was removed to Oakland. 

VACATION SCHOOLS. 

As very many children have to remain in cities during the long vacation of the 
schoolg, Superintendent Carr suggests that, to keep these usefully employed, vacation 
schools should be established, ditfering from the onlinary term schools both in the 
studies pursued and the methods resorted to. He would have them arranged on the 
half-time principle in order to benefit the greatest numlicr, and would make them give 
trming in industrial pursuits. For instance, a girls' school of sewing could, he thinks, 
be so arranged as to cover elementary exercises in needlework, cutting ana designing- 
of patterns, and the use of the sewing machine for more advanced scholars. These in- 
structions could, he conceives, be accompanied with illustrated lessons and lectures on 
materials; for boys he would have industrial drawing, exercises in the use of tools and 
rise work. He bases these suggestions partly on the inherent propriety of doing some- 
thing towards a fuller training of children now left largely to the education of the 
streets, partly on the exp^ency of fostering the pi-esent drift towards a more practi- 
cal and industrial education, and finds encouragement to ui-go the matter in the fact 
that vacation schools, in some measure of this character, have been maintained at 
Proridence, R. I., with a very considerable measure of success. In these schools — as 
mentioned in the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1875, p. 379 — much oral 
instruction was imparted as to the names and uses of the various products of agricult- 
ure and manufactures as well as of those which constitute the main elements of corn*- 
merce.— (State report.) 

FREE TEXT BOOKS IN SCHOOLS. 

In Tiew of the advantages that have been found in Eastern cities from a supply of 
free text books to pupUs in the public schools — such as diminution of expense, securing 
unifomuty, aiding better classincation of the pupils, and leading to increased attenf 
ance— Superintendent Carr favors the adoption of this plan in California. And aa 
t^ere is no obstacle in the way of it in the school law, he suggests that any district 
which may choose to do so should go forward and supply free text books for its schools. — 
(State report.) 

QUALITY OF EDUCATION TO BE GIVEN. 

In common with several superintendents of instruction whom he quotes, Superintend- 
ent Carr evidently leans to the belief that there have been for some time too many 
studies in the schools and too much merely theoretical instruction, to the neglect of the 
practical, the industrial, and the moral. He therefore urges, with these gentlemen, 
and largely in their words, that there should be a concentration of the pupiU' work on 
fewer snbjecta, and these of a more practical and useful kind ; that the effort should 
be to have each of these completely mastered before it is passed away from ; that draw- 
ing, with a view to industrial pursuits, should be among t-ne subjects studie<l ; and that 
good morals and good manners, not taught at all to many children in their homes, 
diould, for the safety and well being or the State, be taught systematically by the 
teachers in bor schools. 



16 



BEPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



OFFICERS. 



In San Francisco, a board of edncation of 12 members, elected biennially by the peo- 
ple, with a superintendent (who may have a deputy), also biennially chosen ; in San 
J os^, a board of 2 members from each ward, with a superintendent ; in both, boards of 
examiners for proof and certification of the qualifications of persons proposing to teach ; 
in Stockton, also, a board of education and of examination, with a superintendent. — 
(School law and reports.) 

STATISTICS. 



Cities. 


Population. 


Children of 
Bohoolage. 


Enrolment. 


Average at- 
tendance. 


Teachers. 


Expenditure. 


San Franoiaco .: 

San Jofl6 

Stockton 


0301,020 

9.009 

15.000 


553,210 
3.271 
3.011 


e37,286 

d2,114 

1,693 


24,899 
1,379 
1.523 


632 
42 
34 


1732.394 
74,478 
3^^044 



a Estimated. 

b This is the nnmber of State school ai;e (5-17) entitled to draw public money. The nnmber of cAtj 
school sififi (6-17) entitled to attend city schools, was 49, 404. 
e Bf^ sides 6,984 in private and chnrch schools. 
d Besides 694 in private schools. 



ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. 

San Francisco, — According to a table of classification and attendance, the schools 
here consist of 2 high, 14 CTammar, 25 primary, 1 evening, 1 model school, and 9 un- 
classified. The grades below the high schools are 7. Superintendent Bolander says 
that the year was a very satisfactory oue^ a reduction of the material to be studied from 
text books having given teachers more time for explanations and a better presentation 
of the subject matter of lessons, while the principles underlying object lessons have 
been bett<er adhered to and applied. There has been less memorizing, more training in 
the habit of observation, and in the proper expression of ideas. In arithmetic the bur- 
den has been lightened, the whole work in the lower grades being made to consist of a 
thorough treatment of the numbers from 1 to 25. In the same grades a careful atten- 
tion to penmanship has been productive of most favorable results. In drawing and 
music kindred progress has been secured. In geography, natural philosophy, physiol- 
ogy, and the art of reading, the effort has been to get rid of needless technical details, 
and have the substance of things well imderstood ; the theory b^ing that the true work 
of the schools is not to teach everything in all the text books used, but to discipline the 
mind and store it with the most useful knowledge. And this knowledge is held to be 
not merely a grasp of certain facts, but also of the principles which underlie all facts 
and are applicable to great multitudes of cases. 

The deputy superintendent argues for a system of free text books as gre^atly better 
than the present system of purchase by those able to buy and free supply to those only 
who profess indigence. He also says that in several schools where there was a great 
pressure for admission into the lowest ^ades, the experiment has been tried of half 
day classes, one set of children coming in the morning and another in the afternoon. 
In spite of considerable opposition from parents who wanted their children to be taken 
care of during the whole day, the experiment worked well, and, according to the tes- 
timony of botn principal and teachers, the advancement has been equal, if not superior, 
to that of whole day classes. 

Botany, zoology, physics, and chemistry enter into the school course, as well as the 
common English branches, music, and drawing, and in 2 cosmopolitan schools, as well 
as in the boys^ high school, French and Gcnnan. — (Report for 1876-77.) 

San Jo84 reports 9 school-houses, furnishing accommodations sufficient to admit every 
child in the city to a seat, the best and latest improved furniture, first class apparatus, 
and an energetic, hard working corps of teachers. Under a new course of study tJie 
schools are so graded as to give 2 years to primary work, 2 to intermediate, 2 t-o gram- 
mar, and 3 to nigh school studies. This arrangement was baaed on the observation 
that heretofore in most instances from necessary absence and other causes it had t^en 
8^ years to complete the first 6 years of school work, so that, with the 6 ye^irs thus 
divided, the average pupil would not reach the point of admission to the lugh school 
under 14^ years of age. In the new course oral instruction, morals and manners, 
music and drawing, find a place, which they had not before. Technical education, as 
a preparation for future trades, is also cont4^rai)lated and urged, as well as the e«tab- 
lisnment of an evening school for such as have had to leave before completing the 
studies of the grammar grade. Other proposals are that new teachers be put on a pro- 
bation of 5 months, to ue coutinued and receive full pay only on the condition of 



CALIFORNIA. 1 7 

proving their efficieucy, and that every elected teacher hold a position during good 
behavior, with increase of pay proportioned to the len<d;h of efficient service. — (Report 
for 1^6-77.) 

Stockton, not sending any printed report, makes return of the following, besides the 
figures in the table : Estimated enrolment in private and parochial schools, 120 ; public 
8cliool buildings, 10; valuation of school property, 8142,900; sittings for study, 1,G9.J; 
A liigh school with at least 3 teachers — number of pujiils not given — and, apparently for 
the city schools in general, special teachers of music and penmanship. 

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Established in 1883 and housed in a noble building with ample grounds at San Jos^, 
this school has prepared more than oue-sixth of the present teaching force of the State. 
Its fiill course of study covers 3 years, the first 2 of which constitute an elementary 
cooree, from which individuals may graduate with lower rank. Diplomas entitling 
their holders to State certificates of corres[)onding grades, are granted to those students 
who complete either the elementary or the full course. The printed report for the 
school year ending March, 1877, showed 459 pupils in the regular normal courses, with 
78iu a preparatory course. From a later written return, it appears that dming the 
year there were in all 523 normal students additional to the 78 preparatory ; resident 
iMtrnctors, 12 ; graduates, 53 fi*om the 3 years* course, 28 from the 2 years* course. Of 
the latter, several returned to complete the full course. Drawing and vocal music are 
among the branches taught, and the students have the advantage of a library of 1,075 
volumes, of a laboratorj' to aid in chemical study, of apparatus for the illustration of 
physics, of a small museum of natural history, and of a model school in which they 
may practically apply the instruction they receive as to methods of teaching. — (Report 
for IwG-T? and return.) 

OTHER NORMAL TRAINING. 

The formation of a normal class in connection with the girls* high school of San 
Francisco was noticed in the Report of this Bureau for 1876. The re^wrt of the State 
snjierintendent speaks of it as continuing to <lo good work. He thinks that similar 
clasHes might be formed in other cities to supply trained teachers for the schools. 

The Pacific Kindergarten Normal School^ estiiblished by Miss Emma Atarwcdel first at 
Los Angeles and subsequently transferred to Oakland, reportetl 4 nonnal students for 
1^, of whom 3 subsequently engaged in teaching. Drawing and vocal music entered 
into the course of instruction given. 

Theu, in counties with twenty or more school districts, teachers* institutes of three 
to five days each are reciuired by law to be held by the county superintendents and 
to be attended by the teachers of the public schools. These become temporary nor- 
mal schools in the counties where they arc held, dealing with methmls of teac;hing and 
discipline, and contributing greatly to the improvement of t^^achei-s as resjiects such 
things. More than 70 institutes were held in 1875-*76and 187(>-77. — (State report and 
school law of 1874.) 

NEW EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL. 

In March, 1877, Mr. Albert Lyser, as editor and publisher, started at San Francisco 
a monthly octavo paper devoted to the interests of education and promising to render 
most efficient aid to these interests on the Pacific coast. Its title is The Pacific School 
and Home Journal. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Referring to the objections often raised against this class of institutions, the super- 
intendent of public instniction says that the right of the Stat^ and of municipal gov- 
ernments to maintain high schools is not legally distinguishable from the right to 
inaintain elementary schools ; that schools exist because of a well founded claim on 
the par*- of children to an education ; that this education is not a fixed quantity, to be 
measured by one generation for that which succeeds it: the ''common schooling*' of 
the past century, for instance, not atlcquately fitting the average citizen of to-day for 
the business of life ; that the demand for high schools now is far more general tlu*ough- 
ont the United States than was the demand for elementary schools half a centur>' ago ; 
and that, as the education given in such high schools is necessary to the welfare of tho- 
State, it should not be left to private greecl or sectarian ambition. 

In answer to the charge that high schools are expensive, he says their cost is trifling 
compared with that of the populai- vices which they help us to suppress ; and thaty 
rightly managed, they pay fully for their cost, increasing the productive power of a 

2k 



18 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

community by keeping at home youths who would otherwise be sent away, 
taining in the schools those pupils who will give them the highest character an 
the healthiest and most beneficial iniiuence. — (State report.) 




45 

number 

(Repprt.) 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For statistics of business colleges, private secondaiy schools, preparatory i 
and preparatory departments of colleges, see Tables VI, VII, lA in the append 
the summaries of them in the report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

The University of California, at Berkeley, crowning the educational 8yBt«n 
State, though not yet formally linked with the lower schools, presents for 187 
" college 01 lettere," essentially the same elements as in previous years. The i 
ments for admission to the " classical course " are fully up to those of the best 1 
institutions elsewhere ; those for the ** literar>^ course," more moderate. The 
library contains more than 14,000 volumes. The statistics for the fall term 
were as follows : Academic senate, comprising officers of the college of letters 
5 colleges of science and the instructors, 38 ; students in the classical course 
college of letters, 61 ; in the Uterary course, 90 ; total, 151. Besides these 8 
students of the colleges of science, there were ^ special course students, wl 
class, take up but one or two hues of study and are not i*equired to pass the ^ 
examinations for admission, and 21 students at large, giving all their time to 
studies under direction of the faculty, with 4 post-graduates. — (Register for 18 

Nine other institutions for superior instruction report by printed catalogue < 
ten return, or both, for some part of 1877 : Colle{/e of St, Auguatinej Benicia (Pro 
Episcopal), 10 instructors and 60 collegiate students : Pierce Christian College, 
City (Christian Church). 5 instructors and 3 classical students ; Pacific Mcihot 
lege, Santa Rosa (Methodist Episcopal South), 4 instructors and 13 classical sti 
Santa Clara College, Santa Clara (Roman Catholic), 26 instructors and 227 st 
unclassified ; St, Ignatius College, San Francisco (Roman Catholic), 12 instruct* 
apparently 187 students in collegiate studies, besides 85 in a business course an< 
grammar and higher arithmetic, who are rated as collegiate, the college coui 
covering 8 years and embracing in the firat four many things classed as elen 
•or secondary elsewhere ; St, Mary's, San Francisco, 138 students in classical an* 
titic collegiate classes; St, VincenVs, Los Angeles (Roman Catholic), 6 lust 
•and 94 students in English, Latin, Spanish, French, book-keeping, &c. ; Vnivt 
the Pa^cififC, Santa Clara (Methodist Episcopal), 10 instructors and 33 students 
sical course ; and Washington College, Washington, 10 instructors and 14 stud 
classical course. — (Catalogues and returns.) 

For detailed statistics of universities and colleges, see Table IX in the append 
the summary of it given in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

Of 7 other colleges believed to be in the State (not including 2 for young w 
3 send statistics, wliich may be found in Tables VI and VII of this Report, while 
not reported for 1877. 

COLLEGES FOR WOMEN. 

The privileges of the State University, Hesperian College, Pierce Christian C 
Pacific MethcSist College, University of the Pacific, and Washington College are 
to young women as well as to youn;]j men. Pacific Methodist College m&es c 
provision for them. Besides these, there are several institutions in the State fr 
rior instruction of young women. Two of them, the Young Latlies* Seminary, I 
and the College of Notre Dame, San Jos<5, report for 1877, the former, 7 instruct 
78 students, ot whom 46 were in a preparatory department, 26 in the regular col 
course, and 6 in optional studies; the latter, 26 instructors, 350 firee and 285 j 
dents, 46 of them in collegiate couree and 1 in special coui*8e. Notre Dame, w 
authorized to confer degrees, has a library of 2,500 volumes. Music, drawing, 
iug, pSnanch, and German are taught in both ; at Notre Dame, Spanish also. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The colleger of agriculture, mechanics, mining, engineering, and chemistry coi 
with the University of California are the chief agencies for scientific instmctioi 
State. Most of tlie other colleges and universities, however, have scientific 



I 



CALIFORNIA. 19 

ments or courses in accordance with the prevailing demand for special preparation for 
practical and usefnl industries. Students in the scientiHc department of the university, 
116. 

There has been also, since 1862, in San Francisco, a private school of engineering, for 
instruction in all the branches belonging to that science. It reported for 1677 a total 
of 4 instructors and 60 students. In connection with the Mechanics' Institute of the 
same ci^, courses of lectures on scientific subjects have been sustained for years past, 
while discussion of such subjects has been customary at the semimonthly meeting's of 
the California Academy of Sciences, also of San Francisco. — (Catalogues, returns, and 
reports to Bureau of Education by Mrs. S. B. Cooper.) 

PROFESSIONAL. 

Theological training continues to be given in the Pacific Theological Seminary, Oak- 
land, established under Congregational auspices in 1869, and in the San Francisco 
Theological Seminary, first opened under Plesbyterian infiuences in 1871. Course of 
study in each, 3 years. In the one at San Francisco the possession of the degree of B. a., 
or its equivalent, is one of the requisites for admission, but students of any Christian 
denomination, duly qualified, may enter. — (Catalogue, 1877, and returns to Bureau of 
Education.) In Pierce Christian 'Colleflje there is a Bible department, which may pre- 
pare for either ministerial or general Christian work. — (Catalogue for 1877-78.) 

Legal training appears to be in about the condition indicated in the report for 1876, 
no college or scnool of law seeming to have been yet established. 

Medical training is cared for (1) by the Medical College of the Pacific, organized in 
\^M as the medical department of the University of the Pacific, and transleiTed to 
University Collej^e, San Francisco, in 1870; (2) by the medical department of the 
University of California, formerly Toland Medical College, San Francisco, which has 
as its auxiliary now the California College of Pharmaey, recently afiiliat«^d with the 
university as a branch of its medical department. All these seem to be well appointed 
and to have a good and fair course of instruction, though without the preliminary 
examination for literary qualifications now required in some such institutions at the 
East. Requirements for graduation in the two medical colleges, attendance on two 
fall courses of lectures, with three years' study of medicine, gootl character, fiill manly 
age, at least one course of anatomical instruction, with clinics and a medical thesis; 
in the College of Pharmacy, like attendance on lectures, four years' 8er\'ice in a drug 
store, full age, and thesis. — (Catalogues and returns to the Bureau of Education.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTION FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB AND THE 

BLIND, BERKELEY. 

The buildings of this institution, which were burned January 17, 1875, have been 
renewed upon the now much favored plan of separate "homes" for from 40 to 50 per- 
sons each. The arguments in favor of this arrangement over the older one of a single 
large establishment for all are (1) less danger from fire; (2) easy isolation of the sexes: 
(3) better sanitary conditions; (4) economy of expenditure: as on this plan additional 
buildings of the same class can be constructed at a much smaller outlay than if one 
great structxire had to be put up; (5) greater convenience: as, when new buildings are 
required, they can be erected without interrupt ion of the exercises of the school. For 
these reasons two such homes have Ijeen constructed, with solid subfoundations of 
cement, stone foundations with granite water table, superstructure of plain brick, and 
roof of slate, the brick walls being hollow and plastered without wooden latiiing, so 
that danger from fire is reduced to the least possible degree. With further wise pre- 
caution against this peril, the staircases have been ma^lc of stone, an cxtjra spiral one 
extending from the extreme end of the sleeping apartmentii to the ground, to make 
sure of a safe exit for all in case of any fire; while the basement floor is laid three 
inches thick with artificial stone. 

The pupils on the rolls, June 30, 1875, wore 64 deaf-mutes and 30 blind ; added, since 
that date, 23 of the former cl".r^ and 4 of the latter; graduated and dischiirged: of the 
former, 14; of the latter, 4; died, .3; i-emaining, Juno 30, 1877, deaf-mutes, 71; blind. 
29; total, 100. Teaching force, including principal, instructor in wood carving, ana 
foreman of shoeshop, 10.— (Keport for 1876 and 1877.) 

TRAINING OF 8KAMEN. 

To supply intelligent and trained young sailors for vessels leaving the port of San 
Francisco, acts were passed by the legislature of California and Coujj^ress, from 1874 to 
1^6, looking to the establishment of a training school on board ship in that harbor. 
Through the cooperation of the United States Government, which furnished the ship 
Jamestown for the puipose and detailed a naval oflicer to command her, such a scho<u 
ha« bf'en instituted, under the special direction of a committee of the supervisors of the 
^ty and county of San I'Yancisco, with an allowance of $25,000 annually for its sup- 
port. Two hundred boys, of 14 to 18 years oi age, are made admissible to Vta ipt\V\\e.^<e^ 



20 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



100 fi.-om the cify and county of San Francisco, and 100 from the other counties of the 
State. They must be in good health, must e\inoe an aptitude or inclination for sea life, 
must have the written consent of their parents or guardians lor their enti-ance on it, 
and must, on entering, sign an agreement to serve at least two yeara on the training 
ship or such other vessel as they may be sent to for service after any semiannual ex- 
amination. Once entered, they receive instnictiou in the common branches of an Eng- 
lish education, and in all that relates to practical seamanship. At the close of 1 hen- 
two years* course, if not sooner provided with employment, they are to receive c^rtili- 
oates showing their character and proliciency in nautical matters, which certiiica'c, it 
is believed, will insure employment in firat class vessels trading with the port. — (Plx>- 
spectns.) 

INDUSTRIAL AND REFORMATORY TRAINING. 

The City and County Industrial School of San Francisco, organized in 1859, admits 
youths under 18 years of age who are in danger of becoming criminals thi'ougb neglect, 
and trains them in the elements of a conmiuu school education, in music, and in such 
industries an fanning, gardening, shocmakiiig, tailoring, and carpenter work. I or 
the session of 1877-^8, tliere was a total of :;,0 instructoi*s and 23:^ pupils. Of these, ::4 
were taught instrumental music and constituted a brass band, while 30 were so drilled 
in vocal music as to be able to lead the whole school in singing. A library of 1,000 
volumes, to which 200 were added in the year, augments the means of instruction and 
improvement. — (Return Irom Superintendent D. C. Woods.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIOXS. 

STATE CONVENTION. 

The state Educational Convention met at San Francisco October 25, 1877. State 
Superintendent Carr delivered the opening addi-ess on ** Educational progress,^' in which 
he dwelt upon the nee<l of a gi^ater nunu)er of more highly trainecl teachers and of a 
more practical course of study in the public si'hools. Addresses and papers were pre- 
sented afterward by Mrs. Jeanne C Carr, deputy State superintendent, on ** Educa- 
tion at the Centemiial;" by Hon. John Sweii, principal of the Girls' High School, San 
Francisco, on '* Teachers and teaching;" by President Le Conte, of the university, on 
*'The importance of unity in the methods of instruction in the public schools; " by Kev. 
O. P. Fitzgerald, former State superintendent, on *'The press as an educator;" by Prof. 
William White, of San Francisco, on the '*jJlaims of the high schools to support from 
the State:" and by Pi*of. A. L, Mann, city superintendent elect of San lYaucisco, on 
"Classical and scientific studies." J. B. Chesney, chairman of the committee on in- 
dustrial education, presented an elaborate report, taking strong grounds against the 
plan of ingrafting a system of manual labor on the common school system. 

Resolutions were adopted (1) favoring the iutioduction of sewing into the primar>', 
grammar, and ungraded country schools taught by women, so liir a« it may be 
made available as a means of education, and not as a tiaile; (2) urging upon' the 
legislature the organization of a Kindergarten in connection with the State Normal 
School at San Josl; (3) expressing the opinion Ihat the ''Present State course of study 
as applied to country schools is detective, in that it requii-es too many things to l>e 
taught children in the primary grade that would be better learned, and without efl'ort, 
when age shall have matured the child's mind;" and (4) that ''Some of the text books 
prescribed by law for use in public schools are entirely inadequate to meet the wantii 
lor which they are designed, and that we, as school officers and teachers, earnestly de- 
sire a change.'' — (Educational Weekly, November 15, 1877, and Pacific School and Home 
Journal, ^lovembe^, 1877.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 
Hon. Ezra S. Carr, State superintendent of public inetrueHon, 8aeran%ento. 

[Terra, 1876-1880.] 
Mrs. E. S. Carr, deputy hvperintendent, Saeranientc. 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

[Term of the governor expires December, 1879; that of the saperintendents, in 1880.] 



Name. 


Office. 


Addrea«. 


His Exoelleucy William Irwin 
Hon. Ezra S. Carr 


Governor of the State and ex officio president 

State superintendent of public iosi ruction, secretary. 
Superintendent of San Francisco County schools ... 

Superintendent of Sacramento County schools 

Superintenilcnt of Santa Clara County schools 

Suwrinteudcnt of A lamoila Countv schools 


Sacramento. 
Sacmmfi'ii in 


A. L. Mnnn 


San FVanciAoQ. 


E. L. Lfludes 


Sacranie: to 


L. J. ChiDuian 


San -loA^ 


J. C. Gileon 


I'ipaiiantnn 


K.W. Davis 


Superintendent of Sonoma County schools 


Santa RnaA. 


S.6.S. DoDbar 


Superinteudeut of San Joiiqnin County schools 

Princinal of State Normal School 


Stockton 


Charlos H. Allen 


San Jo«& 









COLORADO. 



21 



COLORADO. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



t 


1875-76. 


1876-77. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


POPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 










T6othof school affe (6-21) 


21, 962 

14,364 

8,043 


21, 612 

14,085 

8.141 




350 


Enrolled in Doblio sebools. .........•••. 




279 


ATeraire daily attendance • 


98 




SCHOOLS. 








Sdwol districts 


341 
217 
100 








Sebool'bonses ...-- 


219 


2 




Average time of scbool, in days 

TKACHEBS. 












TeachfTs in onblic schools. ...... - ...... 


401 

|60 00 

48 00 


433 

|56 10 

51 45 


32 




ATenee montbly pay of men 


13 90 


ATerage montbly pay of women 

mCOMK AND EXPENDITURE. 


S3 45 


V "^ 










Whole receipts for public schools 

Whole exnenditure for schools .......... 


1235,854 
233,298 


$198, 975 
215,256 




136,879 




18,042 


EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA — 




On school DODtilation ...... ...... ...... 


|7 93 
12 12 
21 65 


17 95 
12 20 
21 10 


to 02 
08 




On enrolment ........ ............. 




On average attendance 


to 55 



(Prom retoms of Hon. Joseph C. Shattnck for the two years above indicated, except 
the items of districts and 8chool-hou8«»8 in 1875-76, whicn are from the report of Hon. 
Horace M. Hale, late superintendent. Mr. Shattnck writes that the statistics for 
1876-77 are correct as far as they go, but that from some counties (Mexican) he had no 
reports. His explanation of decrease at several points is that heretofore estimates 
^▼e been put in the summaries of particulars for counties not reporting. He has 
tbonght it best to stop that, and has made no effort to swell the aggregates by any 
goefising.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

For supervision of all county superintendents and of the public schools of the State 
there is a State superintendent of public inntruction, formerly appointed by the governor, 
now chosen by the people for a term of 2 years. 

For granting StAte diplomas to teachers of proven character, experience, culture, 
»nd ability, there is a State board of education, of which the State superintendent is 
president. The diplomas are to be of two grades, one entitling the holder to teach in 
Aigh schools, the other in schools of lower grade, both for life. 

LOCAL. 

For supervision of county and district schools there are: (1) county superintendentSf 
chosen by the people every 2 years, the year of election alternating with that for choice 
of State superintendent; (2) boards of directors for school districts (3 or 6 persons, 
accoTdinff to population), chosen by the people with a view to eventual 3 years' 
service, but to be changed in one-third of their material bv annual election ; (3) high 
**ooloommi<tee», comjwsed of the county superintendent of the county in 'wMcli a wnVou 



22 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

high school may be projected, and of 3 other x>erBoi)8 to be chosen from their own 
number by the directors of districts uniting for the establishment of such a school. — 
(School laws of 1876 and 1877.) 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

NO STATE REPORT. 

The report of the State superintendent of public instruction under existing laws is 
presented biennially, and none is due till the close of 1878. The information given iu 
the preceding statistical summary and in the following matter relating to the schools 
of Denver is, therefore, the only intelligence as to elementary Struct ion for 1877, 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

DENVER. 

Officers. — A board of education of 6 members, chosen by the people for terms of 2 
years, one-half being chnngetl each year, has charge of the city school system. The 
board when organized chooses a superintendent not of its own number. — (Special school 
law of 1874.) 

Statintics, — Children of school age (6-21), 2,481; enrollwl in public schools, 2,078: 
average number belonging, 1,327 ; average daily attendance, 1,281. Teachers, includ- 
ing the superintendent and 2 teachers of Geiiuan, 36; average number, 34. Expendi- 
ture, $;39,Ool. 

Additional particulars. — Corresponding with the s+eady growth of the city, the increase 
in enrohncnt during 5 years bus been 76 per cent, and the intrease in the average 
nimiber belonging to the schools 145 per cent. The schools of the city are classed as 
primary, gramnuir, and high, the coui-se in each of these covering 4 years. All pupils 
m and above the third primary grade are i)ermittcd to study German. The lugb 
school — in which are 3 coiu'ses of study, an English, a chissical, and an English and^ 
cla.ssical — had in 1877 an enrobnent of 10.^, and in the summer of that year graduatettJ 
its first claas, apparently of 8, and admitted 40 out of 50 candidates for the sc^ission ofa 
1877-78. — (Report of Superintendent Aaron Gove and of the board of education, 1877.)^ 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

TEACHEKS' INSTITUTES. 

The only provision for the x>re])aratiou of teacbeiTs for especially efl8cient school work^ 
besides the institution of nonnal classes in the university, of which we shall hearmorf^ 
in a year or two, is one for institutes. Respecting these the law of 1877, section 80. 
directs that whenever assiurance shall be given to the suj>erintendent of public instruc- 
tion by the county superintendents of two or more counties in any judicial distiic*" 
that not less than 25 teachers in said district desire to assemble for the purpose of hold — 
iug a teachers' institute, he shall api>oint the tiiue and place of meeting anA give dui^ 
notice to the county superintendents of all the counties in the district. The Stat^ 
allows a sum not to exceeil ^100 for expenses, and pemiits boards of directors to cloet^ 
their schools during the session to allow teachers to attend, the pay of attending 
teachers going on during attendance. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

In the absence of a State report for 1877 there is no other information respecting thes^ 
than that contained in the preceding paragraph respecting the Denver high school^ 
except that the new school law of 1877 authorizes school botirds iu districts with ]K)p^ 
ulations of 330 and upwards to establish a separate high school whenever they shall. 
deem it expedient or necessary, but not to erect or lease a building lor it without th» 
consent of the voters of the district. Two or more districts, as before intimated, may 
unitii to form a union high school. 

CHURCH SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

Two schools of high class for young ladies — St. Marj^'s Academy, Denver (Roman. 
Catholic), and Wolfe Hall (Protestant Episcopal), at the same place — report for 1877 iy 
total of 16 teachers and 181 pupils, 2 of these in classical courses and 46 in modem, 
languages. Drawing and music are taught in both and each has apparatus for 
instruction in physics ; Wolfe Hall, some means of chemical illustration, also. The 
latter reports a library of 840 volumes, the former of '* about 500." 

Jarvis Hall, Golden (Protestant Episcopal), a classical and commercial school for^ 
young men and boys, was also in operation during 1877, as previously. 

PREPARATORY SCHOOL. 

The regents of the new State university at Boulder have perfected their ammge- 

ments for preparing students for such of the university courses as they may select. 

(Circular for 1877-78.) 



COLORADO. 23 

A retnm, apparently for the fall term of 1877^ gives an attendance of 64 students, of 
wham 30 were in training for the classical and 10 for the scientific course. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

The UniterHtjf of Colorado, at Bonlder^ and Colorado College, at Colorado Springs, are 
now open^ at least to preparatory students. 

The university is, by law, " to provide the best and most efficient means of impart- 
ing to young men and women, on equal terms, a liberal educatiou.^' It is to include 
eventually classical, philosophical, normal, scientitic, law, and such other courses of 
instruction as the board of regents may determine, with a department of physical sci- 
ences. But all these, except the normal course and a preparatory department, are to 
be of gradual growth. A printed announcement for 1877-^78 states that arrangements 
have been made for preparatory and normal classes, and that classes in the university 
coursee will be formed as required. It is to receive for its support one-fifth of a mill 
on all property assessed in the State ; product at present, about $8,000. 

Respecting Colorado College, there was a statement in the Colorado Springs Gazette, 
of June 23, 1877, that the college was then prepared to receive pupils ot advanced 
standing and to carry them on to graduation. The school was taught in a wooden 
liuilding, owned by the college, awaiting the erection of the new one, for which prep- 
arations were in pro^^ress. T^s was expected to cost $30,000, nearly f 10,000 of which 
sum had been subscribed by the citizens of Colorado Springs. The American College 
and Education Society, it was stated, had pledged |20,000 toward the endowment of 
professorships. A later issue of the same paper states that contract* for the erection of 
the college building have been made, and its completion is looked for by the fall term 
of 1878. 

No information respecting Evans Univernty is at hand. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The State School of Mines, at Golden, reports for 1877 an attendance of 14 pupils in 
its regular scientific department, besides 2 studying telegraphy and 14 in the prepara- 
tory department. This school was reorganized in 1877 as a free scientific school. Alter 
Jaiiaar>' 17, 1878, it is to be supported oy a State tax of one-tenth of a mill on the dol- 
lar. The course of study appears to be substantially the same as reported in 187G. — 
(Ivetum and printed circular, 1877.) 

The State Attricultural College, Fort Collins, is, by law, "to afibrd thorough instruc- 
tion in agriculture and the natural sciences connected therewith;" is to combine phys- 
ical with intellectual training, to have a course of not less than 4 years, and to be 
open to both sexes. For its maintenance, a State tax of one-fifth of a mill Ih to be 
added to the interest of the moneys deriveu from the sale of the lands donated to it. 

PROFESSIONAL. 

Matthew^ Hall, at Golden, the only institution that has been open for instruction in 
theology, or indeed for any of the professions, is now closed. — (lie turn for 1877.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

XXSTITUTE FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE MUTE AND BLIND, COLORADO SPRINGS. 

Thirty pupils have received instruction in this institution since its foundation in 
1^4. The present number is 26, of whom 12 are males and 14 females. English lan- 
guage, composition, penmanship, geography, history, arithmetic, scripture lessons, 
and drawing are taught. The employment's are printing, shoemaking, gardening, 
housework, plain and fancy sewing, cutting and fitting ot clothing, and crocheting. 
A 16 column weekly paper is published by the pupils. — (Return, 1877.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 
Hon. JOBBFH C. Shattuck, iitate iuperintendmt of puNie inntrwition^ Denver, 

STATE BOARD OF KDUCAHON. 

[Terms of office expire JannAry, 1879.] 



Membera. 



HoiLJofteph C. Shnttnck, State anperintendent, president. 

Hon. William M. Cbirk. secretary of state 

'ioii.A.J.Siuupaon, attorney general 



^ 



Post-office. 



Denver. 
Denver. 
Denver. 



24 



REPORT OF TDE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



CONNECTICUT. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 





1875-76. 


1876-77. 


Increase. 


Deer 


POPULATION AND ATl'KNDANCB. 

Children of sohool age (4-16) .... . 

Scholarn registered in winter 


135,189 

98,923 

89,832 

4, 454 

119, 106 

9,816 

128, 922 

12, 297 

74, 369 

66, 621 

88.10 

95.:i6 

1,493 

1,628 

2, 499 

118 

152 

270 

1,148 

26 

883 

556 

212 

2,656 
2,638 
1,780 
539 
$67 43 
37 16 

$1,560,565 
1,529,181 


1.37,099 

99.657 

90,845 

4,894 

119, 208 

10, 180 

129,388 

1.3, 865 

75,732 

68,588 

86. 9.'» 

94.38 

1,487 

1,629 

2, 5;J0 

112 

165 

277 

1,176 

22 

922 

524 

201 

2,676 
2, 659 
1,904 
478 
$64 55 
36 20 

$1,506,218 
1,510,222 


1,910 

734 

1,013 

440 

102 

364 

466 

1,568 

1.363 

1,967 




Scholars registered in sammer 

Number registered over sohool age 

Different scholars in public schools ... 
Pupils iu other than pnblic schools ... 
PiiDils in schools of ail kinds 




Children of school age in no school 

Average attendance in winter 

Average attendance in summer 

Per cent, of registered to enumeration . 
Per cent, in schools of all kinds 


•••«•« 


SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOLS. 

School districts in the State 






Public schools 


I 
31 




DtiDartments in these ...... .... ...... 




Schools with two departments 

Schools with more than two 

Whole uumber of graded schools 

Denartments in these ...... ...... .... 




13 
7 

28 





New school-houses built .......... 




Houses in stood condition 


39 




Houses in lair condition 




Houses in |)oor condition 

TEACHERS AND THEIR PAY. 

Teachers in winter schools ...... ...... 






20 




Teachers in summer schools ...... .... 


21 


Teachers continued in same school 

Teachers who never taught before 

Average monthly pay of men 

Average monthly pay of women...... 

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Total income for schools ...... .... .... 


124 


••»••• 




i 




1 




$5- 
1) 


Total expenditure for schools. . . ...... 











(From the reports of Hon. B. G. Northrop, secretary of tlie State board of educa 
for the two years indicated.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

A State hoard of educatioriy composed of the governor, lieutenant governor, and 
persons appointed by the general assembly for terms of four years each, with ch 
of one each year, has general supervision and control of the educational interests c 
State. This board appoints a secretary who acts as its executive officer throuj. 
the State, with an assistant secretary for office work, and a general agent lb 
enforcement of the law which forbids the employment of untaught children in fam 
factories, or shops. 



CONNECTICUT. 25 

LOCAL. 

Bottrdi ofgetiool mniorsfor towns are composed of 6 or 9 members chosen originally in 
foil at the annual town meeting, and changed in one-third of their number at each 
sab^eqnent meeting. These boards have, unaer the State board, the direction of stutlies, 
examination and certification of teachers, and visitorial oversight of the town whools, 
attending to this last mainly through their secretary and a member annually assigned 
to that duty, called the acting school visitor. 

Boards far school districtSy into which towns may be divided, are ordinarily of 3 per- 
sons chosen by ballot at the annual district meeting, with a clerk, a treasurer, nn<l a 
collector. The exceptional cases are in school districts succeeding to the old school 
societies, in which boanls of education of 6 or 9 members have been elected, and are 
changed in one-third of their material by subsequent annual election. — (School laws, 
edition of 1872.) 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

GENERAL CONDITION. 

No great or striking signs of progress can onlinarily be looked for in any single year 
in the school system of an old and well established State. It is only as wo compare 
several years one with another that such progress can usually be found. But hc^re the 
board of education says in its report, that the history of the schools for 1877, as far as 
it coald be read through the statistics, was very satisfactory ; and looking at these 
statistics we see ground for the satisfaction shown. The increase of enrolment in the 
public schools, 7'M in winter and 1,013 in summer, indicates, for example, some fair 
approach to a harvesting of the increase of children of school age, 1,910. The increase 
of average attendance, 1,363 in wintjer and 1,967 in summer, is even more encouraging, 
Although against this has to be set an increase too of 1,568 in the number attending no 
ec-hool ; but, as the board says, a largo proportion of these non-attendants are chihlren 
o£ such tender age that their absence from school is hardly a matter for regret. We 
find 7 more graded schools, with 28 more departments ; while to meet the increase in 
eiorolment and attendance there were 20 more teachers In the winter schools and 21 in 
tlje summer schools, as well as 124 more who, for at least the second year, were settled 
in the same school, showing a gradual approach toward permanency. The receipts for 
iK-hool purposes have, it is true, fallen olf $54,347; but in view of the shrinkage in the 
"voliiation of all property and in the prices of tne commodities of life, the whole re- 
ceipts, with even this large falling off, the bofuxl says, represent a greater sacrifice 
Qpon thQ people's part than formerly, and a greater power to purchase commodities 
«^Md services than the larger looking income ot 1876. 

The part of the history not to be told in figures, iu the opinion of the boanl, is not 
leass satisfactory ; the interest of the people in the schools which they maintain, the in- 
dustry and activity of the corps of teachers, and the obedience and diligence of the 
scholars having been fully up to the high standard of past years. — (Report of board 

NEGLECTED CHILDREN. 

Mr. Northrop says that Mr. Giles Potter, the agent of the State board for the pur- 
pose, has rendered during the year ofiBcient service in securing the observance of the 
law for the prevention of illiteracy. The plan of visiting schools to ascertain fi'om 
piipils and teacher the extent of absenteelBm has proved very useful. The question 
* Dot's any scholar in this school know of a boy or girl of school age who has attended 
tio school this term or this year?" usually reveals the real facts in eat^h case. These 
inqniries have increased attendance and served to magnify the importance of the school 
Wh with pupils and parents. For the mere fact that the State, in its enforcement of 
attendance, is found thus to be looking after individual children, leads many parents, 
^ciaUy roreigners, to a higher appreciation of the school and of their own parental 
duties. 

The gain in attendance since the adoption of a compulsory law (it being followed 
il> by the visits of an agent) abundantly shows the value of the enactment and com- 
pensates for the effort to secure a general observance of it. Besides the systematic ^ 
^ork of the agent, Mr. Northrop himself, as the secretary of the 8tato board, keeps in ' 
^ew the needs of the neglected children in his visits to towns, to schools, and fac^tories, 
ui his conferences with school officers, and in public lectures. " He has thus delivered 
'0 lectures and paid 57 visits to 42 different towns, while Mr. Potter has visited 43 
towns and 258 ctepartments in 189 schools, each finding children illegally kept from 
^hi)o\ and bringing many of them in. 

The law, as Mr. Nortliop justly says, should not relax efforts at persuasion. The 
prime thing is to make the schools so good and their advantages so inviting that attend- 
ance may come to be regarded as a privilege and not have to be imposed as a necessity. 
A little kind endeavor in such circumstances will usually bring in the absentees. But 
l^hen such means fail and reasoning also fails, coercion must come in to protect help- 
less children in their right to an education, and give them at least the 60 days a£ 
'uuiual tichooling which the law now requires. — (Report for 1877.) 



y 



26 



REPORT OP THE COBfMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



SOME EFFECTS OF COMPULSION. 

Mr. Northrop, having beon abroad in the summer of 1877 to observe some thlnc^s in 
European school syHt'ems, makes a favorable report of the ivorkings of a compulsory 
educational law in several of the English cities. In Loudon, where such a law has 
been pretty rigidly enforced, he says that, as a result, there has been already, accord- 
ing to the testimony of the city officers, a considerable reduction in the number of 
iuvenile otTences and in the cost of youthful pauperism. Every gang of young thieves 
known to the poUce has been broken up, and city Arabs that had been almost unman- 
ageable sit now in the schools beside tne sons of industrious citizens in healthful and 
improving competition. The superintendent of the HoUoway Prison testified that, 
apparently in consequence of this training of the children, there had be^n committed 
to his prison in the year past only 28 male .juvenile offenders and no females, though 
in 1869 there were 136 males and 21 females so committed. Similar testimony to the 
good effects of compulsory attendance on the schools, with moral influences brought to 
bear upon the children there and elsewhere, came to him from other cities. — (Report 
for 1877.) 

OTHER TOPICS TREATED. 

The adornment of school grounds with proper shade trees is strongly urged by 
Mr. Northrop in this as in previous reports, and it is pleasant to note that through 
his efforts much progress in this good work has been effected. State uniformity of t«xt 
books he writes decidedly against, as greatly expensive to be^in with and fruitful 
afterward of embaiTassment and litigation. Industrial education, as a preparation 
for the fnture work of life, has considerable space devoted to it, but no definite plan 
for it is proposed. The advantages of European schools of forestry are also largely 
dwelt upon and the methods of those schools described. 

KINDERGARTEN. 

One school of this class, 287 Myrtle avenue, Bridgeport, reports 80 children of 4 to 9 
years of a^e under the instruction of one principal and 4 assistants in 1877, the school 
Deing held 5 hours daily for 5 aays in each week, with 40 weeks in the school year. — 
(Eotum.) 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

OFFICERS. 

In Hartford, a board of school visitors of 9 members, one serving as acting school 
visitor; in the other cities, boards of education of 9 or 12 members, with city superin- 
tendents of schools ; term of service in each case, 3 years, one-third going out each 
year, to be replaced by new election. 

STATISTICS. 



City. 


Population. 


Children of 
school age. 


Enrolment. 


Average at- 
tendance. 


Teachers. 


Bxpenditare. 


Bridgeport 

Hartford 

Mnridon 


V4, 745 
41,600 
10, 943 
7,000 
58,675 


5,864 
9,621 


4,735 
7,596 


3,193 
5,038 


81 
160 


$60,188 


Mlddletown 

New Haven 


1,415 
12,964 


1,048 
11,436 


676 
7,491 


S9 

904 


S6.S73 
906,43$ 



ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. 

In Bridgepartf 333 scholars in the ordinary evening schools and 99 in an evening 
drawing school, added to the 4,735 enrolled in the day schools, give a total enrobneut 
of 5,167. Adding also the 6 teachers in the evening schools to the 81 in the day 
schools, we have a total of 87. The evening schools were open only twice a week, 
and hence secured a more regular attendance and more satisfactory results than is 
customary where the sessions include 4 or 5 evenings in the week. The schools were 
newly classified and graded in the school year 1876-^77, in accordance with a course of 
study adopted at the beginning of the year. In the primary schools, the word and phonic 
methods of teaching reading took the place of the longer and more tedious alphabetic 
method, saving much time and trouble. In the grammar and high schools, a system 
of monthly written examinations was carried on through the year with excellent 
results ; and, as the teachers were thus relieved from keeping daily records of schol- 
arship, they were able to ^ve their whole time in school to tie work of instruction. 
Oral examinations by difierent members of the board of education and by the city 
superintendent have also aided in stimulation. For this purpose some 1,400 visite 
have been made to the schools, the visits varying in length m)m a lew minutes to 
ft room to an entire session. A city high school, opened at the beginning of the year, 



CONNECTICUT. 27 

eDroUed 82 different papils, and spread an influence for good through all the other 
0cbool8, by presenting a standard toward which all may strive. Drawing was iutro- 
dnced into tne schools during the year and vocal music was prosecuted as in previous 
years from the lowest to the highest grade. — (Report of Superintendent H. M. Har- 
rifljeton for 1876-'77.) 

Hartford had, in addition to her day schools, 2 eveuin^ schools continued during the 
winter and enrolling 529 pupils, with an averuire atteuduucc ul 192. The studies were 
mainly elementary and the results appear to have been encouruging. In all the dis- 
trict schools the text books used are of the same kiud, and ouly such books are used 
and such studies pursued as have been prcs<Tibe<l or authorized by the school board. 
A portion of eaeh session is devoted to siugiug, iu which all pupils are expected to 
join. Instruction iu the nidimeuts of music is also given. Drawing is begun iu the 
firet grade, and is continued through at least the second year of the high school. Ger- 
man is provided for in 6 grades, entering also into the lirst two high school years. The 
high school, under its able principal, Mr. Joseph Hull, ivtaiuM its high standard of admis- 
sion and gnuluatiou, and includes, besides the i^upils froui the grammar schools, about 
100 scholars from the neighlwriug towns, enrolliug 4")0 in the spring of 1877. The 
great increase in its attendance required in that year the erection of an addition sufli- 
cient to accommodate upwards of 200 more pupils with study and recitation rocmis. 
This was accomplished at comparatively small cost, and with great improvement of 
the interior ; but unlbrtunately the exterior was not made to harmonize with the ele- 
pnce of the main building, and thus impairs the benuty of the whole. — (Report of 
board for 187(>-'77, through Acting School Visitor John H. Brocklesby. ) 

Middetown. — As to teachers, it is pleasant to learn that here all who were appointed 
at the commencement of the school year 1876-^7 were retained to its close, and, at the 
annual election in June, were reelected to their former positions. As to studies, we 
are told that drawing receives attention, that instruction in the metric system has 
been intro<luced, and that in the *^ senior department " there is a commercial course to 
fit pnpils for business, as well as classical and English coui'ses to tit them for college 
or for refined domestic life. As to methods, we learn that in the primary- classes the 
book h» laid aside and words in common use placed on the blackboard in view of all. 
These the children write on slates and learn to spell from memory. The slate receives 
also a copy of the drawing lesson while Home are couHtnicting the same figure of 
larger size on the board. The pu])ils are taught to make figures and form their simpler 
combinations on the slate. The teacher walks among the pupils, neediuj^ no book, and 
calling for answers to her questions trom whom she will. 1 rcqiient reviews fix these 
lessens in the mind, until at the close of the term a review of »50 days' work seems 
little more than an ordinary' lesson. The little onew store away in a year nearly one 
thousand useful words which tliey can write or Hpell at any time, besides the first 
lessons in drawiuj^ and arithmetic. — (Report of the board of education, acting school 
visitor, and Superintendent H. E. Sawyer lor ld7()-77.) 

At New Haven the system of instruction, based on a scheme of studies adopted in 
1870, has become quite uniform throughout all the grades, and has, during 187t>-'77, 
demonstrated it« elficiency even more than in any previous year. The ratio of enrol- 
ment to the niimlMjr of school age has been also greater and the aggregate attendance 
fiiUer than ever before. In the truant school, the attendance has been 94 i)or cent, of 
the enrolment throughout the year, many of the boys not being absent once in a 
whole term and some not for two terms. The number at tending the evening school 
was not as large as in preceding years, but the application to study on the part of 
those who came resulted in an improvement more than usually satisfactory. The 
grading of the day schools — with the exception of 'A tliat^ for special reasons, are un- 
graded — is upon the now customary basis of 8 gi*ades ot a year each below the high 
school, with 4 years in that school. Class promotions are made, as a rule, each year, 
sometimes twice a year, while individuals found, at the monthly examinations, t^ bo 
fitted for a higher grade are a<lvanced without waiting for their classes. With a view 
to securing a steady supply of home trained teachers, 22 pupil teachers have been 
kept under training, doing duty as iustruct(u-s ami fumirthing substitutes for regular 
teachers who from any cause are abst^nt from their posts. During each year these 
young teachers are said to save tht; city more than one thousand dollara, which, with- 
out them, would have to be paid for substitutes brought in from without or kept in 
pay for meeting exigencies. — (Report of SuiK'rintendcnt Ariel Parish for 1876-77.) 

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

This institation, still continued at New Britain and devoted to special preparation 
of teachers for the public schools,Teporte(l for the fall term of 1877 a total of 8 instruct- 
on with 127 students, 36 gra<luates in the preceding scholastic year, and 26 of these 
engaged in teaching. Drawing is taught, with the aid of models, casts, apparatus, 



28 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

' and examples. Vocal music is also attended to, and there are means for illnstratioa 
in chemistry and physics, with a library of abont 1,200 volimies. — (Return for 1877.) 
Of the continued and increasing efficiency of the institution Secretary Northrop speaks 
very highly in his report for the same year. 

TEL.VCHERS* INSTITUTES. 

Legal provision is made for holding these with a view to instruction in the best 
modes of administering, governing, and teaching public schools, and it appears from 
the report that twenty-three such were hehl, live as county institutes and eighteen for 
towns. At these last, the custom has been to visit in the morning the schools of the 
place and observe their methods in order to adapt the instruction in the meetings to 
local needs. Then, in the afternoon, the schools being dismissed, the teachers and 
friends of education hold a session of two or three hours, with another shorter one in 
the evening. Special pn)miuence has been given during the year to instruction in map 
drawing. — (State report. ) 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

No specific report of the high schools of the State being made through the board of 
education or its secretary, we are dependent, as in fonuer years, on city school reports 
for almost all our information concerning them. In the high schools of Bridgeport., 
Hartford, and New Haven, we find well arranged 4 years' courses, both Euglitih and 
classical, the latter preparing for the academical departments of the best colleges, the 
former for the scientific departments or for ordinary business pursuits. At New Haven. 
Greek, which has been for some years omitted, was restoreti in 187G, making the school 
again preparatory to Yale College, as well as to the Sheffield Scientific School. The 
*' senior department" of the schools of Midtlletown appears also to be substantially of 
high school grade, with a 4 years' course in classical as well as English studies, the 
former including Latin and French for 3 years, the latter substituting history for the 
Latin and French of the secumd and third years. In these 4 schools there appear to 
have been 1,213 pupils enrolled during 1876-'77, with an average attendance of 828, 
under 35 teachers. 

In the t/own reports of Enfield and Thomaston, aiipended to the State report pub- 
lished in 1877, three high schools in the former and one in the latter are spoken of as 
abiding much to the advantages for education ; but no statistics respecting them are 
given. In that from Merideu, in the appendix of the i-eport for the following year, 
the need of such a school is strongly dwelt ujion. In most of the larger villages there 
are understood to be higher departments of graded schools which give high school in- 
struction, while such iuMtitutious as the Bulkeley School, New London; the Morgan 
School, at Clinton, and the Norwich Free Academy appear to unite the characters of 
the old academy and the modem high school. 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For detailed statistics of private academic schools and schools for the preparation of 
students for college, see Tables VI and VII of the appendix, and the summaries of these 
in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

BUSINESS COLLEGES. 

No business college is reporte<l for 1877 in this State, but a commercial course extend- 
ing through two years is reported by the board of education of Middletown as con- 
nected with the "senior department" of the public schools there, which is substantially 
a high school. The course includes arithmetic, algebra, commercial forms and calca- 
lations, book-keeping, rhetoric, and natural philosophy. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

Trinity CoU^ej Hartford, Wesleyan Vniveraity, Middletown, and Tale CoUe/fe, New 
Haven, report by catalogue or circular for 1877 a total of 58 instructors in academical 
departments, with 832 students, of whom 15 were in special courses and 51 gra^duates 
pursuing studies beyond those of the regular 4 years' course. In the Art School of Yale 
there were also 23 students. The libraries of the three colleges number respectively 
18,000, 27,000, and 83,000 volumes, besides those of students" societies and others to 
which students have access. All three set a high standard for admission to the fresh- 
man class and in all the course of study is well arranged and full. In Trinity there is 
little option as to the studies of the regular course ; Imt studies additional to that may 
be prosecuted by those who desire a degree in science as well as in arts, and students 
in special courses are allowed to prosecute such studies, always including Latin, as 
they may be found qualified to pursue, reciting with the regular classes in these studies. 



CONNECTICUT. 29 

AiWesleyan and Yale there is large liberty of choice in the junior and senior years, 
aod at Yale, where this liberty y^'os not given till 1876, it is reported to have worked 
most satisfactorily, the students* being carried further in the separate departments, and 
this with more continuity of effort and more enthusiasm. — (Catalogues and repoi-ts of 
1876-77 and 1877-78.) 

COLLEGES FOR WOMEN. 

For detailed statistics of this class of institutions, see Table VIII of the appendix, 
and the summary of it in the Keport of the Commissioner preceding. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The Sheffield Scientific School of Tale CoUeyey having received in 1873 the national 
grant for the promotion of scientific education, thus became the Connecticut CoUc'^e 
of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. There is a 3 years* course, with graduate 
courses beyond this. The instructii)n is intended for gra<luates of colleges and other 
persons qualified for advanced or special scientific stiuly, as well as for undergraduates. 
The graduate courses lead to the degree of ph. b., c. e., or D. E. (dynamic engineer). 
In the undergraduate department the courses of instruction most distinctly marked 
OQt are in chemistry, civil engineering, dynamic or mechanical engineering, agricult- 
ure, natural history, biology as a preparation for medical studies, studies preparatoiy 
to milling and metallurgy, and select studies preparatoiy to other higher studies. The 
number of students in 1877 was 194. — (Catalogue of college, 1877.) 

THEOLOGICAL. 

The institutions for theological instruction in Connecticut are the Theological Depart- 
««< of Yale College (Congregational), the Berkeley IHvinity School j at Middletown 
(Protestant Episcopal), and the Theological Institute of Connecticut, at Hartford (Con- 
gregational), each witn a course of study covering 3 years, and all together coutainiug 
alMut 175 students. The school at Yale requires for admission a liberal education at 
some college or such other literarj' acquisitions as may be considerc*d an equivalent 
preparation. The requisitions for admissions to the Berkeley school are nearly as high ; 
oat of 27 students reported in 1877, some degree in letters or science had been received 
W24. In the Theological Institute, at Hartford, 18 out of the 31 students had received 
BQcb a degree ; at Yale, 88 out of lO^ undergraduate theologues, and 2 out of 5 resident 
licentiates. — (Returns and catalogues, 1877.) 

LEGAL. 

The Law Department of Yale College embraces one course of instruction for graduates 
and another for undergraduates, each covering 2 years. The methods of instiiiction in 
the undergraduate department are by daily lectures and recitations from text books, 
with weeklv moot courts. In 'the graduate course, the degree of master of law is con- 
ferred at tne close of the first- year and that of doctor ot civil law at the end of the 
second. — (College catalogue ana return of law school, 1877.) 

. MEDICAL. 

The Medical Institution of Yale College reports an attendance for 1877 of 56 students, of 
whom 16 had received a degree in letters or science. Ouly the more elementary branches 
are Mtudied during the first year ; the more practical studies come in the second, while 
provision is made for a third in which those of the entire course are reviewed, with the 
addition of such collateral branches and advanced courses of reading as may be ad- 
visable. To receive the degree of the school, students must have attended two full 
coarse of public lectures and studied medicine for three years ; except in the case of 
college graduates, whose diplomas are rectdved as equivalent to certificates of medical 
atudy for one year. — (Be turn and college catalogue, 1877.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

The American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb at Hartford was founded in 1817, and 
liaggince had 2,141 pupils under instruction. The present number attending is 272, of 
▼horn 162 are males and 110 females. Sixty graduates of this school have become 
teachers in similar institutions. The course of study comprises the common English 
branches and articulation. Cabinet making, shoeniaking, and tailoring are the employ- 
naenta taught. During the year, instruction in articulation and lip reading has been 
given to 40 iiupils, of whom' 16 are serai-mutes and 24 are deaf-mutes. The number 
of deaf-mutes of school age in New England is estimated at 775, of whom perha]>s 400 
are at school, leaving 375, nearly half, not receiving a regular education. These fig- 




30 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

urea, it is remarked, are not creditable to New England, althougli it is believe<l that 
since the American Asyhmi first opened its doors no deaf-mnto applying for admission 
has been turned away for lack of room. — (Reports for 1876-^77 and ic<77--7y.) 

Whij^l^H Home School for Deaf-Mutes^ at Mystic River, a private school organized in 
1869 for the special purpose of teaching articulation and lip reading, ivports for 1876-*77 
an attendance of 19 pupils, 15 of them being males. The branches taught are reading, 
silent and vocal, penmanship, composition, arithmetic, history, geography, facts from 
natural history, chemistry, astronomy, and lip reading. The bovs are emplovetl aliont 
the farm and the girls in the house. " No trmles are systematically taught. The insti- 
tution owns 57 acres of land. — (Return, 1877.) 

SCHOOL FOR IMBECILES, LAKEVILLE. 

This school, established in 1858, reports an attendance during the year 1876-77 of 84 
pupils, 48 of them males and 36 females. The branches taught are hand training, ob- 
ject lessons, articulation, reading^ spelling, arithmetic, geograi)hy, writing, drawing, 
sewing, fancy work, singing, dancing, gymnastics, and manual labor. All uie children 
m the institution have made some progress during the year. Even those who are too 
low in the scale to show very marked advancement in school education have improved 
as to order, quiet, and tidiness. — (Return and report, 1677.) 

SCHOOL FOR NURSES. 

The Connecticut Training School for Nurse*^ at New Haven, opened in 1873, reports foT^Ki^^i 
1877-78 a head nurse and 11 to 14 pupil nurses in training for intelligent ministratioxi^2K:«a 
to the needs of the wounded and the sick. — (Return.) 

CONNECTICUT INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. 

This school, situated at Middletown, is not a State institution, as its name wonl 
seem to indicate, but a private charity, incoq)orated and employed by the Stat« fo; 
the guardianship and training of girls who are in danger of being led into vice an 
crime. Retained tiU they are 18 years of age, or till safe places can be found for the 
at an earlier day, they receive the elements of a good English education, are traiue 
to various industries, and have the use of a good library, with pleasant shelter in thre 
difterent " homes," one of which was completed and occupied by the older girls dnriu, 
the year 1876. At the opening of 1877 there were 109 inmates under 16 instructors, i 
eluding matrons and superintendents. — (Report, 1877.) 

CONNECTICUT STATE REFORM SCHOOL, WEST MERIDEN. 

There were 404 boys under instruction here during 1877, of whom the greater par 
were almost wholly ignorant at the time of their admission, while the 256 remaini 





at the dat« of the report could all read and write, nearly all could perform the simple — '-^^^ 
operations in arithmetic, 198 were studying ceography, and 10 were studying history 
Four hours each day are devoted to study under teachers ; vocal music is taught, auc 
with instruction in morals, manners, and religion, there is also a training in such in 
dustries as gardening, chair making and seating, shocmaking, &c., for six hours in eacl 
working day. In all, 2,665 boys have ei\joyed these advantages since the organizatioi 
of the school. — (Report for 1877.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

STATE ASSOCIATION. 

The thirty-first annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association was held at Hart- 
ford, commencing October 25, 1877. 

The first address was delivered by Prof. W. M. Barbour, of Yale College, on "Th» 
rights of the taught." The remainder of the day was occupied by music, i*c»citations^ 
and the appointment of committees. The other papers presented were ** Physiology 
in school," by F. A. Brackett, principal of the Bristol High School : " Couceminff 
primary teachers," by Miss Marshall, of the New Britain High School; **Ta8kbooks and 
tJiskmasters," by H. 'C. DavLs, of New Haven; "Curiosities of our school laws," by I. 
C. Libby, of Middletown; **The teacher, his work and rewanls," by J. K. BuckhTi, 
of Mystic Bridge; "Confidence between boys and tea<*hers," by F. W. Gunn, of Wash- 
ington, Ct. ; "Teachers' reading," by Mr. Spaulding, of Rockville; "The claims of 
writing in our public schools," by Superintendent Harrington, of Bridgeport., and " His- 
tory in all grades," by Mr. Drake, principal of the South School, New Haven. Ad- 
dresses were made by Secretary' Northrop, Rev. Mr. Noble, of New Haven, and Governor 
Hubbard ; also briefer remarks by Mr. Burleigh, of Plaintield, J. Coats, of Andover, and 
others, in which each made various sugf^estious based ui)on his experience in tea<*hing. 
A number of gentlemen also took part> m the discussion of most of the papere read. 
The programme was varied by music, readings, and the exercises of a military company 
composed of the boys of the Asylviu Avenue School. — (New-England Journal of Edu- 
cation^ November 1, 1877.) 



CONNECTICUT. 



31 



CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 

STATU BOAKD OF EDUCATION. 



Ifame. 



His EzcelleDcy Richnrd D. Habbard. fpsreraor, ex oflBoio 

fiis Hf nor Fraocie B, Loomis, Ueatenant governor, ex officio 

Sliaha Ctf^penter 

^iUUm IT Potter 

Oiigeo SuSevmoiir 

Tnneiii A. Walker 

Hon. Birdaey Grant Korthrop, ■ecretary of theboud 



Poet-offioe. 



Hartford .... 
New London . 

Hartford 

Mystic River 
Litchfield ... 
New Haven.. 
New Haven.. 



Bxpiration 
or term. 



1870 
1870 
1870 
1880 
1881 
1888 



32 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



DELAWARE. 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 





1876. 


1877. 


Increase. Docrease. 


POPULATION AXD ATl'ENDANCB. 

White youth of school age (5-*21) 




31,849 

3,800 
22,398 

1,663 
24,061 






Colored youth of school ago 






Whites enrolled in public schools 




1 


Cc)!ored enrolled in Dublic schools 




1 


Whole eiin/meut 


21,587 

58 

370 


2,474 




Average number in each school . , 

SCHOOLS. 

Number of public schools 










A vera ire duration in days 


146 


, 


School-houses 


268 

276 

250 

26 

13 

430 

462 

$30 75 

$216,225 
216, 225 






Schools visited 








Number of these with blackboards 




1 


Nimiber with maps and charts 




. . 


Number with fflobes 








TEACHERS. 

Teachers in public schools 


501 


71 




Number holdinn certihcates 




Average monthly pay out of Wilmington . 

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Whole income for free schools 


$30 75 

$216, 225 
a218, 025 

$450, 957 








Whole expenditm-e for free schools 

SCHOOL PROPERTY. 

Estimated value of all school property. - 

















a This incIadoM tho salary of the Stat«i Buperintendeot, $1,800. 

(From returns of Hon. James H. Groves, State superintendent of free schoob), for 
the two years indicated.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

For supervision of the free instruction given in the State, there is a State snperiniendeni 
of free schoolsy appointed by the governor for a term of one year. 

A State hoard of education^ composed of the president of the State college, the State 
secretary, and State auditor, with the State superintendent, hears appeals from the 
superintendent's decisions and from those of lower officers, determines the text books 
to be used in the fi ee schools, and issues blanks for records and returns. 

LOCAL. 

School committees of districtSy composed of 3 persons, one chosen by the school voters 
of the district every year for a term of 3 years, have charge of all school matters in 
their respective districts in the rural portions of tho State. For the city of Wilming- 
ton there is a board of education elected imder a special law. — (School laws of 1868 
and 1875.) 



DELAWARK. 33 

ELEMENTARY IKSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS FOR THE COLORED CHILDREN. 

The Delaware Association for the Edocation of Colored People, which, by act of 

1875, amended in 1877, has special care of the interests of schools for this race, reports 

that in the year ending Jnne 30, 1877, these schools have made creditable progress. 

As far as possible, able and competent teachers were placed in charge, and personal 

ioMpection of schools by the actuary showed them to be, as a mle, well managed. The 

average expenses of each school are about twenty-four dollars a month, of which eight 

or ten doUai's are furnished by the association from the proceeds of the taxes levied on 

the colored people, the remainder coming from voluntary subscriptions, mainly paid 

by the colored people themselves. The number of schools thus sustained in 1877 was 

33; the highest enrolment in them in any one month, 1,663; the income for them, 

|1,963; the expenditure, |1,866. — (Report of actuaiy, 1877.) 

FREE SCHOOLS FOR WHITES. 

The report of the State superintendent is presented at the biennial sessions of the 
legislature, which occur in tne years of even numbers. None was published therefore 
for 1877 except a brief summary of statistics. The items of this, given above, afford 
few points ot comparison with those of the preceding year, but they show an enrol- 
ment of white and colored pupils in the free scnools increased by 2,474, with an increase 
of 71 teachers. As the system of examining teachers and licensing only those found 
qualified has been going forward meanwhile, this increase in the number of teachers 
counts for much more than it would have counted before 1875. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

WILMINGTON. 

OfjieerB. — A board of education, composed of two persons chosen fh)m each of the 10 
wards into which the city is' divided, one-half apparently changed each year, with a 
city 8aperint«ndent as executive officer. 

Statuitics, — Estimated population, 40,000 ; youth of school age (6-21), 9,178; enrolled 
in public day schools, 6,687 ; average number belonging, 4,58'i; average daily attend- 
ance, 4,158; percent, of attendance on average belonging, 90.8; number of teachei-s, 
1ft) ; expenditures ($15.61per pupil enrolled), $104,^584. 

^ Additional particulars. — The city owns 18 school buildings, with a capacity for seating 
V^pnpils. and with furniture, apparatus, and books valued at $18,445; total value 
of all school property, $265,S39. There are 16 primary schools, in which both sexes are 
tanght together ; 2 granmiar schools and 1 hign school for girls, and the same number 
of each for boys ; with a Friday evening special school to instruct teachers in theit 
^ork and prepare them for their examinations. Considerable extra time on other 
evenings was given to this school during 1876-77. From November 21, 1876, to Febru- 
ary 5iO, 1877, a night school was maintained for such as could not attend the day 
seaools, the enrolment in it reaching 116 and the average attendance 72. In addi- 
tion to the other instruction, lectures on chemistry, electricity, natural philosophy, 

' * or and its compounds, were delivered in this school, with illustrative expeii- 

d instructive. — (Report of 



Qents, which appear to have been both interesting am 
Superintendent David W. Harlan for 187G-77.) 



TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL CLAfiSRS. 

In the State College at Newark there appear to have been, in 1877, 13 normal students 
]>reparing for work in the public schools, though no special normal course is indicated. — 
(Catalogue, 1877.) 

In the city of Wilmington — besides the Friday evening normal class before men- 
tioned, which deals with already accepted teachers, and prepares them for examina- 
tions and for higher work — there was in 1876-*77 a training school for the preparation 
of young persons for teaching. The standard of qualifications for admission requires 
candidiites either to complete the high school course (for women) or pass an examina- 
tion. When admitted they are made familiar with methods of tetu-hing, discipline, and 
cbssificatioii, by teaching under the supei^vision of a principal 4 weeks in each of ;< 
primary divisions of the public schools, being required to prepare each day^s lessons 
in advance and to observe and follow out the methods of instruction and discipline 
presented to them. Fifteen young ladies wore enrolled in this school during the 
year, of whom 8 received appointments as regular teachers beford the expiration of the 
term for which they entered, 6 completed the term of 12 weeks, and 1 remained on the 
loU at the end of the year. — (Report of Wilmington schools for 1876-77.) 

3b 



34 REPORT OF THE COMBilSSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

teachers' institutes. 

For five years past the teachers of the Wilmington public schools have heen called 
together once a month to hear lectures on educational subjects, deriving much benefit 
therefrom. During, 1876-77 a variation was made in this order by calling together 
occasionally only the teachers of particular grades. These grade meetings have proved 
so useful, by admitting a closer discussion of methods of teaching and governing and 
a freer criticism of observed defects, that Superintendent Harlan advises a change of 
rule providing for holding only a two days' institute after the Christmas holidays and 
for meetings of the superintendent with teachers of one grade at a time as often as once 
a mouth. — (Report.) 

The State superintendent by law holds in each county annually a three days' insti- 
tute for the teachers of the county, who are required to attend. — (School law of 1875.) 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

In the Wilmington High School for Boys, Latin, including the ^neid, is studied in 
connection with a good English course. In the one for girls in the same city th© 
course has been reported as ** nearly the same," modern languages being apparently 
substituted for the Latin. In the former there were 63 enrolled during 1876-*77 and. 
16 withdrawn, leaving 47 at the close of the year, of whom 9 were graduated. In th» 
latter the total enrolment was 41 ; the withdrawals, 5 ; the number remaining at the 
close, 36; the graduates, 8. — (Report for 1876-'77.) 

PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For detailed statistics of this class of schools, see Table YI in the appendix, and ^ 
summary of this in the Commissioner'B Report preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

DELAWARE COLLEGE. 

There was here, in 1877, as previously, the usual classical collegiate course of 4 year^ 
as well as a literary course of 3, the latter designed especially tor young women, bi^ 
open to others who may prefer it. This omits tile higher mathematics and substitut^r? 
one of the modem languages for Greek. A selection of studies is also allowed to sue J 
students as may not care to take a full course in any department. Normal studenC^ 
receive tiaining for instruction in the public schools. Statistics for 1876-*77 : Instruct 
ore, 5; classical students, 7; hterary, 19: normal, 13: independent, 4. — (Catalogue 
1877.) 

WESLEYAN FEMALE COLLEGE, WILMINGTON. 

This institution for the sui>erior instruction of young women includes in its studies- 
music, painting, drawing, I^atin, French, and German, and has apparatus for illustra^ 
tion of chemistiy and physics. There is no library belonging to the college, but thos^« 
of three societies of students aggregate about one thousand volumes. Tliere is n^ 
report of instructore or students for 1877. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The scientific department of Delaware College supplies the place of a distinct agri^ 
cultural and mechanical college for the State. Its course is of 3 years, embracing 
English literature, mathematics, engineering, the physical sciences, and agricultuieu, 
witn Latin, French, or German. The farm of the professor of agriculture, near by, \» 
used as a field of practice aud experiment. For the accommodation of young men- 
who can only leave their homes during the winter, and who do not wish to pursue tm 
full course of collegiate studv, a si)ecial course in agriculture has been arranged t<F 
extend through the months of November, December, January, and February. To this, 
any person of good character over 16 yeare of age may be admitted without prelimi-- 
nary examination, on a simple pledge to conform to the college rules of order and study. 
The instinictore in this department are the same as in the college; scientific stndents^ 
19.— (Catalogue for 1877 and circular for 1877-^78.) 

PROFESSIONAL. 

As stated in reports of previous yeara, there appear to be no professional schools 
within the State, those of the neighboring city of Philadelphia being sufficient for all- 
present needs. 



DELAWARE. 



35 



SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

TRAINING OP THE BLIND, MUTE, AND FEEBLE-MINDED. 

Without institntionB of her own for training these nnfortnnates, Delaware avaihi 
herself of the facilities afforded in this direction by her neighbor Pennsylvania, and 
had under instruction there in 1877 at least 7 deaf-mutes, 5 bund, and 4 feeble-minded 
children. — (Reports of Pennsylvania institutions for these classes.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 
Hon. Jammb H. Grotks, State tupeHnttndent qffree tehodU. Smyrna, 

8TATK BOABD OF BDUCATION. 



Members. 


Term expires. 


Post-office. 


W. H. Pnmell. li* d.. Dreeident of StAte collese. cbftimuin 




Newark. 


J. C. Grnbb. eecretarv of stAte 


Jsnnary, 1879 . . . 


Wilmington. 

Sroyma. 

Milford. 


JtDBHi n. GroTO*. State naneriDtendent of free sobooltT .-, 


N- Pnf t. M- P.. 8t*te ^nditor. lecretAirY . . . r - , . r , - , - r - - , , - r 









36 BEPOBT OF THE C0MMI8SI0NEB OF EDUCATION. 



FI.ORIDA. 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

A Stnte superintendent of public inatructian has 'Hhe OYersight, charge, and ma 
ment of all matters portaining to the public schools, school buildings, grounds, i 
ture, libraries, text books, ana apparatus.'' 

A State hoard of education ^ composed of the State superintendent, secretary of i 
and attorney general, has charge of the school lands and school funds of the Sta 
the preparation for a future State university, and of questions and appeals refen 
it by the superintendent, with cooperative power in the organization of the dt 
ment of instruction for the diffusion of knowledge throughout the State. 

LOCAL. 

County hoards of instruction^ of which the county superintendents of schools ai 
secretaries and agents, have charge, for their respective counties, of all matters 
ing to the establishment, visitation, and general management of public schools 'w 
their field of action, the visitation being by the county superintendent once in 
term at least, and the examination of teachers mainly by him. 

District trustees^ appointed by these county boards^ have like charge and resj 
bility within their nanx)wer spheres; they are to visit the schools once a montJ 
to make quarterly reports of them to the county superintendent. 

The terms of office, in all cases not to exceed four years, are during good behav. 
(School law of 1872.) 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

NO STATE REPORT. 

Partly from a change of the legislative sessions from annual to biennial and j 
from an almost complete change of the school officers of the State in 1877, no rep 
the public schools for 1877 has been published. The State su]>erintendent does uc 
able to furnish even an outline of statistics until the school system shall have bee 
into some fair working onler. For any full infonnation, therefore, we shall pro 
have to await the biennial report for 1878 and 1879. — (Letter from Sux)criute] 
Haisley.) 

SCHOOLS. 

According to the State law of 1872, still in force, the elementary schools are to 
primary, intermediate, and grammar grades; and tne studies in them are to be spe 
reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and history. In the country districts, 
ever, as shown by past State reports, grading has been generally inipracticabl 
appears to have been only carried out in a few of the larger towns. The gradi: 
these has been greatly aided by the requirement of the agent of the Peabody 
that places receiving help from the fund should grade their schools (providing a te 
for every £0 pupils) and make them model schools with sessions of about ton mo 
The towns helped in 1876-77 were Jacksonville. Tallahassee, St. Augustine, Key '' 
Monticello, Ocala, and Pcnsacola. In these, or course, the schools were graded, i 
the condition above mentioned, and the amounts allowed them indicate a total of 
than 1,800 pupils, with an average attendance of over 1,500, taught by some 37 tea< 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Of these Mr. Hicks wrote in 1876: *'The high schools of the State are the Do 
(colored) and Sears (white) High Schools at Key West; the Duval (white) and Stj 
(colored) High Schools at Jacksonville; the Peabody (white) Hi*jh School a 
Augustine ; the Madison High School at Madison ; the Lincoln Academy (colore 
TaUahassee; the Midway, near Miccosukee, in Leon County; the Quincy Acadei 
Quincy; the Jofierson High School at Monticello; the Franklin High School at I 
laehicola, and the Pcnsacola High School, Pcnsacola. These are aU liigh sphools i 
sense that their curriculum of studies embraces Greek, Latin, chemistry, na 
philosophy, astronomy, physiology, botany, and all the higher branches of arithB 
The East and West Florida seminaries, situated at Gainesville and Tallahassee, ai 
included among these, and rank as distinct institutions." How many of these sur 
in 1877 does not appear from any official authority, though efforts have been ma 



FLORIDA. 37 

Mcertain. A private correspondent says that most of the old academies in the list, 

once managed by boards of 5 to 9 trustees, went down at the conclusion of the war. 

Sabsequently, however, they were revived and mn as free schools, though not always 

with success. Under an arrangement with the agent of the Peabody fund in 1867, the 

Jefferson Academy at Monticello, which ha<l survived the war, became also a free 

school, and continued such till the close of 1877, when it reverted to the pay school 

system. "The high school at Jacksonville" (which one is not specilied) is reported by 

the same correspondent to have been in fine order up to the same period, and the Peil- 

sacola Academy to have enrolled 241 scholars, with an average attendance of 209. 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For statistics of all schools of this class in the State, including those of the East and 
West Florida seminaries, which have a special academic character, while aiding some- 
what the public school system, see Table V I of the appendix, and the summary of it in 
the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SUPERIOR AND SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION. 

STATE UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE. 

The constitution of 1868 declares that "the legislature shall provide a * * * 
university." The school law adopted under this constitution is entitled "An act to 
eetablish a uniform system of common schools and a university.'' In section 11 of that 
law the State board of education is required "to use the available income and appro- 
priations to the university or seminary fund in establishing one or more departments 
of the university at sucn place or places as may ofier the best inducements, com- 
mencing with a department of teaching and a preparatory department." The financial 
condition of the State has not thus far been projiitious for such enterijrises, and even 
these incipient departments of the future university are yet to be established. 

The Stat« Agricultural College, meant also to be a department of the university, 
bemg in danger of losing througn lapse of time the land grant made for it by Con- 
gress, was located in 1876 at Eau Gallie. in the southern portion of the State, and 
some buildings were erected for its use. Of its organization and operations since that 
time no report has reached this Bureau. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

NO SCHOOLS. 

As far as known, there are in this State no schools for the instruction of the deaf and 
domb, of the blind, of the feeble-minded, or of those who need to be at once educated 
uul reformed. • 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 
Hon. W. P. Haislkt, State tuperintendent of public imtruethn, TaXlahattM. 

STATE BOABD OF BDUCAT.ON. 

[Termt, January 1, 1877, to Janoary 1, 1881.] 



Membera. 



Pit)£ W. P. Haialey, a. m., State superintendent of pablic instraction, president 

Hon. W. D. Blozharn, aecretary of state 

Hon. George P. Raney, attorney general 

H. N. Felkel, secretary 



Post«offloe. 



Tallahassee. 
Tallahassee. 
Tallahassee. 
Tallahassee. 



38 BEPOBT OF THE C0MMI6SI0NEB OF EDUCATION. 



GEOBGIA. 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GEXERAL. 

The new constitution of 1877 retains as the chief executive officer of the school sys- 
tem a State school commissioner, appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate 
for a term of two ^ears, with the duty of administering the school laws, superintending 
public school business, apportioning the State school moneys, and making biennial re- 
ports. 

As the next legislative assembly, under this constitution, does not meet till Novem- 
ber, 1878, the State board of education called for by the existing school law must hold at 
least till that time. • This board, consisting of the governor, secretary of state, attorney 
general, and comptroller general, with the State school commissioner, is custodian of 
State school lands and funds, serves as an advisory body to the commissioner, and may 
decide appeals from his decisions. 

LOCAL. 

County hoards of education^ are elected in each county every fourth year by the grand 
Jury, and have charge of the formation of school districts, the estabUshment and sap- 
port of schools, the purchase of grounds, erection of school-houses, prescription of t«xt 
books, licensing of teachers, supervision of schools, and determination of local contro- 
versies on school matters, subject to appeal to the State commissioner. 

County school commissionerSj chosen by the county boards, serve as executive officers 
of the boards for examination of teachers, visitation of schools, taking quadrennial cen- 
sus of school children, and making to the State commissioner such reports as he may 
require. — (School law of August 23, 1872, and constitution of 1877.) 

No local officers below these are provided for in the school law, though the existence 
of such seems in one place to be implied. 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

LEGAL PROVISIONS. 

The existing school law requires the county boards to lay ofif their counties into sub- 
districts, in each of which they must establish one or more primary schools : while, in 
those subdi^tricts where the public wants demand ampler educational facilities, they 
are given power to establish ^aded schools from the primary to the high school. They 
are also authorized to organize evening schools for the instruction of such youth, over 
12 years of a^e, as are prevented by their daily occupations from attending day schools, 
and mav institute one or more manual labor schools in each county on a self sustaining 
plan. These last permissions, however, seem to remain substantially dead letters on the 
statute book, the only evening schools attempted having proved too costly for continuous 
support and the self sustaining plan for manual labor schools not havinc been de- 
vised. The minimum school year is three months, except in sparsely settled neighbor- 
hoods, where only a few scholars can be brought together. In such cases schools with 
not less than 15 pupils may continue for two months only, and be held from point to 
point in the same region, so that one teacher may serve two or more such scnools in 
the same year, and scholars within reach of these different schools have the benefit of 
a double or treble school term if desired. Admission to all the public schools during the 
legal school term must be gratuitous to scholars residing in tne snbdistricts in which 
the schools are situated, provided that white and colored children may not attend the 
same school. Confederate soldiers under 30 years of age are also entitled to school 
privileges. The studies in the primary schools are spellmg, reading, writing, English 
grammar, geography, and arithmetic. Beyond that they are not prescribed by law, 
but under the rules of good school boards include, up to the high school, the elements 
of the natural sciences, vocal music, drawing, composition, history, and elocution, in 
addition to more advanced instruction in the preceding studies. — (School law of Au- 
gust 23, 1872, and reports of school boards.) 

GENERAL CONDITION. 

The new constitution of 1877 having changed the sessions of the legislature finom an- 
nual to biennial, the report of the State school commissioner, which nas hitherto been 

1 These boards coDsist of 5 members, aod are chosen for terms of 4 years, part being cbaiu;:ed CTerr 
second year. There are, however, as to the number in the boards, exceptional cases where city and 
connty sjstems are united. 



GEOBOIA. 



39 



Blade aimaallv to that bodv, will not be dae till ^he first session of the biennial assem- 
hly in T^ovember, 1878. We are, therefore, without statistical report of the condit ion 
and progress of the public schools for 1877, except in the cities and one or two of the 
counties connected with thorn. But, in a letter to the Eclectic Teacher, dated Decem- 
ber 22j 1877, Mr. Orr says : 

" You may state in general terms that the public school system of Georgia is steadily 
gaining ground, and may now be considered as firmly established in the 8tate. The 
new constitution incorporates in its provisions the same essential requirements on this 
subject as those contained in the constitution of 1838. This is a great step for us. as 
one of the greatest difficulties in the way of success was for a long time the prejudice 
arising from the manner of the adoption of the common school system. This feeling 
arose from the fact that the instrument above mentioned was made by a body which 
did not represent the people of Georgia, and many of whose acts were very odious to 
them. This sentiment, however, can no longer exist, as the convention of 1877 was 
composed of men of our own selection, and their work has been overwhelmingly rati- 
fied by the people at the polls. Thus a barrier to progress, already melting away, is 
now entirely gone. 

** This year I have continued the canvass prosecuted by me during 1876 [for exciting 
stronger interest in education], have visited many counties, and delivered many ad- 
dresses. I have been aided in this work by a number of influential men in difierent 
parts of the State, a great portion of them being lawyers. I believe much has been 
accomplished in this way. 

" Our school returns every year have shown an increase of attendance over the year 
preceding. AU the reports are not yet in f&r 1877, but I have no reason to believe that 
this year will prove an exception to the rule.'' 

KINDERGARTEN. 

A Kindergarten established at Atlanta in 1876 reports, for 1877, 1 instructor and 7 
pupils 3 to 7 years old. Children are kept in school two and a half to three hours daily 
for 5 days of tho week in a school year of 38 weeks. The conductor reports the usuid 
apparatus for block building, sewing, weaving, pricking patterns, drawing, paper fold- 
ing, paper cutting, and clay modelling, with the usual results of iniprovmg both the 
physical and mental powers of the scholars. 



CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



OFFICERS. 



In Atlanta there is a board of education of 12 members, one-third changed every 2 
jean, with tho mayor as member ex officio; in Columbus, a board of trustees of 11 
members, with provision for a i>eriodical change by choice of the city council. In the 
other cities there appears to be a combination of the city with the county system, each 
having its representatives in the school board. In all the cities here included there 
are superintendents of schools, whose Jurisdiction extends in some cases over the coun- 
ties also. — (City and county reports.) 

STATISTICS. 



City. 



Itluu 

Aagosta... 
ColujnlHis . 

Macon 

Savannah/ 



Popnlation. 



03^000 

C93.768 

«8,G48 



^.935 



Children of 
Bobool age. 



MO, 363 

4.919 

69,455 



66,919 



Enrolment. 



3,990 
9.9t)9 
1.91 a 
1,9J7 
4,081 



Average 
attendance. 



9,409 
1,973 



749 
9,699 



Namber of 
teachers. 



S3 
34 
90 
99 
76 



Ezpendi' 
tare. 



•35.669 

(113.597 

11,133 



49,181 



a Cenaoa of 1875. b Ennmeratlon of 1874. e Ceusna of 1877. d Exclnalve of high acbnola. 

« City cenaaa of 1873. / The atatistica of Savannah necessarily inclndo tboae uf the country schools 
eoDoected with the city ay stem. The proportion of pupils in theae, however, ia very small, a little over 
aae^oarth. g Cenaos of 1870. 

ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. 

Atlanta, — The year of 1876-'77 was one of trial to the schools. For the first time in 
their history the appropriation from the city was insufficient to carry them through tho 
school year. Ccmsequently for 3 months it was necessary to charge tuition fees. This 
diminished the enrolment, but made the attendance in proportion to enrolment fuller 
and more punctual. 

The Saturday meetings of teachers for discussion of methods of instruction and school 
management were enlivened by several interesting lectures, were kept up throughout 
the year, were well attended, and have helped to make the teachers much more effi- 
cient in their work. The result has been that a considerable extension of the course of 



40 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

study has been made practicable, increased skill in teaching enabling each instmctor 
to accomplish more than formerly. 

On each subject stndied in the schools there is a written examination of the pnpils 
every month. The effects of this are said to be increasingly manifest in the neatuea 
and accuracy of the scholars' written work. 

The schools are designated as grammar and high schools, the course in the former 
occupying 8 years, that in the latter 4. There are 2 high schools, one for boys and one 
for gurls. Enrolment of boys, 75 : of girls, 139 ; total, 214. — (Report of Superintendent 
B.Mallon for 1876-77.) 

In Aumiata the classification of schools is into primary, intermediate, grammar, and 
high. The course in the primary and high schools covers, in each case, 3 years: in the 
others, 2. Of the 30 teachers employed in the city schools 10 were colored, the pro- 
priety of having teachers of their own race for the colored children being recognized, 
and the University of Atlanta furnishing them in some fair degree. Normal classes for 
teachers here, as at Atlanta, have aided much in the improvement of the schools. Tlie 
city high schools, one for boys and one for girls, have enrolled 186 pupils. — (Report of 
County Commissioner William H. Fleming tor 1877. ) 

Columbu8 owns 6 school buildings, with 885 sittings; a library of about two thonsand 
miscellaneous books ; a fine cabinet of shells, minerals, and ores ; a good philosophical 
and chemical apparatus, and two pianos — all bought, except the buildings, wim the 
proceeds of annual concerts ^ven by the schools. Uniformity of text books is secured 
oy the city owning and furnishing the books and charging each white scholar able to 
pay $3, (6, or $12 for the use of them each year, according as he may be in the primary, 
grammar, or high school. This charge, remitted to the colored pupils and to about one 
hundred of the whites, covers not merely the text books, however, but also copy books, 
blank books, drawing books, paper, pens, ink, and other stationery. The amount called 
for is believed to be less than pupils would have to pay for such things if purchased by 
themselves, while it prevents all trouble about obtaining what is needed for daily use 
in school. In the high school there is also a charge of $12 a year on each scholar for the 
advanced teaching there afforded, making this school pay its own expenses. Its course, 
nominally 3 years, seems to be practically 2. — (Report of Superintendent George M. 
Dews for 1876-77.) 

Macon rei>orts 22 school rooms capable of seating 878 pupils. The school term of 
1876-77 lasted 7 months. The percentage of whit« children enrolled was 47 : that of 
colored children, 26 ; but there was a falling oflf in attendance during the last two 
months from the necessity of making a charge for that time, on account or an insufficient 
appropriation. — (Report of Superintendent B. M. Zettler for 1876-7^.) 

havann/oh^ because of an epidemic, had to begin her school term two months later 
than usual, but the teachers endeavored to make up this loss of time by increased 
exertions, and were readily seconded by the pupils. The promotions for real progress 
were consequently as numerous as in former years. A reorganization of the schools 
was effectea in January, 1877, by which the two classes of each sex in every grade 
below the high school were brought together and taught a« a single class. The new 
arrangement is reported to have worked well, resulting in a healthy emulation between 
the sexes and in a consequently higher order of recitations. The teachers testify that 
their labors have been sensibly diminished, while the progress of the pupils in general 
has increased. After a trial oi six months the superintendent reports it as his convic- 
tion that the efficiency of the schools has been decidedly promoted by the chan^ 
Under the present organization there are in the city, below the high schools, 5 white 
and 2 colored district schools, divided into 7 or in some instances 8 grades, including 
the primary, intermediate, and grammar classe^^ which heretofore gave names to sep- 
arate schools. — (Report of Superintendent W. H. Baker for 1876-77.) 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS AND NORMAL CLASSES. 

The provision urged by State School Commissioner Orr in his reports for 1875 and 
lij76, for the estabUsnment of three State normal schools, was not made by the legislature 
in 1877. The State, as such, has therefore no means of providing trained teachers for 
the schools, except as they may be prepared at Atlanta University, to which she grants 
an annual appropriation. In fact, a considerable number of the best teachers for col- 
ored schools do come from this institution, which has higher and lower normal depart- 
ments for t\i^ special preparation of teachers for their work. Something is done in the 
same way by the Lewis High School, Macon (Congregational) ; the Haven Normal School, 
Waynesboro, and Clark University, Atlanta (both Methodist) ; St. Augustine School, 
Savannah (Protestant Episcopal) ; and the Augusta Institute, Augusta (Baptist). In 
all these institutions there were^ at the last accounts, 20S distinctively normal students 
and 205 more who could probably be counted on as teachers if their services should be 
required. 

In the several citieS; whose reports have been referred to, there wore weekly or 



GEORGIA. 41 

moDthlv normftl classes, intondecl primarily for the improvement of the teachers already 
in emplojrment, but open also to others who might desire to prepare for teaching. 
Hiroagh these classes, in which edacational questions were discussed and essays on 
school management and other topics presented, the teachers were no doubt largely ben- 
etited. — (Reports and returns to Bureau of Education.) 

For full statistics of normal schools reporting, see Table III of the appendix, and the 
Bommary of this in the Commissioner's Report preceding. 

TEACHEKS' INSTITUTES. 

For these means of improving teachers by instruction in methods of teaching and 
discipline, there is thus far no explicit provision in the school law. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The tables which usually accompany the report of the State school commissioner not 
being available for 1877, the only information as to this class of schools which comes 
to OS is that contained in the reports from cities and three counties in which city and 
eonnty systems are united. The aggregate of students in these schools is not entirely 
dear. 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For full statistics of reporting business <!olleges, private academic schools, prepara- 
tory schools and departments, see Tables IV, VI, VII, and IX of the appendix, with 
the' summaries of these in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

Of the private academic w^hools it may here be said that, while about one-fourth of 
those reporting themselves taught drawing and rather more than one-half music, the 
means for the Illustration of chemistry and physics appear to have been very limited. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

Six colleges and nni versifies in this State send reports for 1877, through special re- 
tnms and catalogues, namely: The Unirermty of Georgia^ Athens; Atlanta UniverHtff^ 
Atlanta ; Mercer Univerntyf Macon ; Gainesville College, Gainesville ; Fio Nono Collea^ 
Macon, and Emory College, Oxford. All these colleges appear to be exclusively for 
yoang men except Atlanta University, which is open also to women, and the college at 
Gainesville, which makes a special point of coeducation. The departments and courses 
of instruction in all from wiiich information on that point has been received remain 
iahstanti^y the same as reported in 1876. For statistics of these colleges, see Table 
IX of the appendix, and summary in the Commissioner's Report preceding. 

Hie Unicergity oj Georgia reports in its academic department II separate schools. 
Every student who is qualified and over 17 years of age, or who has completed the 
prescribed course of the freshman and sophomore years, has the privilege of election 
among the several schools, but his class in each school is determined by the professor. 
The course in each class is prescribed ; likewise the course for each degree. The uni- 
versity comprises 5 departments : the academic ; the State College of Agriculture ; the 
law department ; the North Georgia Agricultural College, at Dahlonega ; and the med- 
ical department^ this last being the Medical College of Georgia, at Augusta. The 
three mrst mentioned are situated at Athens. — (Returns and catalo|^es, 1877.) 

The absence of return from Bowdon College induces the apprehension that the tem- 
porary suspension, mentioned in the report for 1876, may have continued for a longer 
period than was expected. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF YOUNG WOMEN. 

For full statistics of the schools of this class, see Table VIII of the appendix, and 
the Bununary of it in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

(Statittles of InstitiitloDS tinder this head miij be found in Tables X, XI, XII, and Xm of the mppei^ 
dix. and in the sammaries of these in the Commisaioner'a Rnport preceding.] 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The State Agricultural College, Athens, presents 3 regular courses of study, each cov- 
ering 4 years, namely : agriculture, engineering, and applied chemistry. Students may 
elect a partial course or may, in addition to the studies prescribed, attend any of the 
ichools of the nniversitv for which they are prepared, provided that this does not inter- 
fere with the daily scheaule of recitations and lectures. There were CI students attend- 
ing in 1^. State scholarships are granted to as many students, residents of tiMi 



42 REPORT OP TUB COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

State, as there are members of the State house of representatives, the number at 
present being 250. There are also 20 other free scholai^ps. — (Catalogue of aniver- 
flity, 1877.) 

The North Georgia Agricultural College f at Dahlonega, receives a portion of the annual 
income derived from the national land ^aut. The course of study aims to prepare 
students for home and farm life, for the higher classes in the University of Georgia, 
and for the profession of teaching. Tuition is free. — (Catalogue, 1877.) 

THEOLOGICAL. 

The Department of Theology at Mercer University is still one of the 3 departments 
announced in the catalogue, but there is no information to show what is the course 
pursued. There were 15 "ministerial students'* in 1&77. — (Catalogue of Mercer Uni- 
versity, 1877.) 

The Augusta Institute (Baptist), established in 1869 for the benefit of the &e<^dmea 
by the American Baptist Home Missionary Society, reports for 1877 an attendance of 
85 students. This scnool is for the preparation of both preachers and teachers. The 
extent of the course of study is not fixed, but depends on circumstances, and the ex- 
amination for admission is very slight. — (Return and circular, 1877.) 

LEGAL. 

The Law Department of the University of Georgia provides a course of instruction cov- 
ering one continuous year, without vacation. It embraces common and statute law, 
constitutional law, equity, medical jurisprudence, parliamentary law, rhetoric, meta- 
physics as applied to the legal profession, and commercial jurisprudence. Instruction 
IS given by text books, daily recitations, examinations, and expositions, with oral 
lectures. — (Catalogue of university, 1877.) 

The Law School of Mercer University had a class of 4 in 1877 studying international 
and constitutional law, common and statute law, equity jurisprudence, pleading, and 
practice. A diploma of graduation from this school entitles the holder to practise iu 
all the courts in the State. — (Catalogue of Mercer University, 1877.) 

MEDICAL. 

The Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, a department of 4he State university, reports 
an attendance for 1877 of 46 students, besides 40 who only took the course in chemis- 
try. Among the facilities for instruction enumerated are a library of about five thou- 
sand volumes, an extensive chemical laboratory, good anatomical facilities, and a full 
O'ttbinet of materia medica, besides two hospitals and the city dispensary for clinical 
practice and illustration. To obtain a degree, students must have attended two full 
courses of lectures, in addition to the usual private readings. — (Catalogue of State 
university, 1877.) 

From the Savannah Medical College there is neither return nor catalogue for 1877. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

GEORGIA ACADEMY FOR THE BLIND, MACON. 

This institution reports for 1876-77 an attendance of 63 pupils, who were instructed 
iu the common English branches; also, vocal and instrumental music, besides the em- 
ployments of broom making, mattress making, cane seating, sewing, and fancy work. 
The library numbers 1,000 volumes. — (Return and report or the academy, 1877.) 

GEORGIA INSTITUTION FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB, CAVE SPRING. 

No report from this school has been received since the appearance of the one for 
1^6, when a principal and three assistant teachers, with a steward, matron^ master of 
piinting office, and master of shoeshop, were reported, having under their care 107 
pupils. A neighboring property for a branch institution for instruction of colored deaf- 
mutes had then been purchased, and appropriations for the improvement of this prop- 
erty and for the support of a class of colored mutes were asked. It is intended that 
this shall be conducted as an entirely separate establishment, but on tlie same plan 
as the other and under the control of the same trustees. 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

teachers' ASSOCIATION. 

The eleventh annual meetinif of the Georgia Teachers' Association convened in Too- 
coa City, August 7, 1B77, remaming in session three days. 

Among the addresses and papers presented were the following: "The work of edu- 
cators," oy T. E. Atkinson, principal of the high school, Senoia; ** Influence of school 
life upon eyesight," by Dr. A. W. Calhoun, of Atlanta; "Analysis of the English sen- 
tence," by Mi. W. B.Bonnell, principal of the Walker Street School, Atlanta; "Tift^ 



OEOBQIA. 43 

utility of mathematics and the "best method of teaching it/' by Hon. G. J. Orr, State 
school conmiissioner; **The right of the State to educate," by Hon. H. A. M. Hender- 
son, of Kentucky; **The geology of Georgia," by Dr. George Little, State geologist; 
'* Practical education," by Profiissor O. D. Smith, of the State Aflricultural Colfege, 
iQbum; "The teacher the practical metaphysician and philosopner," by Rev. H. T. 
Morton ; " How to supply teachers for our country schools ; a plea for normal training," 
by W. P. Price, president of the board of trustees of North Georgia Agricultural 
College; "The relation between high schools and colleges/* by C. MTNeel, principal 
of Kirkwood High School; "The State and education/' by Hon. Joseph B. Gumming, 
of Augusta; "What can we do to improve education m our smaller towns T" by Col. 
A P. Mooty, superintendent of public schools. West Point j and "Methods in geometry," 
by Hon. Samuel Bamett, of Washington, Ga. The association also listened to remarks 
from the venerable Dr. Means, the oldest teacher and one of the most eloquent men in 
Georgia; from J. H. Carlyle, D. D., president of Woflford CoUege, S. C. ; and from Hon. 
Hugh S. Thompson, superintendent of public education in South Carolina, who were 
present as visitors. All the important topics presented were fireely and sometimes 
laigely discuBsed. — (Published proceedings.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 
Hon. GuBTAYUS J. Oan, State MehooleommiuUmer^ Aikmia. 

STATK BOABD OF EDUCATION. 

[Tenn of office expires January, 1881.] 



Members. 



Post-offioe. 



His SxeelleDoy Alfred Colquitt^ president 

Hon. N. C. Bamett, secretary of state 

Hon. W. L. Goldsmith, oomptroUer general 

Hon. K. J. Hammond, attorney genmd 

Hon. Gostavns J. Orr, State sgImoI oommissioner. 



Atlanta. 
Atlanta. 
Atlanta. 
Atlanta. 
Atlanta. 



44 



BEPOBT OF THE COHMISSIONEB OF EDUCATION. 



iixiNon 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



• 


1875-76. 


1876-77. 


Increase. 


Decxease. 


POPULiLTION AND AITENDANCE. 

Youth of school acre f 6-21) 


973,589 
667,446 


992,354 

694,489 

420, 031 

59,375 

12,083 


18,765 
27,043 




Enrolled in nublio schools 




A veraso dauv attendance 




Enrolled in Drivate schools. .......... 


49,375 

11,693 

150.48 

822 

110 

527 

9,295 

12,826 

22, 121 

$47 96 

33 30 

1,276 

|8, 448, 467 
8, 168, 539 


10,000 
390 




SCHOOLS. 

Public school-houses 




Average term of school in days 

Public Graded schools 










Public hich schools 








Private schools 








TEACHEBS AND THEIR PAY. 

Male teachers in public schools 

Female teachers in public schools 


9,162 
12, 836 
21,998 
$46 17 

32 23 


• 


133 


10 




Whole number 


123 


Average monthly pay of males 

Average monthly pay of females 

Teachers in private schools 




$1 79 
1 07 








INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Whole income for public schools 

Whole expenditure for public schools. 

PROPORTION OF EXPENDITURE. 

Per canita of school Bonulation. ...... 


$9, 640, 340 
7,388,596 

(7 45 
10 63 


$1,191,873 




$779,943 




Per canitrA of enrolment- - .^^, , 








STATE SCHOOL FUND. ^ 

Amount of permanent school fund 

SCHOOL PROPERTY. 

Estimated value of sites, buildings, 
furniture, &o. 


$5, 752, 565 
$18,058,386 






$17,783,929 




$274,457 





(From printed report and written return of Hon. S. M. Etter, State superintendent 
of public instruction, for 1875-76, and written return for 1876-77, for which year there 
is yet no printed repNDit.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

For the State at large, the one officer charged with the care of all public school interests 
is a State superintendent ofpublio instruction , chosen every fourth year by the people. 

LOCAL. 

For counties ther(3 are county superintendents of schools, also chosen every fourth year 
by the people, te apportion the scnool funds, inspect the schools, examine and license 



ILLINOIS. 45 

teachen, manage teachers' institutes, and make annual or biennial report to the State 
aaneriutendent, as he may direct. 

For townships there are three truateee chosen by the people for terms of three years 
each, one beine changed each year. These care for the township school lands, and, 
with the aid of a treasurer appointed by them, for funds arising from these or other 
sources for the schools. They settle the boundaries of school districts, apportion to 
them the annual school fund, and make to the county superintendont biennial reports 
concerning the schools of their township. 

For school districts, there are, in ordinary cases, three directors chosen by the voters 
in each district for terms of three years, one being liable to change each year. Theses 
levy taxes for all school purposes within their districts ; make annual report to the 
district meeting of their receipts and expenditures for such purposes, as also of the 
illiterates within the district between the ages of twelve and twenty -one, with a state- 
ment of the causes of the illiteracy. They appoint teachers for the district schools, 
fix their salaries, determine the branches of study to be taught and the text books and 
apparatus to be used, and are bound to keep open in their district enough free schools 
for all the children of school age who need instruction. The clerk ot each district 
board of directors reports annuauy to the township treasurer the statistics of the schools 
thus held. 

For districts with two thousand inhabitants there are elected, instead of three di- 
rectors, hoards of education of 6 members, with 3 additional for every additional 10,000 
inhabitants. In cities with a population of 100,000 the board of education for each 




1874.) 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

QENERAX CONDITION. 

The reports in this State are only published biennially, and none is dne for the year 
187&-77. The return for that year, kindly furnished by the State superintendent, 
ihows the following facts: (1) That there was an increase over the preceding year of 
18,765 in the schoofpopulation, with a much more than corresponding increase in the 
enrolment in public and private schools, it advancing 27,043 in the ibrmer and 10,000 
in the latter ; (2) that to meet this increase of children of school age theve was am^ie 
provision on the part of the authorities in 390 additional public school-houses ; (3) that, 
probably from the stringency of the times, there has been a decrease of 123 in the num 
ber of teachers employed in the public schools, with a diminution also of $1.79 in tho 
averace monthly pay of men and $1.07 in that of women; (4) that while the receipts 
for school purposes have been augmented by $1,191,873 the expenditures have been 
redaced by $779,943, leaving, of course, a considerable remainder to be applied to an 
increase of the permanent fund or to meeting the exigencies of another year. 

A diminution in the estimated value of school sites, buildings, furniture, dc^c, amount 
ing to $274,457, goes for nothing, as it is greatlv less than the proportion of shrinka;^» 
in the value of any other class of property of like amount, the whole valuation having 
been $18,058,386 in the preceding year. 

The return throughout indicates active energy and wise economy in administration, 
as well as a wonderfully prosperous condition of the schools for such a time of trial. 

kinderoabtrn. 

Pour schools of this class, all in Chicago, and two of them under German influences, 
report for 1877 a total of 111 children, 3 to 9 years of age, under the instruction of 8 
teachers for three or four hours daily 5 da^s in each week during a school year of 40 
weeks. AU the Kindergarten apparatus is said to be possessed, and the customary 
occapations were pursued, with tne results of quickened intelligence and clearer sense 
of (nder, form, and beauty. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

OFFICERS. 

Except where special acts have made other arrangements, cities remain parts of the 
school townships in which they are situated, and come under the general law, which 
requires in school districts of not less than 2,000 inhabitants a board of education of 
6 members, with 3 more for each additional 10,000 inhabitants. Boards are chosen 
for terms of 3 years each, and one-third changed by annual election. Chicago has a 
board of 15 members chosen under the same conditions ; Jacksonville, one composed of 
the mayor and a member from each ward, chosen by the council ; Peoria, one composed 
of the mayor and two from each ward, elected by the people ; Springfield, one of 9 
members, chosen by the council; in each case with provisions for partial annual choni^^^. 



46 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



In almost all cases, if not in all, city superintendents serve as the agents of the boards.- 
(General and special laws.) 

STATISTICS. 



CitieB. 


Popnlation. 


Children of 
school age. 


Enrolment. 


Average at- 
tendanoe. 


Teaohera. 


Erpenditaxe. 


Alton 


10.500 
13.000 
85.000 
0405,291 
10,000 
14,000 
13,000 
14,000 
38,000 
33.000 
14.000 
11,100 


3,164 
4,467 
7.393 
alio, 184 
3,094 
4.137 
3.682 
3.557 
8.881 
8.511 
4.901 
3.567 


1.496 
1,964 
3,486 
653, 5*29 
1.869 
8,831 
1, 844 
8,606 
4,173 
3,554 
3,100 
1,955 
8,559 




21 
40 
64 
751 
89 
34 
34 
36 
67 
55 
SO 
36 
43 


§15. on 


Belleville 


1,6)3 
8,394 
C37, 133 
1,331 
1,535 
1.853 
1.500 
3,783 
8,335 
1.9(0 
1,400 
3.058 


35,013 


Bloomington 

Chicaffo 


65,539 
684 534 


Decfttor 


89 910 


Galeeborf? 

Jaokaoo viUe 

Joliet 


80,813 

ao,6.'M> 

76.795 


Peoria 


Qniocy 


54,333 


Rockford 

HooklslaDd 

Springfield 


43,631 
35,433 
35,867 











a Censna of September, 1876. b Besides 18,664 in private and parochial schools and 3,(h29 in evening 
•ehoola. c Besides 1,000 in evening schools. 

ADDITIONAL PARTICUIABA. 

Alton rei)ort8 only by written return through Superintendent E. A. Haigfat, giving 
the figures embodied in the table, with the additions that her school buildings numberea 
6 ; that the estimated value of these, with their sites, apparatus, furniture, ^bc., was 
$75,500 ; and that, besides the 1,498 enrolled in her public schools, there were about 
600 in private and parochial schools. 

Belleville. — There has been here a steady increase in all respects except in the num- 
ber of teachers, an average of 52 pupils being taught in 1876-77 by one teacher. The 
percentage of average daily attendance on the number enrolled shows a fair regularity 
of attendance, while punctuality in such attendance has considerably increased. The 
discontinuance of a school for colored children, and the consequent admission of these 
Into the re^lar classes, is reported to have been attended with the happiest results to 
the colored pupils thus admitted, improved behavior, better appearance^ and much 
greater attention to study having been developed. There have been special teacheis 
of German employed, but it appears that hereafter that language is to be taught by 
the regular class teachers, aud is to have one hour a day given to it. — (Report for 
1876-77.) 

Bloomington. — The written return of Superintendent Sarah E. Ra^ond shows, 
besides the statistics in the table, 11 school buildings, giving 2,670 sittings for study, 
and valued, with their grounds, furniture, aud apparatus, at $230,471. 

Chicago. — In addition to the 53,529 pupils attending public schools, 18,664 were en- 
rolled in private schools, and 20,767 youth of legal school age, it is estimated, were at 
regular employment, making 92,960 profitably engaged for at least a part of the year. 
Making allowance for those unable to atteua school by reason of home necessities or 
sickness, it is estimated that there still remains upon the streets of the city an army 
of over six thousand idle children without a day's schooling in the year. To this number 
may be added from two thousand to three thousand more whose attendance upon school 
is so brief as to be almost valueless. Many of these youth now crowing up in i^orance 
and indolence, the superintendent thinks, would be in school if they could find a place 
for regular and full instruction within a reasonable distance of their homes. The num- 
ber of sittings for study in buildings owned by the board is. however, only 37,489 ; in 
buildings rented^ 4.191 ; total, 41,680. At least 10,000 additional stsats are needed. 
This lack is partially met by half-day divisions and by crowding. About 6,000 pupils 
go to school but half a day and not less than 5,000 go to school in rented buildings, 
most of which are entirely unfit for school purposes and in which there is often most 
inconvenient crowding. 

Attendance upon the grammar department is slightly less than in the previous year, 
but this loss is made up by the largely increased attendance upon the high schools, 
mainly due to the estaolishment of the division high schools, with a shorter course, 
principally English in it:^ character, llie demand for classical study is apparent in the 
recent introduction of Latin into these schools. The number of pupils attending the 
Central High School was 646, while at the Division High Schools there was an enrol- 
ment of 902. 

Instruction in German is now limited to the grammar and high schools. There were 
2,093 pupils studying it, of whom 1,096 were of German parentage, 535 of American, 
and 462 of other nationalities. 

The normal school has been temporarily closed, because it was graduating mors 
teachers than could be employed in the city. 



ILLINOIS. 47 

An nngraded nrliool room wa* opened in enoh of 4 /^raramar whool bnildings for the 
benefit of those pnpils who, for various reasons, need special individual instruc'ion 
and supervision. The result was good. Some pupils were prepared to go on with 
*^heir classes after a few weeks of individual instruction in subjects upon which they 
were deticient, and they were thus saved the necessity of falling back in their course. 

The number of pupils attending the deaf-mute schools sustained by the l>oard of 
education was not as large as it should have been owing to the distance of the school 
from the homes of many of the children. Remarkable progress, considering the diffi- 
culties to be overcome, was made in reading, writing, arithmetic, and composition; 
and a number took up the study of geogi-aphy. — (Repoit for 1876-77.) 

DeiMtur. — Average per cent, of attendance, 94 ; per cent, of tardiness, 47 ; cost of 
instruction for each pupil, based on average daily attendance, $18.67 ; average attend- 
ance in high school, 165 ; teachers in high school, 5 ; average attendance to each teacher 
in high school, 33; in ward schools, 48. Sittings for study, 1,728, in buildings valued, 
with their sites, furniture, and apparatus, at $9.5,000; enrolment in private and parochial 
■chools, 200. — (Report and return for 187G-'77.) 

GiUesburg. — A written return from Superintendent M. Andrews states that drawing 
is taught by the regular teachers, and gives $112,815 as the valuation of all school 
property, without specifying the number of buildings. There were, however, .33 school 
rooms, with sittings for 2,1(X) pupils. 

Jacksonville. — Tne niunber of school buildings here is 8, giving sittings for 1.600 pupils ; 
valuation, with their grounds, furniture, &c., $159,900. lu private ana parochial 
echools there were about 1,000 pupils. The enrolment in the public schools was larger 
in 1876-*77 than during any previous year. The percent iige of at tendance ou enrolment, 
however, slightly decreased. Fifty-two pnpils were neither absent nor tardy. There 
was an enrounent of 1C3 in the high school and 14 graduates in 1877, one of whom was 
colored, the first of that race who has completed the public school course in this (!ity ; 
where, it is remarked, the problems of sex and color have been quietly solved without 
any ot the trouble that has been experienced in some other cities. For the first grade 
of the schools the Kindergarten system has been adopted as far as practicable. — (Re|>ort 
for 1876-77 and return for the same year. ) 

From JoUet there is only a return by Superintendent Joseph F. Perry, indicating, 
besides the tabular statistics already given, the possession of 8 nublic school buildings, 
with 1,692 sittings and a valuation of $65^650; while, in addition to these, appear 7 
private and parocnial schools, with 604 pupils. 

Peoria. — The public schools here are housed in 9 buildings, valued, with their sites, 
at $157,300, and are graded as primary, grammar, and high, each covering a perio<l of 
4 years. There was an attendance of l,5r.7 pupils upon private schools, which, with 
the public school enrolment, gives a total of 5,730. The average daily attendance of 
papils in the high school was 163 ; graduates, 21 in 1877. This school has a well selected 
library of 1,200 volumes. Good progress was made in drawing during the year, partly 
stimulated by prizes offered at the agricultural fair for the best specimens ; but the 
necessity for economy in expenditure prevented the employment of special teachers 
either in this study or in music, and caused the services of a superintendent of schools 
lo be dispensed with. — (Report for 1877. ) 

Quincp, through Superintendent T. W. Macfall, makes return of 9 public school build- 
ings, with 2,950 sittings for study and a valuation of $217,000 for all school pro]iertv. 
Id private and parochial schools there was an estimated enrolment of 1,800 ])upils 
additional to the 3,554 in public schools. A special teacher of German was employed 
in the public schools. 

BocJ;ford, through the principal of her West High School, reports 10 public school 
buildings, valued at $120,000^ and an enrolment of 475 pupils in private and church 
schools, making, with those in public schools, a total of 2,575 under instruction. 

Bock IsUind, through a return from Superintendent J. F. Everett, gives 6 as the 
number of school buildings, with 1,100 sittings for the primary' pupils, 780 for those in 
the grammar schools, and 120 for those in the nieh school. The valuation of all public 
school property was $112,600. In private schools there were 450 pupils, making, with 
the 1,955 in public schools, 2,405 receiving some form of schooling. 

SprittgMd makes fuil printed report of her schools through Superintendent Andrew 
H. Brooks, showing that good order was maintained during the year, with few com- 
plaints of undue severity in discipline ; that careful attention was given to the slate 
work of the primary departments, one day in each month being spent in looking over 
the drawing and penmanship ; that at the close of the summer term there was a thorough 
written examination of the nigher grades, carried on through three days; and that no 
pupil was promoted from these grades to the hi^h school who did not receive at leaift 
an average of 70 per cent, credit marks, most going much above this. Reading in the 
Phonetic Primer and First Reader is begun here the first year, in connectitm with the 
elements of drawing, music, and botany, besides writing, arithmetic, grammar, and 
geography ; and these studies are carried steadily on, in regulai'ly ascending progression, 
through the 8 grades below the high school. This school had an average registration 
of 173 pupils in its 4 classes, an average attendance of 152, and graduated 28 m 1677.^- 
(Beport for 1876-77.) 



48 REPORT OF THE C0MMIS8I0KER OF EDUCATION. 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

The Illinois State Normal University y at Normal^ includes a normal and a model depari- 
Tnent, the latter with primary, grammar, and hi^h school grades. The former, iu 
]h{76-'77, numbered 4'36'y the latter, 229. Tuition in the noiinal department is free.— 
(Catalogue, ISTtJ-*??.) 

Southern Illinois I^-ormal University j at Carbondale, has two department-s, a normal, 
with a course of study occupying' 4 ^ears, and a preparatory normal of 3 yeais. The 
number of students in normal studies iu 1876-77 was 308 ; in other studies, 146. — 
(Return and catalogue, 1876-77.) 

The Dover Narmal Scliool^ at Dover, was organized in 1876, with 70 students in att-end- 
ance. TTie course of instruction covers 3 years. There is a preparatory course of one 
year for those who need it. Total attendance during the year, 112. — (Catalogue and 
return, 1876-77.) 

Cook County Normal School, at ^nclewood, has 3 departments^ the normal, the pre- 
paratory^ and the training or model school. Tuition is Iree to residents of Cook County. 
The studies of the normal department cover 3 years. The number of students in 1876-77 
was 245. — (Return for that year.) 

The Northwestern German-English Normal School, Galena, under the auspices of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, reports 4 resident instructors and 69 normal students for 
1877, with 31 other students; course, 3 years; graduates in 1877, 7, of whom 4 engaged 
iu teaching. — (Return.) 

Another school, styling itself normal and scientific, makes a report, but shows no 
normal students. 

NORMAL DEPARTMENTS. 

In addition to the foregoing, facilities for preparing to teach are afforded^ to a 
greater or less extent, either in regular courses or in special classes connectea with 
Abingdon, Eureka, Ewing, Illinois Agricultural, Monmouth, and Westfield Colleges, 
and in the Wesleyan and Rock River Universities. 

teachers' institutes. 

In the absence of a State report, it is impossible to tell, with cert-ainty, what number 
of these means of improving teachers were hold during the year or how many availed 
themselves of them. At lea^it one in each county may be supposed, besides many held 
by other than county superintendents. State Superintendent Etter wrote in June, 
1877, that he was already engaged to be present at 51. One, with the chai-acter of a 
summer vucatiou school, was hold at Jacksonville, for instruction in elocution, and had 
at Iviast sufficient attendance to encourage the holding of it in another year. At 
8prin«Tfield, one tor the teachers in the city schools has been held as often a« once a 
month. 

educational journals. 

The Educational Weekly, published at Chicago, continued during 1877 to do ex- 
cellent service, not only by printing the freshest news respecting schools in IllinoM 
and the surrounding States, but also by lively discussion of a great variety of impor- 
taut educational questions and by publishing many most useful articles on the improve- 
ment of methods of instruction. 

The Practical Teacher, a monthly much resembling this, aided greatly in the same 
good work by kindred publications. 

Barnes' Educational Monthly, published simultaneously in Chicago and New York, 
continued its work in the same direction during 1877. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

From lack of a State report for 1877, the number of these schools for the year cannot 
be given. For 1875 there were 133 reported ; for 1876, a number less by 23. In neither 
of these years was there a report of the attendance, save in the case of 4 township 
schools. 

In the high schools of Chicaffo there were 1,548 pupils in 1876-77^ 646 in the full 
course of the Central School and 902 in the shorter course of the Division Schools. In 
those of Decatur, Jacksonville, Peoria, Rock Island, and Springfield 762 more were 
rcrport«d. In returns from other cities the existence of high schools is indicated, bat 
no clear statistics of them are given. 

other secondary schools. 

F'or the statistics of business colleges, private secondary schools, preparatory schools, 
and preparatory departments of colleges and universities, see Taofes IV, VI, VII, and 
IX in the appendix, and the summaries of these in the Report of the Commissioner 
preceding. 



ILLINOI& 49 



SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

Of the 23 colleges and universities in the State reporting, all but 5 are open to both 
sexes and report over ^iOO young women in regular /M)llegiate classcB, besides a number 
in special or partial courses. lor statistics, see Taules VlII and IX of the appendix, 
and snmmariej of these in the Commissioner's Renort preceding. 

TTie Illinois Industrial Unirersity, at Urbana, which is at once the State university 
and agricultural and mechanical college, claims to be a true university in the beet 
American sense, though diflering designedly in the character of some of its colleges 
fiiHn the older institutions of this country. It is divided into four colleges, namely : 
Agriculture, engineering, natural science, and literature and science. These colleges are 
subdivided into schools, each one of which is understood to embrace the course of instrue- 
tion neeilful for some one profession or vocation. The various schools, now number- 
ing 14, are arranged as reported last year, with the exception that a school of art and 
desi^ has been placed among the additional schools and the school of domestic science 
has been constituted one of the regular schools in the college of natural science. In 
the college of literature and science, embracing the schools of English and modem 
lan^ages and of ancient languages and literature, the plan of instruction embraeeo, 
besides the ordinary text book study, lectures and practical exercises, including origi- 
nal researches, essays, criticism, proof reading, and other work intended to illustrate 
the studies pursued and to exercise the student's powers. Of the 126 students in the 
coUege of literature and science, 41 were women. Tuition is free in all departmeD<» 
of the uuivcrs»ity. — (Catalogue, 1876-'77.) 

The Illinois JVesleyan Unirersityj at Bloomington, embraces collegiate, law, music, and 
preparatory departments. The first includes classical and scientific courses, each cov- 
ering 4 years. Provision is al» made for graduate and non-resident courses. Women, 
are ailmitted to all departments, both as students and instructors. — (Catalogue. 
1876-'77.) 

Carthage College^ Carthage, from its catalogue for 1877, apx>ears to have but two 
Gooraes in its collegiate department, the classical and scientific. No mention this year 
is made of the xdiilosophical department reported in 187G. Women arc admitted to 
either course and receive the corresponding degree, but with them the Greek and 
calcolns are optional. 

Northwestern University, at Evanston, reports 6 departments besides the Garrett Bib- 
lical Institute, which, though situated upon the same grounds as the university and 
closely linked with it, is under a distinct corporate government. The departments are 
(1) college of literature and science, (2) woman's college of literature and art, (3) 
ooiiser\'atory of music, (4) college of medicine, (5) college of law, and (6) prepara- 
tory school. The college of literature and science now prcHents 4 courses of study, 
each requiring 4 years' work^ namely : the clxissica], the Latin and scientific, modem 
hterature and art, and the scientific. All the university courses are open to women, t- 
(Catalogne, 1877.) 

Illinois Colkge^ at Jacksonville, has added another year to its scientific course, making 
it equal to the classical in length. Whipple Academy is under the management of the 
college, and constitutes its preparatory department. — (Catalogue. 1877.) 

The collegiate department of Westfiel^, CollegOy at Westfield, nas discontinued its 
ladies' course, considering it unnecessary, since young women are admitted to all the 
privileges of the institution in the shape of classes and degrees. — (Catalogue, 1877.) 

In the remaining colleges the departments and courses of instruction, as far as the 
information of the Bureau extends, are substantially as reported in 1876. 

Information from Rock River University is to the efifect that this institution was 
closed in 1877, to remain thus for a year, when it was expected to reopen. 

No reports for 1877 have been received from Abingdon College, Hedding College, St. 
Yiateurs College, or Illinois Agricultural College, the last being (as stated in the report 
for 1876), by reason of its amended ohiuter, a literary and not an agricultural insti- 
tation. 

COLLEGES FOR WOMEN. 

Besides the colleges open to young women in common with young men, 8 especially 
devoted to the superior instruction of women report statistics for the first session of 
1877-^8, for which see Table VIII of the appendix, and a summary of this in the Com- 
mlflsioner's Report preceding. All these institutions are chartered, all teach music, draw- 
ing, painting, French, and German, save one which omits the French, while another 
adwLs Latin to the two other tongues. Six have apparatus for illustration of che mistry 
and physics, 4 have cabinets of natural history, 1 nas an art gallery, and 3 have gym- 
ff«Mrinm>. Seven re]>ort libraries ranging from 400 to 3,000 volumes. — (Returns.) 

4s 



50 BEPOET OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

(For fall statistics, see Tables X-XIII of the appendix, aod summaries of these la the Beport of the 

Commissiumr prcceUiog.] 

SCIENTIFIC. 

The Illinois Induitirial Umveraity, Urbana, furnishes scientific and industrial training 
iflvits colleges of natural science, agiiculture, and engineering; also, in the addition^ 
Bohools of military science, commerce, and art and design. Vocal and instrumental 
masic, telegraphy, and photography are taught, but not as parts of the regular courses. 
It has been the aim to give to the college of agriculture the largest doveloi)ment prac- 
ticable. The instruction unites theory and practice as far as possible. Technical studies 
are taught in connection with or followuig instruction in the sciences to which they 
are especially related, the chief means of instruction being lectures, with careful read- 
ings of standard agricultural books and periodicals and frequent oral and written dis- 
cussions by the students of the principles presented. These are also illustrated by 
demonstrations and observations in the fields and stables. The college has a stock 
farm of 410 acres, provided with a lai^e stock bam ; also, an experimental farm of 80 
acres. 

Scientific departments or courses exist, too, in Abingdon College, Blackburn Uni- 
Tersity, Carthage College, University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and 
Northwestern College, Ewing, Illinois, McKendree, Monmouth, and Westfield Col- 
leges and Lake Forest and Lombard Universities. In Westfield College a department 
oi natural science receives especial attention, a full analysis of various specimens in 
Eoology illualTative of one branch, one class, several orders, &c., being required from 
each student, at first with the aid of books of reference, afterward, as far as possible, 
without other aid than the specimens. These analyses are handed to the teacher for 
criticism, like other written exercises. — (Catalogues and letter from the instructor at 
Westfield.) 

THEOLOGICAL. 

Instruction in theology is ^ven by 5 independent theological schools, also in classes 
or dopai-tments connected with several colleges of the State. The schools referred to 
are Chicago Theological Seminary (Con^gational), Presbyterian Theological Seminary of 
ike Northwest, at Chici^o, Garrett Bibltoal Institute, at Evanston (Methodist Episcopal), 
Baptist Union Theological Seminary, near Chicago, and Augustana Theological Seminary, 
Rock Island (Evangelical Lutheran^. These have courses of study covering 3 years, 
with the exception of the last, whicn has one of 2 years. In the tlu^ee first mentionea 
a total of 73 students out of 172 had received degrees in letters or science. — (Returns, 
1877.) 

Theological departments, with conisee covering 3, 2, and 3 years, respectively, are 
reported by Blackburn UnioersUy, CarUnville; Northwestern College, Naperville, and 
L&teoln University, Lincoln. The department at Blackburn University, m>m its cata- 
logue of 1877, appears to have no theological students. 

In addition to the above, a limited course of instruction in theology is given in the 
Wesleyan University, at Bloomington; in St. Joseph* s EccleHastical College, Teutopolis; 
in McKendree CoUege, Lebanon, and in Eureka College, Eureka. — (Catalogues, 1877.) 

LEGAL. 

The law schools from which reports have been received for 1877 are the Union College 
of Law of the Chicago and Northwestern Universities and the law departments of ilU- 
neis Weslejfan University and of McKendree CoUege, These all provide a 2 years' course 
of instruction. Eight of the 15 young men studying law at McKendree College bad 
received degrees in letters or science. — (Returns and catalogues.) 

MEDICAL. 

The two regular medical colleges in Chicago reporting, namely, the Rush MetUoaX 
ChUege, a department of Chicago University, and Chicago Medical College, a department 
of ^e Northwestern University, had respectively an attendance in 1877 of 392 and 156 
stadents, respectively. Of the tot-al number attending both colleges, 103 students had 
leoeived degrees in letters or science. The course covers 3 years and attendance upon 
two full courses of lectures is required for graduation. A spring course additional to 
the regular one has recently been introduced at Rush College, consisting of locturw 
asd recitations at the college and clinical instruction at the hospital and dispensaries. 

Bennett Medical College, at Chicago (eclectic), ofifers a course of equal length with the 
fttegoin^. — (Catalogue for 1877.) 

The Chicago Homoeopathic College and the Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago, rex>ort 
for the winter course of 1877-^78 a total of 28-2 students, of whom 39 had received degreed 
in letters or science. The course in the former is 2 years of 28 weeks each ; in the lat- 
ter, 2 to 3 yeare of 22 weeks each, with a spring term of 10 weeks. — (Returns.) 



ILLINOIS. 51 

The C^co/QO CoUege of Pharmacy reports an attendance of Gl stadents, tangbt by 
5 pitkfeaBora and inBtmctois. Its coarse of study covers 2 years. A knowledge of 
medical botany is essential to obtain a diploma. — (Rctom, 1877.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

TUB BLIND. 

The Illinois InsUtutionfor the EduocUioa of the Blindy at Jacksonville, reports for the 
session of 1877-78, instructors, 9; other employes, 23; pupils, 121. besides the com- 
mon school studies and music, the children arc taught broom and brush making, chair 
seating, sewing, embroidery, and bead work. Volumes in library, 77G; increase im the 
last year, 60. 

THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

The Illinois Institution for the Edvcation of the Deaf and Dumhj also at Jacksonville, 
aeeoniing to its printed i-ejiort for 1876-77, had, besides its sniKirintendent, 15 teachers 
in its literary department, 3 in the department of articulation, 2 in that of ait, with 
foremen in the industrial and 11 other employes. There were 484 pupils on the rollsL 
with an attendance of 459 duriug the year. Industrial occupations, such as farm and 
gard^i work, shoemaking, cabinet making, and printing, enter into the course of 
training in connection with the usual school studies, with training in articulation and 
tome instruction in art. A new building for the industrial occupations pursued was 
in process of erection, to be completed by the winter of 1877-78. The library numbers 
^000 volnmes, having added f>00 during the year. 

The Chicago Datf sSuwlfor Deaf-Mutes^ under the control of the city board of educa- 
tion, had in it, at the date of the annual return, 2 male and 2 female pupils under 3 
instnictors in reading, writing, spelling, grammar, arithmetic, geography, and draw- 
ing. 

THE FEEBLE-MINDED. 

The mimois Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, at Lincoln, had In it for the fall and 
winter term of 1877-78 a total of 50 instructors and other employ<^s, with 182 children 
under training in reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and such industrial pursuits 
as tend to develop a capacity for useful occupation. — (Return.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

STATE ASSOCIATION. 

Tlie twenty-fourth annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association was held at 
Springfield, December 26-28, 1877. 

After an address of welcome by Governor Cnllom, President Lewis delivered the 
aonnal discourse, in which' he sketched briefly tlie histon^ of the association and its 
progress during the past year, and spoke of the beneiits of associated work in the pro- 
lesnon. 

On tbe second day, Superintendent Brooks, of Snringfield, and J. H. Blodgett, of 
Bockford, discussed the question, *' Should our hign scnools give instruction in the 
elements of }>olitical economy f The next topic lor discussion was, '* What can be 
done to develop in our students a higher taste in English literature 1" This was dis- 
eossed by Professors J. H. Ely, of Mount Carroll, and H. L. Boltwood, of Princeton. 
Dr. Baily, of Lake Forest University, presented a paper on *' Manners and morals 
in 'our public schools." Papers on " Public high schools" were offered by Dr. New- 
ton Bateman, of Knox College, and Dr. J. M. Gregory^ of the Industrial Uni- 
Teraity. The question, ''What can be done to make our pupils speak better English f " 
was discussed by Prof. O. E. Haven, of Evanston, and J. T. Rav, of Oregon. In the 
evening a lecture was delivered by Dr. McCosh, of Princeton College, on the theme 
"Upper schools necessary to elementary instruction." 

The discussion of the following day was opened by Dr. AUyn upon the subject, " How 
riiall onr county superintendency be made more efiective f " Ho was followed in a few 
brief remaiks by Hon. S. M. Etter, superintendent of public instruction. A paper was 
read by C. I. Parker on the qnestion, ''Do we have too manv examinations f" He 
was followed by P. Walker^ of Rochelle, and E. A. Gastman, of Decatur. Mrs. Abby 
8age Richardson then offered a paper on the subject, "How can we awaken a 
greater interest in the studv of English literature?" Professor Peabody, of Chicago, 
gave a lecture upon " Sap," showing the manner of growth of vegetable and tree life; 
and I^^. A. A. Kendrick, of Shurtleff College, presented an essay on "The relation 
between public schools and public morals," and J. L. Pickard, of Chica^o^ one upon 
" The education of women." The paper by Mr. S. H. White, on competitive exami- 
nations, was ordered to be deposited with Superintendent Etter for preservation and 
fntore use. 
Among the reaolations adopted was one appointing a committee of 5 to take into 



52 BEPOBT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

consideration the subject of reform in 8i)elling and report at the next meeting on the 
advisability and practicability of substituting for the present orthography a phonetio 
system of representation ; one, also, appointing a committee to gather facts relative 
to the matter of truancy, and report them at the next meeting ; and one indorsing, 
" with emphasis and without equivocation, the coeducational system of schools, pri- 
mary, secondary, and university, now in successful operation in this State, believing 
that the triune interests, physical, mental, and moral, of both sexes are far better sub- 
served by tlua plan than by the system of separate instruction." — (Educational 
Weekly.) 

OBITUARY RECORD. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL ADAMS, M. D. 

Dr. Adams, distinguished in his ripened years for long and faithful Eervice as an edu- 
cator, was bom at Gilead, Maine, December 19, 1803, and grew up amid the laboie and 
privations of a pioneer settlement on the Upper Audroecoggin. His school days in 
{hose early years were few, but he appears to have made the most he could of small 
advantages, and at 18 became teacher of a district school in his native town. Pros- 
ecuting his own studies while instructing others, he prepaied himself for an academic 
course, and during two successive years spent some months at Gorham Academy; 
he entered Bowdoin College in 1827, and was graduated in 1831 with the highest hon- 
ors. He contributed to his own support in college by teaching a winter school every 
year except the last. It was a great felicity of his collegiate life that Longfellow was 
then professor of modem languages at Bowdoin. Under the inspiration of such a 
teacher he acquired a taste for linguistic culture which stood him in good stead in 
later years. The first year after his graduation he taught in a hi^h school at Bucksport. 
Maine; the next, commenced the study of medicine. While still engaged in modical 
study, he was appointed tutor of modern languages in the college and served as such 
for two years, durinc the absence in Europe of Professor Goodwin^ who had succeeded 
Longfellow. The taking of his medical degree was thus deferred till the spring of 1836. 

On graduating, he be^an the practice of medicine at Brunswick, pursuing scientific 
and linguistic studies still, and acquired such reputation as a scientist and scholar that 
in 1838, probably on the recommendation of the Bowdoin faculty, he was chosen pro- 
fessor of chemistry, mineralogj', and geology in Illinois College, Jacksonville, 111., 
which had been chartered but three years l)efore, though founded in 1829. He ac- 
cepted the position, entered on it in October of the year of his election, and, with some 
changes in the title and duties of the chair, continued in it till his death, a period of 
more than 38 years. His labors as a teacher were, however, by no means confined to his 
own department. The resources of the college were not large, and he and his associates 
often had to perform much miscellaneous work, for which his broad culture eminently 
fitted him. He gave instruction, therefore, in the French and German languages for 
many years, and during his life as professor taught at intervals nearly every branch 
connected with the college course. 

In addition to his labors as a teacher, he made no inconsiderable contributions to 
the more solid periodical literature of his time — first in a series of six articles in the 
Biblical Repository, from 1838 to 1848, ori^nally designed to form the foundation of 
a book on ** The natural history of man in his spiritual relations," which he never found 
the leisure to complete; next in a review of Darwin's Origin of Species, published 
in two successive numbers of the Congregational Review in 1871: and finally in re- 
views of Comte's Positive Philosophy and of Herbert Spencer's Proposed Reconcil- 
iation between Religion and Science, the former in the New-Englander of January and 
April, 1873, and the latter in the same for January, 1875. For all these reviews he 
prepared with most painstaking care, and the value of them is said to have been ex- 
tensively^ acknowledged. 

His friends found great satisfaction in believing that 'to all his accomplishments Dr. 
Adams added a firm Christian faith, and that it gave him support in the hour of death 
as it had in the labors and cares of nis useful life. 

Dr. Adams died of typhoid pneumonia, April 28, 1877, extensively beloved and gen- 
erally respected. — (From a memorial notice by £x-President J. M. Sturtevant, ix. D.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 
Hon. & ^ Ettbi^ 5ltal0 nq»«r<iileiulen< <i^ jmMio in«trucl<:n, 4»r^^ 



INDIANA. 



53 



INDIANA. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



POPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 

Toath of school age (6-21) 

Enrolled in public schools 

Ayerage daily attendance 

Colored children enumerated 

Colored children enrolled 

SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOLS. 

l^omber of school districts 

Knmber in which schools were taught 
Kamber of colored schools taught . . . 

Average term of schools in days 

Public graded schools 

Public ungraded schools 

Public school-houses 

Yalmition of school property 

TEACHERS AND THEIR PAT. 

White teachers in public schools 

Colored teachers 

Men teaching. : 

Women teaching 

Whole number 

Average monthly pay of men 

Average monthly pay of women 

INCOUE AND EXPENDITURE. 

Whole income for public schools 

Whole expenditure for public schools 

PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE — 

Of Bcbool population 

Of enrolment 

Of average attendance 

SCHOOL FUND. 

Available school fund 



1875-^6. 



679,230 

516, 270 

314, 168 

10,261 

6,963 



9,310 
9,259 
115 
129 
398 
9,004 
9,434 
til, 548, 993 



13, 317 

94 

7,852 

5,559 

13,411 

$53 20 

41 40 



$5,083,327 
4, 921, 085 



$3 29 

8 23 

13 56 



$8, 870, 872 



1876-77. 



694,708 
498, 726 
298,324 



128 



$11, 376, 730 



8,109 

5,405 

13, 574 

$61 27 

39 20 



$4, 873, 131 
4, 673, 766 



$5 90 

8 23 

13 76 



$8, 842, 291 



Increase. 



15, 476 



257 



163 



$0 20 



Decrease. 



17,544 
15,844 



$172, 263 



94 



$1 93 
2 20 



$210, 196 
247, 319 



$0 39 



$28,581 



(From printed report and written return of Hon. James S. Smart, State superintend- 
ent of public instruction, for 1875-76, and written return from the same for 1876-77.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

A State superintendent of public instnictionj elected every second year by the people, is 
charged with the administration of the system of public schools, with the superintend- 
ence of the business relating to them, and with the supervision of the funds and revo- 
naes appropriated to their support. He is ex officio trustee of the State Normal School 
and president of the State board of education. 

This State hoard of education consists of the superintendent, governor, and presidents 
of tlie State Uuiversity, Normal School, and Purdue University, with the school super- 
intendents of the three largest cities of the State. It meets quarterly, is an advisory 
tonncil to the superintendent, issues instructions and questions to county superintend- 
ents for examinations of teachers applying for a license, grants licenses valia through- 
out the State to teachers who have passed its own examinations, and appoints the 
^nisteeg of the State University and the official visitors of the Normskl BchooV. 



54 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



LOCAL. 

A county svperintendcHt of schools is appointod biennially in each county by the 
boards of township trustees, meeting at the office of the county auditor on the first 
Monday in June.* He has general superintendence of the schools of his county, exam- 
ines and licenses teachers for them, directs the apportionment of school funds to them, 
visits them for inspection at least once in each year, and as often must attend and pre- 
side at each townsnip institute, making annual report to the State superintendent of 
all statistics relating to the county schools. 

A civU trustee, elected every two years by the people in each township, acts also as a 
school trustee for his township, to engage teachers, apportion school money, care for 
the schools, and hold monthly institutes, and he and the three trust'Ces of each incorpo- 
rated town and city in the county form a county board of education for the adoption 
of text books, &.c. 

A school director in every school district is chosen by the people at each annual dis- 
trict meeting. 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

GENERAL CONDITION. 

The State superintendent in Indiana makes full report to the legislature of all thin^i 
connected with the school system only once in two years. In the intermediate year 
only a brief written report to the governor is called for. The statistics of this last, 
embodied in the return Kindly furnished by Mr. Smart for 1877, afford our only informa- 
tion for that year. These show an increase in the number of youth of school age 
amounting to 15,476, with an increase of 163 in the number of teachers in the public 
schools ; bat, possibly from lack of fall reports from minor officers, the enrolment in 
publio schools appears to have diminished by 17,544 and the average attendance by 
15,844, the receipts for schools diminishing also oy ^10,196 and the expenditures on 
them by $247,3ld. An estimated diminution of $172,263 in the value of school prop- 
erty does not count for mach, as it is not more than proportionate to the shrinkage in 
all values, and probably the same may be said of a lalluig qS of $28,561 in the avail- 
able school fund. 

KINDERGARTEN. 

Only one Kindergarten is reported for 1877, that one apparently connected with the 
public school system of Indianapolis, and held in the high school building of that city. 
It had 30 children, 3 to 6 years of age, under the instruction of the principal and 4 adult 

Eupils, the younger children being kept in school 3 hours daily, the advanced class an 
our and a naif longer, for 5 days in each week of the school year of 40 weeks. The 
younger ones are trained in the use of Frobel's gifts and the exercise of his occupa- 
tions, with plays, inarches, music, and gymnastics; the. older ones study natural history 
and read. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

OFFICERS. 

The boards of school trustees for cities with less than 30,000 inhabitants, under a 
general law. are ordinarily composed of 3 persons appointed by the conunon counciiL 
for terms of 3 years, 1 retiring each year. Indianapolis, under a special act, has a 
board of 11 school commissioners, elected by the people for terms of 3 year8.^Schools 
of Indiana, 1876.) 

STATISTICS. 



Cities. 



Fort Wayno . 
Inrtianapolis . 
JefiereoDville 
Lafayette.... 

LaPorte 

Lopansport . . 
Kicbmood ... 
South Bend . . 
Terre Uaate. 



Estimated 
popalation 



St<,400 
100.000 
10,000 
22.000 
7,000 
15. COO 
14,000 
15.000 
91,000 



Chile' ren of 
^cllOol age. 



10, SS? 

S2, b03 
S, <*2:) 
6,059 



3,768 

4.236 

c3. 2r)5 

7,101 



Eorolment. 



3.558 
al2, 0^0 
l.HOO 
2.703 
1,190 
1.821 
2,004 
l.fiOl 
3,892 



Average 
attendance. 



2.653 
^8,3j5 



1,608 
877 
1,191 
1,874 
1.082 
d2,707 



Teachers. 



84 
183 

26 
47 
26 
31 
45 
28 
80 



Expend!* 
tur& 



$71,649 
Sa3i,410 
19.120 
36, t^ 
37.9J0 
41,h84 
34,156 
17.093 
66,440 



a This is exclasivo rf 33 normal pnnils and 872 in evening schools. 

6 Exclasivo of 57Giii average ati end n nee on evening sohooK 

e In a retam from Snperiotendent Knromer the number of Kohool age is put at 3,138. 

d This is besides 17 in average attendance in aa evening schobL 

> This is the direction of the school law, both in its edition of 1873 and that of 1877; bat tho State 
soperintendtint. in the volume on The Schools of Indionn. published 187^. says that county suiwiio* 
tendents are appointed by tbo connty commissioners at their June meeting every second year. Those 
coromissioner4 ha^yo Uiq right to dismisA a superintendent for immorality, incompetency, or Do^oot of 
dut^. 



INDIANA. 55 

ADDinONAI. PABTICULABS. 

Fort Wayne. — Respecting this city^ the only official information is from a writtftQ 
return of Superiiitendeut Jobn S. Irwm, no printed report having been issued for some 
years. From this return we fiud that there were in 1877 speciaT teachers of drawinc, 
music, penmanship, and reading employed in the public schools, and that there were m 
private schools 2 J teachers, with 2,!i00 pupils,, raaiiing the whole number of teache];iiia 
the city 110 and the whole enrolment in schools 5,858. High school pupils, 189; gradU 
nates in 1877, according to the Indiana School Journal, 17, chiefly in the Latin and 
flcicntific couTBCS. 

At Uuniinglon a method of teaching reading by a combination of the word method, 
the alp'.ai>et method, the phonic method, and the sentence method is reported to have 
proved highly nuccessful, partly through use of selections from The Nursery, The Wide 
Awake, and other juvenile publications, with some aid from the daily newspapers. 
Dull pupils wore aruused and all interested by havinjg fresh and lively articles for read- 
ing, instead of stale repetitions from long used school readers. 

Indianapolis. — Here, according to a return from Superintendent George P. Brown, 

there were special teachers of music, drawing, and penmanship in the public schooln 

with salaries which indicate a determination to have in these branches instruction 

worth something. The private school enrolment is put at 1,340 (an estimate which 

womB very low for a city with such a population), while, in addition to the 12,06D 

in the ordinary public schools, there were *.i3 in a city normal school and 872 in citar 

evening schools, making a total of 14,30.3 in private and public schools. The high 

school, according to the Indiana School Journal of June, 1877^ numbered 572 pupilay 

and graduated 4l5 in the summer of that year, of whom 18 were from the 2 years' courao, 

28 from the full course. The principal of the school writes, in the Educational Weekly 

of September 13, 1877, that, from somewhat intimate knowledge of the circamstanco^ 

he believes not half the number of pupils educated in it would obtain more than the 

mere elements of education were the nigh school not within their reach, while, of its 

beneficial influence on even many who do not graduate and on the other schools, he 

bpeaks in decided terms. 

Jeffersonville. — Two teachers of German are employed here in the public schools, 
th^ being the only special teachers indicated. The enrolment in private and paro- 
chial schools is ])ut at 300. Public school buildings, 5 ; valuation of school property, 
$60,000. Gradation of schools, primary, grammar, and high. — (Return to Bureau of 
Education.) 

At LaPorte improvement in composition writing has been effected by first designai- 
• inc each week those who are to write, then questioning each scholar thus designated, 
tin some subject with which he is familiar and on which he has opinions is obtained. 
This point reached, the teacher aids in getting the subject outlined and hjis the scholar 
hand in a sketch of the outline proposed. This is revised and the composition written, 
"which isfir^t subjected to careful criticism and returned to be rewritten. Not until after 
this do readings take place, when a new criticism before the school occurs, including 
the reading as well as the style. 

Lafaifette.— The graded course of instruction in this city covers a period of 13 years. 
The high school, the course of which is included in the foregoing, had in 187G-'77 an 
enrolment of 94 pujiils, taught by 4 instnictors. Special teacliers of drawing and pen- 
manship were employed in the schools. The per cent, of daily attendance, based on th» 
average number belonging, was 91 ; cost of instruction, $20.91 ; public school buildings, 
11; sittings in these, 1,900; sittings in private and parochial schools, 700; enrolment 
in ench schools, 1,000 for the year. — (Printed report and return.) 

Logansport. — ^Tho figures given in the table are from a return by Superintendent 
John K. Walts, no ofilcial report having been published for 1877. The schools are 
ebfised as primary, grammar, and high, the last having an enrolment of 113. Sittings 
for study, 97C in the primary grades, 394 in the grammar, and 110 in the high. Valua- 
tion of school property, $180, W)0. 

BicJimond. — No other information comes from this place than that given in the table 
from a return by Superintendent John Cooper, except that the public schools had 1,975 
sittinOT, with property valued at $81,000, that a special teacher of music was employed, 
and that in private and parochial schools there were 565 pupils. 

South Bend. — There are 7 public school buildings belonging to the system in this city, 
including 1 high, 5 ^ammar, 12 intermediate, and 6 primary schools, with 1,700 sittings. 
Enrolment in the high school, 122. Graduates of this school are a<lmitted to thefr^e3i- 
nuin class of the State univenjity without examination. Teachers' meetings were held 
weekly throughout the year. Private and parochial schools, 4 ; enrolment in these, 
250.— (Printed report and return.) 

Terre Uautc. — The number of desks and sittings here in 1876-77. including those in 
the German and recitation rooms, was 4,124 ; number exclusive of tneso, 3,()87. Valao 
of all school property, $215,471. There v/ero 597 pupil? studying German during the 
year. Enrolment in the high school, 199; graduates, 16. A Saturday drawing class 



66 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

was kept open, and Lad a total enrolment of 76 boys and 32 girls ; average attendance 
each Saturday, 70. An evening school was in session 4 months, enrolling £33 pupils, 
iKrith about 17 in average attendance. Careful attention was given to tlie subject of 
dieciplinc, and with good results. Cases of corporal punishment and suspension were 
less ttenuent than during any year for a long time, and of the pupils enrolled 1X)3 were 
not taruy and were very seldom absent from school. — (Report and written return.) 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

For full statistics of normal schools, see Table III of the appendix, and the smnmaiy 
pf this in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

The Indiana State Narmal School^ Terre Haute, was created by the legislature for the 
special purpose of instructing and training teachers for the public schools, and forms 
part of the State school system. Tuition is free and there are no incidental fees. 
Only such students are admitted as intend to qualify themselves to teach in the pub- 
lic schools of the State. The course of instruction covers three years, and includes, 
besides the subjects required by law to be taught in the public schools, drawing and 
vocal music aud the elements of those branches of science and pliiloso])by which bear 
upon the industrial, social, and political interests of the country. There is also a 
graduate course for those who wish to qualify themselves for teaching in high schools. 
The diploma of the school is, by law of the State, equivalent to a State certificate, 
relieving the holder from county examinations. The number of students in the normal 
school proper, in 1870-77, was 282, of whom 146 were women and 136 men; in the 
model training school, 223. — (Catalogue, 1876-77.) 

Northern Indiana JSarmal School and Business Institute, at Valparaiso, not a State 
/Bohool, but aided by the county and city, was organized in 1873, and has since con- 
tinued in rapid and regular growth. Among the various courses of study offered 
are preparatory, scientific, classical, select, musical, fine arts, aud teachers' courses. 
Students thoroughly versed in the common branches can complete the classical course 
in two years of 50 we^ks each, the scientific in one year, and the teachers* in two or 
three tenus of 11 weeks each. Tuition is ^ a term, without extra charge for vocal 
music, elocution, peumansliip, and German. — (Catalogue for 1878-79.) A return gives 
the nimiber of instructors in the preceding year at 20; number of pujuls, all counted 
by the principal as normal, 2,5rj5. 

Elkhart County Normal and Classical School, Goshen, receives no State, county, or city 
aid, has 4 years in its full course of study, and, acconling to a return for 1877-78, in 
the early part of that year, had 11 instructors and 175 pupils. Educational journals 
and magazines taken, 150. Drawing and music are taught, the former api^arently from 
text books and copies only, without models and apparatus for free hand work. 

Lagrange County Normal, Lagrange, instituted for the training of teachers in county 
and town schools, is conducted by the county superintendent, and had in the last year, 
according to a return from him, 4 instructors and 75 students. Music and drawing are 
taught, the latter with the same limitations as at Elkhart. 

teachers' institutes. 

By law, at least one Saturday in each month during which the public schools may 
be in i^rogress is to be devoted to township institutes or model schools for improve- 
ment of the teachers. Such institutes are to be presided over by a teacher or other 
person designated by the township trustee, and teachers in the public schools of the 
.township must attend them or forieit one day^s wages for every djiy of non-attendance, 
unless the absence is from sickness. 

County teachers^ institutes are also provided for, and to encourage them each county 
auditor is authorized to draw on the treasui*er of the county for 8ii5 whenever the 
county su])erintendent shall file with him an official statement that there has been 
hold in his county such an institute for five days, with an average attendance of 25 
teachers or persons preparing to become such, while for one with an attendance of 40 
there is an allowauce of §50. Only one such payment, however, is to be made in any 
year. 

Then, during the summer vacations, p^at numbers of independent institutes appear 
from the school journals to be held lor the improvement of teachera who desire to 
qualify themselves for higher usefulness in their profession. More than filty, appar- 
ently of this class, were note<l, for the summer of 1877, in the Indiana School Journ^, 
one of them a summer school for teachers in drawing, held at Purdue University; 
another, a ** summer tramp," led by the scientific faculty of Butler University tlirongh 
a considerable portion of the Southern States for the field study of geology, mineral- 
ogy, botany, aud zoology. 

OTHER MEANS OF NORMAL TRAINING. 

In addition to the foregoing, facilities for the training of teachers are provided in a 
nmnbor of the colleges of the Stato. Union Christian College has a normal com^se each 



INDIANA. 57 

spring term which affords stndents a review of the common school hronches and special 
iustnictioQ in theory and practice. Bedford College has a normal depaitment intended 
to cover 2 years, embracing all the studies required for a first class State certificate. 
At Moore's Hill College a normal department is sustained during the spring term when 
desiretL Indiana Asbury University reports a normal coui'se beginning in the spring 
term, but its extent is not stated. Fort Wayne College has two normal courses of 2 and 
3 years respectively. 

EDUCATIONAL JOURNALS. 

The Indiana School Jonmal, organ of the State Teachers' Association and of the 
superintendent of public instruction, continued its useful work thi'oughout the year, 
diflnsing a large amount of local and general school news and publishing many papers 
of much value to tciichers. It has been well aided in this direction by a younger com- 
panion, The Common-School Teacher. Both ore monthlies^ the former pubHshed at 
IndianapoliSy the latter at Bedford. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

From the Indiana School Journal, which, as the organ of the State snpermtendent, 
probably derives its figures from his books, we have reports of high schools in 45 cities 
aad towns, with 133 teachers, 3,511 pupils, and 391 gnidnates in 1877. Sixteen, how- 
ever, do not report the number of pupils, 3 omit the number of teachers, and 4 give 
only the number of graduates. — (Indiana School Journal of Juno and July, 1877.) 

OTHER SECONDAIIY SCHOOLS. 

For full statistics of business colleges, private academic schools, preparatory schools, 
and preparatory departments of colleges and universities in this Stat«, see Tables TV, 
YI, VII, and IX. in the appendix, and summaries of these in the Report of the Com- 
misBioner preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

Infonnation for the year 1877 has been received through special returns or printed 
catal(»gnes £rom 16 colleges of the State ; all but 4 of these colleges are open to young 
women as well as to young men. 

The Indiana State University has discontinued its law school, and reports only pre- 
paratory and collegiate dep:irtments, the latter with classical and scientific courses. 
Both sexes are on an equal footing. Tuition is free. — (Catalogue, 1877.) 

Bedford College reports four separate complete courses, the clasHical, the scientific, 
the ministerial, and the ladies' course, which lead respectively to the degrees of b. a.. 
B. 8., and D. L., the last being conferred on those who complete either uiq ministerial 
or the ladies' course. Young women are admitted to all the classes and privileges of 
the college. 

The name of the Northwestern Christian University has been changed to Butler Uni- 
fersity. Its colleges, as at present organized, are (1) biblical literature and Christian 
evidences; (2) pure and applied mathematics; (3) English literature; (4) Latin lan- 
goage and literature: (5) Greek language and literature; (6) natural history; (7) in- 
tellectual, moral, ana political philosophy, logic and rhetoric; (8) physics and chem- 
istry, ana (9) modem languages. For field instruction in natural sciences, such of its 
Btodeuts as desire it are now regularly conducted by some of the professors on a ** sum- 
mer tramp'' through portions of the country that afiford special advantages for study 
in this line. 

At Ridgevtlle College a change has been made in the courses of study by substituting 
aa English course for what has been termed the practical course. The three courses 
now provided, English, scientific, and classical, cover 8 years, the English and classi- 
cal each occupying 4 and the scientific being made from the last 2 years of the English 
and the first 2 of the classical, Greek excepted. 

The courses of instruction in the remaining colleges api)eAr to be the same as 
reported in 1876. 

For fall statistics, see Table IX of the appendix, and a summary of this in the Report 
of the Commissioner preceding. 

COLLEGES FOR WOMEN. 

Besides the colleges open to young women in common with vonng men, 2 especially 
devoted to the higher education of women make report for 1877. Each of these col- 
legea is chartered and both teach music, drawing, painting, French, and German. One 
has Bomo moans for illustration in chemistry and both have apparatus for instruction 



58 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

in physics. They report libraries nombering respectively COO and 800 yoliime& — 
(Returns, 1877.) 

For full statistics of these colleges, see Table Y III of the appendix, and a summary of 
this in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

[For full Btatistics of Bcieotifio and profpMioDfll rchoolii, see Tables X-Aiii of the appendix, and tbe 

aaaimaiies of tbeae in the Con.miRt»ioucr'8 Hepori preceding.] 

SCIENTIFIC. 

Purdue Unirersiiyj at Lafayette, the agricultural college of the State, provides 3 gen- 
eral departments of instruction, as follows: (1) the academy or preparatory school; (2) 
the college of general science; (3) the special schools of science and technology. The 
course ot study in the college of general science is similar to the scientific course in 
several other colleges, but it devotes more time to the natural and physical sciences. 
These are the leadmg branches in the course, and require at least one-third of the stu- 
dent's time for four years. The special schools are those of agricultui"^ and horti- 
culture, civil engineering, industrial design,^ physics and mechanics, chemistry aud 
metallurgy, and natural history. The university has a well stocked farm of 189 acres 
of choice land, with appliances for teaching both agriculture and horticulture. Anew 
university building, costing over $40,000, has been completed, and was formally dedi- 
cated November 21, 1877. It is four stories high and 1G4 by 56 feet. — (Catalogue of 
university, 1876, and Indiana School Journal, December, 1877.) 

Boae Polytechnic Institute, at Terre Haute, was chartered in 1874, but has not yet 
been oxtened for pupils. Tnis institute was founded and endowed by Chauncey Rose, 
esq., late of Terre Haute, who died August 13, 1877. — (Return, 1877.) 

THEOLOGICAL. 

St, Meinrad's College has a theological course which, covering four years, appears to 
be a modification of the collegiate. There were 23 students in 1877. 

In Bedford College there is a ministerial course which is the same as the classical, 
except that it omits the mathematics of part of the sophomore and all the junior year, 
substituting therefor certain theological studies. 

In Indiana Aabury University a biblical course has been arranged, which, commencing 
with the sophomore year, by a svstem of substitutions, cives a course in Hebrew, patriih 
tic and New Testament Greek, biblical chronology, arcnceology, church histoiy, &c 

In Hanover College biblical instruction is a part of the regular course of study. 

Butler University has a department of biblical literature and Christian evidences, in 
which the Bible is the tost book. 

In Union Christian College the New Testament is used as a text book for regular reci- 
tation in Greek during 3 terms of the classical course. 

Concordia College^ according to a letter from its "director," was established for the 
especial education of ministeiis of the gospel. It does not, however, give the students 
preparing for the ministry a theological training; but, having prepared them for this 
by collegiate instruction, turns them over to the Theological Seminary of the Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and other States, at St. Louis. 

LEGAL. 

The LavD Department of the University of Notre Dame has a course of instruction cover- 
ing 3 years and embracing chiefly constitutional and international law, municipal law, 
law of contracts, equity jurisprudence, criminal law, evidence, pleading, and practice. — 
(Catalogue.) 

The Law Department of Indiana University, as before mentioned, has been "suspended 
until further notice." — (Catalogue, 1877.) 

MEDICAL. 

The Medical College of Evansville had an attendance of 40 students in 1877, of whom 3 
had received degrees in letters or science. The plan of instruction requires the attend- 
ance of the student through two annual sessions and 3 years of study under the direc- 
tion of some regular physician. 

The Indiana Medical College, at Indianapolis, had 82 students in 1877, of whom Shad 
received degrees in letters or science. The return from this college ^ves 2 years as its 
course of study ; but from the catalogue it appears that the requirements for grad- 
uation are as great as in other colleges whose course is given as 3 years, namely, study- 
ing medicine for 3 years under a competent preceptor and attendance upon two fall 

*A anromer Achool f r iD<«trnct!oD in ('rawing vran held at tbo univenity by the inatrnctor in thia 
department cliirinp iho vacation of 1877, and maoy teacbera in the pnbliu achoola arc undentood to 
have availed tbemaelvea of ita advantagea. 



INDIANA. 59 

connes of medical lectnresy the last of which most have been in the institntion. — 
(Betcms and printed report.) 

The College of Physicians and Surgeons^ IndiananoliB, makes no ro]K)rt beyond that 
pabUshed in the report of this Bureau for 1876, when return was made of 72 students 
in a 2 years' coarse of study, 19 of whom had received a degree in letters or science. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

INDIANA INSTITUTION FOR EDUCATINa THE DEAP AND DUMB. 

A return of the statistics of this institution for 1877 shows an attendance of 363, 
making 1,158 who have received instruction since the foundation of the institution. 
The conrse of study comprises primary and higher departments, the former covering 
7 years, the latter 3. The instruction in work is considered second in imx>ortance only 
to the intellectual and moral culture of the pupils. Two hours each day are given to 
labor and 5 to literary studies. — (Printed report, 1876.) 

INDIANA INSTITUTE FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE BLIND, INDIANAPOLIS. 

This institution, since its foundation in 1847, has had 572 pupils under instmction. 
In 1877 there were 110 attending, who were instructed in the common English brauches 
and music, both vocal and instiiimental ; also in the employments of broom making, 
ehair seating, sewing, and fancy work. It is estimated that there are about 250 blind 
children of school age in the State, and that more than half of them are growing up in 
ignorance through lack of sufficient public interest in their welfare to see that they are 
placed in the school provided for them by the State. — (Return and report, 1877.) 

INDIANA HOUSE OF REFUGE, PLAINFIELD. 

This reformatory school had in November, 1877, a total of 339 inmates under training, 
an increase of 14 over the preceding year. The boys are classified into 9 school grades, 
tanght by 3 competent teachers, and each boy is required to attend a session of school 
daily. It is proposed to grade the school anew, forming 8 grades only, under 4 instruct- 
on, securing 3 hours of schooling each day. In the intervals of school the boys are 
employed in chair caniug, tailoring, shoemaking, farm and garden work, and such 
other occupations as will make them useful and train them to habits of industry and 
capacity for self support. — (Report for 1877.) 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

STATE ASSOCIATION. 

The twenty-fourth annual meeting of the Indiana State Teachers' Association was 
held December 26, 27, and 28, 1877. The address of welcojje was made by Mr. W. A. 
Bell, president of the Indianapolis school board. His remarks were responded to by 
Mr. W. H. Wiley, the retiring president, who then introduced his successor. Rev. J. EL 
Martin, of Franklin. He took for his topic " Moral culture in the school room," and 
said he would have all science, whether physical, moral, or intellectual, taught in most 
intimate connection with the Bible. 

A paper was read on "Science in elementary schools" by A. W. Brayton, superin- 
tendent of the department of natural science in the Indianapolis schools, and Joseph 
Moore, president of Earlham College, followed with remarlu on the same subject. B. 
C. Burt, of the Indiana State Normal School, read a paper entitled "Enthusiasm for 
English," which, by vote of the association, was ordered to be printed in the Indiana 
School Journal. Resident Tuttle, of Wabash College, opened the discussion, stating 
his approval of the arguments used in favor of better and more thorough appreciation 
and study of English literature. Temple H. Dunn, of Fort Wayne, presented a paper 
entitled " How to deal with slow pupils in graded schools," which was discussed by Mr. 
R. G. Boone, of Frankfort, and Mr. H. B. Jacobs, of New Albany. Superintendent M. 
Seiler, of Auburn, read a paper entitled " Educate a boy and he won^t work." He said 
many boys become idle not because they are educated, but rather because they know so 
little as to be incompetent for the higher kinds of employment, and that the ciure for 
idleness is to make the public schools more efficient. President W. T. Stott, of Frank- 
lin College, Hon. J. H. Smart, and President White, of Purdue University, discussed 
this paper. Mr. Snmrt thought it possible to educate a man so that he will not work; 
hnt if the dignity of honest labor be taught he will work. President White said "tho 
history of civilization refutes the assertiou that education unfits a boy for manual labor. 
The most industrious ][>eople in every nation are the educated. Our system may be im- 
perfect, but, with all its defects, it is having a beneficial efiect. • • • Euucate a 
people and they will work with their hands and their brains." 

In the evening Dr. George A. Chase, of Louisville, delivered the annual address of 
the association, on "The public school teacher." He said that what the system 
needs most is the educated, well equipped teacher, who thoroughly knows the subjects 



GO BEPORT OF THE C0MMI6SI0NEB OF EDUCATION. 

ho treats of; that he shonld havo self control, sound bodily health, tako inyigorat* 
ing exercise iu the sun and air, and sleep at proper times, to keep himself in tlie best 
condition for his work. 

The other papers and addresses presented were: "How to economize time in un- 
graded schools," by T. D. Tharp, superintendent of school Graut County ; "Grube's 
method in numbers," by a teacher in one of the Indianapolis schools. Miss Kuth Mor- 
ris, which, with the illustrations offered, seems to have awakened much enthusiasm; 
"The relatiou of public libraries to the schools," by Mrs. Sarah A. Oren, of Purdue 
University; " Tomperance," by Mrs. Governor Wallace; "Dr. Arnold of Rugby as 
an educator," by Dr. Kogers, of Asbury University ; "Horace Mann as an educator," 
by Prof. A. K. Benton, UL. D., of Butler University ; and "The Russian system of in- 
dustrial art education as applied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology," by 
Dr. J. D. Runklo, president of that institute. 

The editor of the School Journal says : " The meeting was among the best that have 
occurred. The attendance was quite large, reaching S4, and there was not a failure 
on the programme. The only absent person appointed to duty sent in his paper, and 
it was reaS. The programme was an improvement upon former ones in that it was 
not so much crowded. There is, however, nearly a unanimous sentiment in the asso- 
ciation in favor of limiting the time occupied by each paper to 30 minutes or less." — 
(Indiana School Journal, February, 1878.) 

MEETING OF COUKTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 

The annual meeting of county superintendents, held in Indianapolis, June 26, ^, 1877, 
was the largest, with one exception, ever held in the State, 57 counties being repre- 
sented. Among the subjects before the meeting were : " The best mode of correcting 
mistakes when observed by superintendents," "The kind of work to be done in town- 
ship institutes and the objects to be gained," "The county superintendent in the 
township institute," "The province of the county board of education," "How to 
conduct examiuations," and "How to conduct teachers' institutes." 

Among the resolutions adopted were the following: "That the pay of teachers 
should be in proportion to their qualiiications and the size and requirements of the 
school;" "that county boards should adopt a course of study and rules for the regu- 
lation of the district schools of the county; " and " that country districts should have 
at least six months of school each year." — (Indiana School Journal.) 

COLLEGE ASSOCIATION. 

Twenty-four collegians, representing 9 of the collegers of the State, met on Thursday, 
December 27, during the sessions of the State Teachers' Association. President Alex- 
ander Martin, of Asbury University, jiresided. After a full interchange of opinion, it 
was resolved at a second meeting to organize a separate association in connection with 
the general association, the annual sessions to be held at the place and on the day 
preceding the annual meeting of the last named association. — (Indiana School Joui^ 
ual, February, 1878.) 

OBITUARY RECORD. 

PROP. EDMUND OTIS HOVEY, D. D. 

This gentleman^ Rose professor of chemistry and geology in Wabash College, Indiana, 
died at his home m Crawfordsville, March (5, 1877. Bom at East Hanover, N.! H., July 
15. 1801, he spent his boyhood on his fathers farm, and did not begin his studies fo» 
college till he was 21. Entering the freshman class at Dartmouth in the spring 
of 1825, he was graduated in 1828, and entered the theological seminary at Andover 
in the autumn of that year. Completing its 3 years* course and graduated in 1831, bo 
was sent by the American Home Missionary Society to preach iu the Wabash country, 
Indiana, as an evangelist. In connection with four fellow missionaries in that re^on, 
he aided in laying the foundations of Wabash College, in 1832-^33 ; became a^ent lor it 
in 1834, securing its first president and $24,000 ; in the same year he was appointed pro- 
fessor of rhetoric in it ; made |irofessor of chemistry, mineralo^, and geology, in 1836, 
he thenceforward continued m connection with it till his death. For 2o years he 
added to his labors as professor the treasurership of the college, did much for the im- 
provement of its buildings and grounds, 'and industriously collected for it a cabinet, 
which he made of great interest and value. In such useful labors the quiet evening of 
his days was spent, and in 1869 came the degree of d. d. from Dartmouth to brighten 
with its well earned honor the later life of him who had probably done more than any 
other one man to establish and build up into permanence the college with which he 
was connected. — (Origin and Growth of Wabash College, by President Tuttle; funeral 
discourse by the same; Christian Union of April 4, 1877.) 

PROF. JOHN O. HOPKINS, A. M. 

On the morning of October 16, 1877, Professor Hopkins went buoyantly to tho hall 
of Butler University, in which he held the chair of Greek, and while ia conversation 



INDIANA. 61 

wiUi the president began to complain of loss of sight, then of vertigo, and, sinking soon 
into what appeared a fainting fit, gently and without any apparent death straggle 
passed away. This sndden death, at the age of S8, was probably the result of heart 
disease, from which his father, Hon. Milton 1$. Hopkins, late supedntendeut of pablio 
iiistraction in Indiana, had suifered before him. 

Under the training of this excellent father, Professor Hopkins early sought all avail- 
able opportunities for the best mental and moral culture^ he studied at Ladoga Academy, 
at Wabash College, at the Northwestern Christian University, and liually at the Ken- 
tocky UniveiBity, where he was graduated with honor in June, 1871. Engaging at 
oDce in the work of education, he became vice president of Howard College, Kokomo, 
Ind., which his father had founded in the early portion of the year 1870 and from which 
Ue had passed to the superintendency of public instruction in the spring of 1871. But 
tJie carrying on of such an institution after its founder had forsaken it involved great 
labor and responsibility, and in 1872 the offer of the chair of Greek in the Northwest- 
em Christian University (now Butler University), at Irvington, Indiana, tempted the 
young Aice president awav. Entering heartily into the work in liis new lield, he strove 
to secure, alike in himseif and in his students, a thorough mastery of the beautifiil 
language he was set to teach. He succeeded so well in the endeavor and made such 
pn^ress in the live years of his professorship as to indicate that if his life had been 
prolonged he would have made himself a considerable name in this line; but he died 
almost on the threshold of the labors he had undertaken. — (Memorial notice by Prof. 
A. R. Benton, in the Indiana School Journal for November, 1877, and letter from Pro- 
fessor Benton.) 

CIIAU^'CET BOSE, ESQ. 

This gentleman, whose death, Augiust 13, 1877, is among the records of the year, was 
emiocntly a friend of education. Among the educationafdonations made by him dur- 
ine bis lifetime were $8^000 to the Indiana State Normal School, for its library ; $60,000 
to Wabash University, for the endowment of 2 professorships ; and $4C0,000, to establish 
and endow the Rose Polytechnic Institute at Terre Haute, his i)lace of residence. His 
donations to benevolent causes were equally generous. But, while his gifts were 
heralded in the newspapers and noised abroad by men, his whole life was, in its quiet 
modesty, an exemplification of the rule *^ Let not thy left hand know what thy right 
hand doeth." By the terms of his will, the Rose Polytechnic Institute, the name of 
which was given it by others and not by himself, is his residuary legatee, and it is 
hoped will receive a considerable addition to the large endowment mentioned. — (Indi- 
ana School Journal, September, 1877.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 

Hod. Jamu n. Sxabt, State tuperinUrUUnt ofpubUe initruction, JfuttanopoUf. 

(Second term, 1877-*879.] 

8TATB BOARD OF IDUCATIOV. 

[Term, membership in the State board lasts during contiooanoe In office.] 



Members. 



His Excelleocy Jamr a D. WUliama, gpxtTnor 

Bon. James U. Smart, State saperintcndent of pnblio instmction 

Ber. Lcmae! Mosn, D. D., president of the State UDivrmity 

BoD.£iDrr8on E. White, LL. D., prosident rf Purdao University 

William A. Jocea, president of ihe State Normal Scbr>ol 

Hon. Horace S. Tarbell, sapeiiotendent of lodlannpolia pnblio achooli. 

ivha M. BloM, aaperintendent of Evansville pnbliu aoboola 

Dr. John S. Irwin, soporintendent of Fort Wayne pnblio aohoola 



PostH>fflce. 



Indianapolis. 
Indlanapulia. 
Uloominston. 
Lnfuyctte. 
Torro Ilaotei 
IndianapoUa. 
EvanHville. 
Fort Waynei 



62 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



IOWA. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



POPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 



Yonth of school age (5-21) . .. 

Enrolled in public schools 

Avera^je attendance 

Attendance in private schools 



SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOLS. 



District townships 

Independent districts 

Subdistricts 

Ungraded schools 

Graded schools 

Average time of school in days 

Private schools 

Public school-houses 

Value of these 

Value of apparatus 

Volumes in school libraries 



TEACHERS AND THEIR PAY. 

Number of male teachers 

Number of iVmale teachers 

Average monthly pay of men . . . 
Average monthly pay of women . 
Teachers in private schools 



INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Whole income for public schools 

Whole expenditure for public schools 

EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA — 



Of school population. 
Of enrolment 



Of average attendance. 



1875-76. 



553,920 

398,825 

229, 315 

12,856 



1,099 

2,933 

7,017 

9,454 

405 

136.40 

126 

9,908 

89, 375, 833 

140, 892 

17, 122 



6,830 

12,222 

a$37 37 

28 09 

463 



$5, 387, 524 

4, 288, 582 



1876-Vr. 



567,859 

421,163 

251,372 

12,383 



1,086 

3,138 

7, 015 

9,948 

476 

145. 40 

127 

10,296 

, 044, 973 

159, 216 

17,329 



7,348 
12, 518 
$34 88 

28 69 
471 



$5, 349, 029 
5, 197, 426 



$7 90 

10 e7 

17 87 



Increase. 



13,939 
22,338 
22,057 



205 



494 

71 

9 

1 

388 



818, :«4 

207 



518 
296 



80 60 

8 



8906,844 



Decrease. 



473 
13 



8330,860 



82 49 



838,495 



a Incorrectly retonied last j ear as $47.87. 

(From printed report of Hon. C. W. von Coelln for the years 1875-76 and 1876-T7 
and returns to Bureau of Education for the same years. The items of income and 
expenditure are £rom the latter.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

For supervision of all county superintendents and of all the common schools of the 
State, there is a State superintendent of public instniciiony chosen by the people every 
two years. 

For government of the State university, and thus exerting some influence on second- 
ary and superior instruction generally, there is a board of regents chosen by the legis- 
lature, composed of the governor. State superintendent, and president of the State 
university, ex officiis, with one person from each congressional district. 



IOWA. 63 

LOCAL. 

For Bax>6rvi8ion of public schools in counties, county auperintendetita of pvblic inatruc' 
dony elected every two years.* Women are eligible to all school offices. 

For the care of schools in townships, which are the ideal school districts, a hoard of 
itnetorty of at least 3 members, elected annually for the township if undivided into 
sabdistricts; if divided into these, composed of a subdirector &om each subdistrict, 
with one for the township at largo in case there are only two. 

For independent districts, composed of towns with 300 to 500 inhabitants, boards of 
directors of 3 members ; with 500 or more, of G members. Each board of directors 
elects a president of its own number, with a secretary and a treasurer, who may be of 
^t number in the smaller independent districts. — (School law, 1876.) 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

GENERAL CONDITION. 

Superintendent von Coelln, at the beginning of his report, expresses the opinion that 
there is reason for encouragement as to the general condition ot the school system, and 
VI examination of the reports of county superintendents to him shows much ground for 
that opinion. 

The number of good school-houses furnished with patent desks, and sometimes with 
pleasantly ornamented grounds, appears to be steadily increasing. A superintendent 
of one of the average counties writes: ^'Many of the school-houses are ornaments to 
the neighborhoods in which they are situated; trees and shrubbery are planted and the 
entire surroundings made attractive. Six new houses have been erected during the 
year, all comfortable and convenient.'' Though notices of this kind are not invariable^ 
they are frequent in the reports. 

Normal institutes for the improvement of the teachers seem to have been very gen- 
erally held and numerously attended. In a considerable number of cases the effects of 
these upon the teachers are spoken of with great enthusiasm, and these effects are 
pretty sure to be increased by a course of study now marked out for all the institutes. 
In several counties voluntary associations of teachers have been formed for discussion 
of studies, methods of discipline and management, and these associations^ holding 
meetings additional to the institutes, have aided the good work which the institutes 
have coounenced. In Keokuk County, such meetings were hold monthly in nearly 
every township, and in this and in at least three ouier counties library associations 
grew oot of the meetings of the teachers, the need of larger and more varied reading 
appearing and being realized as various school questions were discussed. 

THE TEXT BOOK QUESTION. 

The subject of the heavy cost of text books, in connection with the frequent change 
of them, is discussed by the superintendent in the light of the experience of other 
States, and his opinion is given against the adoption of a system of State uniformity. 
He says that there should be unitormity of books in the same school, and, if possible, 
in the township, and for this the law intends to provide ; but it fails to command 
boards of directors to adopt a series of text books, and therefore changes* are made 
by teachers and subdirectors to suit themselves. This, he thinks, should be remedied 
b^ a provision of law requiring an authoritative adoption of text books by boards of 
directors. It is agreed tnat the books should be furnished to the pupils at less cost 
than they now are, and a law is favored similar to the Wisconsin law on this subject, 
permitting the purchase of text books by townships, the books to bo loaned or other- 
wise furnished to pupils under such conditions as may be prescribed by the school 
anthorities. Scholars might be charged enough for the loan of books to reimburse the 
district, and they might be made to pay for all wantonly destroyed. There are, how- 
ever, certain chuses of scholars who absent themselves from school chiefly because 
they are too poor to buy books or pay for the loan of them, and, if the masses are to 
be educated, such childiren must be furnished books at the expense of the public. — 
(Biennial report, 1876-77.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

In discussing this question, the superintendent begins with the proposition that the 
right of the State to tax a person for the education of other people's children implies 
the right of the taxpayer to demand the education of those cuihiren. He thinks that 
in compulsory laws a mistake has been made in not recognizingthe dififerenco between 
compulsory education and compulsory attendance at school. The State not only has 
the right, but it is its duty, to require a certain amount of intelligence in all the cbil- 
drcQ who live within its borders. To accomplish this, it may be necessary to compel 

^^^^^"^— ^— ■ ■ — - — — • "^ - 1 1 II — 

*Ady eoonty with :t,000 or moro iohabitants, cboosiog to have a county high 8cho«>l. luay alM chooM 
a DQord nf 6 troateea oif aaid aohool, one-third to t)e changed each year at the generMl eleoUon.— (School 



64 



REPORT OP THE COBiHISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 



the att-endance at school, bnt this should bo done only when it is clear that the edn- 
cation of the child is neglected at homo, and then only long enough to secure that 
limited knowledge which the Stato has a right to demand, inclumng, tho saperin- 
tendent thinks, scarcely anything except reading, writing, and the fundamental rules 
of arithmetic. He believes that nearly all the children oi this State between the ages 
of 8 and 16 living in the rural districts attend school some portion of tho year, and 
that, therefore, no ui^ent necessity exists for a compulsory law. In towns and cities 
there is a class of childi'cn who are growing up wholly without x^roper training; but 
for these he would have reformatory or industrial schools ostablished. — (Iiei>ort, 
1875-77.) 

IMMATURITY OF TEACHERS. 

8ui>erintendent Von Coelln says that it has been customary to employ girls of 14 
and 15 and boys of about tho same age to teach schools, and that this has been done 
more particuhirly by subdirectors in engaging relatives; ho therefore issued instruc- 
tions to county superintendents, partly at their request, forbidding the ^n^nting of 
certiUcates to young women of less than 17 and to young men of less than 19 years of 
age. He suggests that the legislature enforce this rule by enactment, advancing thp 
age one year, making it 18 and 20, and prohibiting subdirectors from employing rela- 
tives by blood or marriage to the third degree. — (Biennial report, 1875-77.) 

KINDERGARTEN TRAINING. 

One Kindergarten only, situated at Cedar Rapids, reports itself for 1877, having a 

Srincipal, assistant principal, and three other teachers, with 40 children in attendance, 
to 8 years old, who are kept under instruction 3 hours of each school day for 40 weeks 
in the year. The children are trained in tho use of Frtibers gifts and the practice of his 
occupations, with calisthenics and games as taught by Mrs. Kraus-BoDlte, their exer- 
ciser being aided and regulated by the music of a piano. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



OFFICERS. 

By law, cities and towns containing not less than 300 inhabitants may, with the con- 
sent of the district townships with which they have been connected, be constituted 
independent school districts. These elect boanls of 3 directors, when their x>opnlati(Hi 
is under COO ; boards of G, when the population is COO or more. Each boanl of directora 
chooses a president of its own number, and a secretary and treasurer, who may be of 
that number in the smaller boards, but not in the larger ones. In cities a superintend- 
ent often becomes the executive officer of the board. — (School laws, 1876.) 

STATISTICS. 



City. 



BnrliDgton 

Darenport 

Dnbaqae 

Keokuk 

Ottnmwa 

Weat Des HolDes 



Prpalation 
(eatimated). 


Children 
of 8choul 
age, 5-21. 


Enrol- 
ment. 


Average 
attend- 
ance. 


Teach- 
ers. 


88,000 
30,000 


5,C63 


a3.356 
4.710 
3,879 

{>2,500 
1.490 

cl.955 


2,003 
a, i4«!l 
2.4e« 
2.100 
972 
1.399 


71 
94 
72 
52 
26 
36 


25,000 
15, 000 
10,500 
14.000 


0,317 
5,73-2 
2,409 
3.502 



Expend- 
iture. 



$7^536 
7l.9fl0 
44, 4M 
3.\3« 
25. OS 
49,183 



a Beeidea 1,000 in private and rbnrch nchoola. b Beiddcs 500 in private and chaich achoola. 

e Beaidea 400 in private and church aeboola. 

ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. 

Burlington rex>ort8 10 school buildings, with 61 school and 12 recitation rooms ; a high 
school, city normal school, apparently 3 evening schools, and 25 private or parochial 
schools ; but makes no specific designation of the number of teachers xind pupils in 
these, except the last. 

Davenport returns 11 school buildings, with 70 rooms, 19 of them for recitation in 
German ; high school or schools, city normal school, and 2 evening schools, the hieh 
school enrolment being 248 ; that of the normal school, 22 ; that in the evening schools, 
236. Special teachers of drawing, penmanship, and German are employed. There is 
no note of private or parochial schools. 

DubyqiWf in a printed report, indicates the existence of 8 graded and 2 nngraded 
schools, the grading of the former extending up through 16 primary, secondary, and 
grammar school classes to a high school, which lias a business course of 2 years, with 
classical and Latin scientific courses of 4 years each. Enrolment in high school, 142. 
Of the 72 teachers employed by the board, 3 are special teachers of (^rman and 56 
were educated in the pubbc Bcbools of the city. 



IOWA. 65 

Kfoltitc makes written retnm of 2.500 sittings for study, with indication of the exist- 
ence of primary, grammar, and high school grades, and of the employment of special 
teachers of penmanship and vocal mnsic, but does not designate the number of school 
buildings and school rooms or the enrolment in the varions departments. 

Ottutmva, in a printed report, shows 3 school buildings, witii apparently 22 rooms, 
tbe schools divided into 8 grades below the high school, in which last the course is of 
4 years and the enrolment 62 for the year. 

We^t De9 Moines reports 4 school buildings, with 38 rooms^ of a seating capacity of 
2,150 J primary, grammar, and high school grades; 146 pupils iu the high school. A 
certiiicate given by the State superintendent and two other members of an examining 
committee attesting the thorough training afforded in the high school is mentioned. 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Towa State Xomuil Schoolf at Cedar Falls, presents in its first annual catalogue for 
1876-*77 three courses of study : (1) an elementary course of 2 years for such as ])ropose 
to teach in any of the schools below the high school ; (2) a didactic course of 3 years, 
meant to prepare for high school teaching; (3) a scientific course of 4 years, qualify- 
ing for any position in connection with the schools. Thus far, students seem to have 
entered for only the lowest of these three courses, the catalogue showing 155 in its two 
classes, 105 of them young ladies.^ The number of resident instructors is 4, besides 
the principal. Drawing and both vocal and instrumental music are taught, the two 
ibmier witnout charge, as a portion of the course in which tuition is free ; the last at a 
charge of $12 for twenty lessons on the piano and organ. 

Etutern Iowa Normal School, Grand view, not under State control, has ^1) an ele- 
mentary normal course, which, its catalogue for 1870-77 says, " persons having a good 
knowledge of the common branches and a few of the higher will be able to complete 
in one year;" and (2) an ** advanced" normal course, supplementary to the former, the 
time required for wnich is not distinctly given, but seems to extend to two years. 
There are also scientific and business courses, with a department of music. Resident 
iuMtrvictors, 5 ; non-resident, 6 ; normal students, 120, equally divided in respect to. 
Rex; other stndents, 30. Here, too, drawing and music are taught, and. according to a 
letom to the Bureao of Education, there is a chemical laboratory witn apparatus for 
iilnstrating physics. 

In the report of the Stat-e superintendent appear two other institutions, the Southern 
Iowa yormal and SeieHUfic Iwititute, Bloomfield, Davis County, and Troy Normal and 
CUmical Jnst'UiUe, Troy, in the same county. The former reported to the State super- 
intendent 6 instructors and 200 pupils, without classification of the normal students. 
The latter made no report. 

(^'li^ normal Bchools, as before S"Cated, appear in connection "^ith the city school sys- 
tems of Burlington and Davenport, the latter having 22 pupils. 

OTHER NORMAL TRAINING. 

A. chair of didaeticSf in connection with the State University at Iowa City, is meant 
to prepare for advanced schools those senior students who intend to become teachers, 
and also snjch special students as may be qualified to be classed with them. The 
somber under instruction in 1876-77 was 22 ; graduates, 4, all engaged in teaching, — 
(Betom to Bureau of Education.) 

Xormal or teachers* courseSj generally of 2 to 4 years each, are announced in the cata- 
logues of Algona College, Algona ; Amity College, College Springs ; Cornell College, 
Mount Veimon ; Iowa Wosleyan University, Mount Pleasant ; Oskaloosa College, Oska- 
loosa; Penn College, at the same place; Parsons College, Fairfield; Tabor College, 
Tabor, and Upper Iowa University, Fayette. Whittier College, Salem, sends return 
of one, with 4 instructors and 34 nonnal students. Iowa College, Grinnell, proposes 
also to establish such a course, and with a view to this is endeavoring to secure the 
oidowment of a professorship of the theory and practice of teaching. 

Normal institutcSf which are substantially short training schools for teachers and 
8nch as desire to teach, are required by law to be held annuallv in each county by the 
pounty sux>erintendent, with such aid as may be necessary. Tlfie State superintendent 
attends as many of these institutes as due attention to his other duties will permit, 
and aMsists in the instruction and management of them. The expense of the institutes 
w defi^yed by a fee of $1 on every teacher's certificate issued and a registration fee of 
$1 from each person attending, with such additional sum as may be appropriated by 
the board of supervisors in the county in which the institute is held.* The sessions 

' A later rotnm to tbe Dareaa of Education gives the namber of normal stadents as 139 ; other stu- 
««»». 15. This is probably for the fall term. 

'By th« older law, apparently not repealed in this respect, (."VO from tbe State treaanry are also avail- 
Mf> for gpch ioHtitiitea wherever the county snporlntcndont can givo reasonable assurance that not 
mm than 90 teaebTs desire to assemble for iastitute instruction.— (Code of 1873.) 

5£ 



66 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

arc £roin one to six weeks. An excellent coarse of instmction for them is given in the 
State report. 

In 1875-76 there were 98 such institutes ; 1876-77, one more. Attendance on the 
former, 9,548 j on the latter, 11,929. — (Appendix to report.) 

NEW EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL. 

Partly " to show what should he taught in the schools, how it should be taught, and 
how the school may be made so interesting that even the dullest boy or girlmay be 
stirred to higher aims," a new school journal, called the Iowa Normal Monthly, was 
started by W. J. Shoup & Co., of Dubuque, August, 1877, and has since continued 
to fill efficiently the place vacated at the close of 1876 by The Common School. The new 
paper, which has been adopted by the State superintendent as his mediiun of official 
publication, contains much important matter from his pen. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The number of public graded schools in 1876 was 405 ; in 1877 it was 476. In 89 of 
these schools some foreign language is taught, viz, German in 45, Latin in 70, Greek 
in 11, and French in 3, but the number of pupils engaged in such studies is not given.^ 

A course of study for these graded schools and others that may adopt a graded 
system has been prepared by a committee of the association of principals and city 
superintendents, and is given in Superintendent von Coelln's. report. It provides for 
a tour years* high school course beyond the eight yeors of primary and grammar 
school, and includes Latin and German, with mathematics, natural sciences, English 
grammar and analysis, American and English literature, composition and rhetoric, 
general history, civil government, and mental philosophy. It admits of separation 
into two courses, English and preparatory, and the effort has been to have each year 
complete within itself, thus making it possible for any board to adopt one, two, or 
more years for its high school course, it being thought that most cannot Judiciously 
undeiliake more than three years and that many should limit their course to two. A 
4 years* course is recommended only for cities having more than 6,000 inhabitants. — 
(Report for 1876 and 1877. ) 

The superintendent of Guthrie County reports a. county high school, with .^ pupils 
enrolled and an average attendance of 51. In the cities of Davenport, Dubuque, 
Ottumwa, and West D<is Moines the high school enrolment reported aggre<jated 598. 
Burlington and Keokuk had hi^h schools, but did not report the enrolment u\ them. 

For lull statistics of these cities, see Table II of the appendix, and its summary in 
the Commissioner's Report preceding. 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

Selecting from a list of "academies and other private schools" given by Superin- 
tendent von Coelln 60 whose statistics and titles seem to indicate some sort of aca- 
demic character, we find in them a report of 23Ii teachers, with 5,171 pupils, but no 
classification of these either as to the studies engaged in or the extent to which they 
are pursued. 

For detailed statistics of business colleges, private academic schools, preparatory 
schools, and preparatory departments, see Tables IV, VI, VII, IX, and for summaries 
of these the Commissioner's Report preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

Eighteen universities and colleges report statistics for 1877, either by special i^tum 
or printed catalogue. All except one admit both sexes. 

I or statistics of colleges and universities, see Table IX of the appendix, and a sum- 
mary of this in the Commissioner's Report preceding. 

The State University provides instruction in collegiate, legal, medical, and civil engi- 
neering departments. Its 6 years of academic study allow 2 for a preparatory course and 
4 for the 3 separate collegiate courses, namely, classical, scientific, and philosophicaL 
These embrace instruction in English language and literature; ancient and modern 
languages; mathematics; astronomy; physical, natural, political, and moral science, 
and didactics. The degrees conferred on completion of th^ academic courses are a. b. 
and PH. B. 

Fenn College, Oskaloosa, in charge of Friends, report* collegiate, preparatory, normal, 
and commercial departments ; the first with classical and scientific courses, each of 
four years. 

^lu aoothor year, however, stntistics which have been in course of collection will be available. 



10 WA, 67 

Central rnirn'«i/r/, Pella (Baptist), has preparatory, musical, and collegiate depart- 
meuts; the last with classical and scieutitic courses, each coveriug 4 years. 

The courses of iustructiou iu the reiuaiuiug colleges ax^l^ear to be the same as reported 
in le^e. ' 

COUJSOES FOR WOMEN. 

Besides the facilities afforded women for higher instmction in colleges open to both 
sexes, the InDnaculate Conception Academy, at Daveuiiort, which luvs a collegiate 
charter, is exclusively devoted to the education of women in the higher branches. 
Music, drawing, x)aiuting, French, and Gcnuau are taught: there are apparatus for the 
ilIa<«tnition of chemistry and x>hysic8, a cabinet of natural history, a gymnasium, and 
a library' of 1,100 volumes. — (Keturu.) 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

[For statialics of scientific and profoaalonal schools, mc Tables X-Xm In the appendix, and samma- 

ries of these in the CommiMiooer's Iteport preceding.] 

SCIEXTIFia 

The AgrieHltnral College of loica provides courses of instruction in agriculture, 
mechanical engineering, civil en^neering, general science for women, and normal 
training, besides a uuml>er of special courses made up from the foregoing. 

The Department of Civil Engineering in the State University provides five years of in- 
struction iu this and related branches. One of the years is preparatory ; the others 
are colle^ate ; and students, upon completing the course satislactorily, receive the 
degree ol c. E. 

THEOLOGICAL. 

Grimcold College (Protestant Episcopal), lately reopened, has a department of theol- 
ogk', with a course of instruction covering 3 years. The branches to receive special 
attention are systematic divinity, apologetics, biblical exegesis, ecclesiastical history, 
church polity, pastoral theology and homiletics, liturgies, and canon law. 

The German Theol4>gical School of tlie Presbyterian Church of the Northwest , at Dubuque, 
Bends a return from which it appears that 3 professors and instructors were engaged 
in the schooL The number of students is not given, nor is the extent of the course of 
study. 

{jtrman CollegCy connected with the Iowa Weslc^an University and designed to be 
the theological institution of the German Methodists in the valley of the Mississippi, 
has a theological course of 3 years, in which 3 students were engaged during the year 
h7^77 _ ( Catalogue. ) 

The Bible Department of Oskaloosa College (Disciples) reports for 1877 an attendance 
of 15 pupils, taught by 2 instructors. The course of study covers 3 years. 

C'c«/rol Oiirer«i^^ (Baptist) and Simpson Centenary CoZ/<:/ire (Methodist Episcopal) have 
cUdses iu theology for the benefit of those who cannot take a full course. 

LEGAL. 

The Law Department of Iowa State University reports an attendance of 113 students, 
of whom 25 had received degrees in letters or science. The course of instruction 
covers one or two years, at the option of the student. It is inteuded to embrace 
all branches of a complete legal education, so far as is ]^ra<;ticable within the time 
allottetl, and to prepare students for the bar of any State' m the Union, special atten- 
tion, however, being given to the subjects most likely to be useful in western practice. 

The Iowa College of Law, a department of Simpson Centenary College, had 20 
rtadents in 1877, of whom 6 had received degrees in letters or science. The course of 
instruction embraces the whole field of elementary law found in Blackstone, KeuA, 
and Walker, and is so arranged as to be completed in one year, beginning in Septem- 
ber and endi^ in June. — (Ketum and catalogue, 1877.) 

The lotca Tfesleyan University provides what appears from the range of subjects em- 
braced to be a fair course of instruction in law, but the number of years in the course 
is not given. There were 8 students during the year 1876-77. — (Catalogue.) 

MEDICAL. 

The Medical Department of the State University and the College of Physicians and Sur- 
gtom, at Keokuk, report an attendance respectively of 85 and 230 students in 1877. 
Total attendance, 315; number of graduates in 1877, 128; resident and non-resident 
instmctore and lecturers, 19. The 3 years' course of medical instruction reported in 
the State university comprises two full courses of lectures; but, in order to receive 
the degree of M. D., students must have been engaged in the study of medicine under 
sfime reputable practitioner 3 years, including the 2 devoted to the course of lectures. 
The College of Physicians and Surgeons makes the same requirements, but allows 4 
years of reputable and regular practice of medicine to be accepted as an equivalent 
lor ouo of the courses of lectures. — (Keturus and catalogues.) 



68 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATIOy. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

STATE INSTITUTIONS. 

From the State report for 1875-76 and 1876-77 we take the following statistics of 
the several special schools under State control as reported for 1877 : 

State College for the Blind j at Vinton, 1*2 instructors and 102 xnipils; State Institution 
for Deaf and Dnmhy Council Bluffs, 12 instnictors and 153 i)upils; State Reform, School 
(for boys), Eldora, 3 instructore and 188 pupils; State Bcform School for Girhy Salem, 
5 instructors and 50 pupils; State Soldiers' Orphans^ J?a»ie, Davenport, 3 instructors and 
180 pupils; State Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children — an addition to the other State 
schools dating from September, 1875 — 3 instructors and 85 pupils. 

The ordinary branches of an elementary English education are taught in all these 
schools, as indicated by retui-ns from tl^em, with such industrial occupations as will 
promote j^ood health and aid in future self support; while to the blind a knowledge of 
muBic is imparted and to the deaf-mutes some training in drawing, with a view to the 
same end. In the State Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children the pleasant methods of 
the Kindergarten system are used to some extent to arouse the dormant intellect and 
awaken interest in the studies pursued. 

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. 

STATE ASSOCIATION. 

The twenty-second annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association was held at 
Cedar Rapids, December 26, 27, 28, 1877. 

After the address of welcome by Mr. Hormel and Superintendent von Coelln's re- 
sponse to it, the president of the association, Miss P. W. Sudlow, delivered her inau- 
gural address, in which she ably discussed various topics of interest to educators, viz, 
Kindergarten instruction, industrial education, the increasing defect of vision in school 
children and in the educated classes generally, and women as educators. Following 
this were various addresses and papere; among them ** Normal schools, their courses 
of study and degrees," "Political science," **The metric system," *' Denominational 
schools," "Moral training in public schools^" "Nonnal institutes," "Secondary educa- 
tion and preparation for college," "The inductive philosophy in its application to 
theology," "The prominence that should be given to the English language in the public 
schools," and "The education of women," the last two being by Hon. J. L. Pickard, 
of Chicago. 

The foflowing, atnong other resolutions, were passed: One in favor of teaching social 
and x^olitical science in the x)ublic schools and one favoring instruction in the princi- 
ples of morals as well as in scholarship. 

The paper on "Secondary education and preparation for college," by Prof. N. C. 
Campbell, sets forth that the educational field is occupied by two distinct systems, 
based on widely, differing theories, the college system and thn public school system : 
and that our educational scheme can never ix;ach its full usefulness and success nntil 
these two features are harmonized and work in mutual helpfulness ; that as matters 
now stand the high school gi'aduate is unfitted to enter college, knowing too little Latin 
and Greek, however much of everything else. The public school course, it is stated, is 
judiciously selected and arranged to produce symmetrical mental development and 
practical knowledge; hence it would seem that the college should adjust its course 
somewhat to that of the schools ; but, as the one system can scarcely be expected to 
come the whole way to meet the other, a fair compromise should be made by the high 
school taking some of the natural sciences, literature, and history from the colleges, 
and teaching a little more Latin, with one year of Greek. — (Iowa Normal Monthly.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. 
Hon. C. W. VOM COELLN, St2te superintendent qfpubUe instruction, Des Uoines, 



KANSAS. 



«9 



KANSAS. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



POPXJLATION AND ATTEXDANCE. 



Yonth of school age (5-21). 
Enrolled iu public schools.. 
Average daily attendance . . 



SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOLS. 



School districts in the State 

Reports from districts 

School-houses for public schools 

Graded schools with course of study. 

Average term of school in days 

Papils in private elementary schools. 
Teachers in such schools 



TEACHERS AND THEIR PAT. 



Teachers in public schools, men 

Teachers in public schools, women 

Whole number 

Average monthly pay of men 

Average monthly pay of women 



INXOME AXD EXPENDITURE. 

Whole receipts for public schools 

Whole expenditure for public schools 

EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA — 



Of school population. . , 

Of enrolment 

Of average attendance. 



STATE SCHOOL FLTO). 

Available school fund 

Fund, including part not now avail- 
able. 

STATE SCHOOL PROPERTY. 

Value of sites, buildings, libraries, and 
apparatus. 



1875-76. 



212,977 
147,224 

89,896 



4,658 

4, 442 

3,881 

556 

10:}.5 

3,525 
202 



2,402 
3,;i74 
5,576 
$33 66 
27 03 



$1, 244, 688 
1, 198, 437 



$5 69 

8 28 

13 56 



|2, 262, 559 
10, 482, 991 



$4, 600, 259 



1876-77. 



232,861 
157, 919 
118, 612 



4,875 

4,536 

a4,008 



Increase. 



108 
4,476 



2,772 

3,279 

6,051 

$33 19 

29 82 



$1,570,755 
1, 328, 376 



$5 70 

8 41 

11 19 



6$2, 036, 000 
10, 000, 000 



19,884 
10,695 
28, 716 



217 

94 

127 



4.5 
951 



370 
105 
475 



$2 79 



$326,067 
129,939 



$0 01 
13 



Decrease. 



$4, 337, 654 



47 



$2 37 



$226,559 
482, 991 



$262,605 



. aTbe namber of achool-bonaes for 18T7 iB derived, at second hand, from the office of the State saper- 
i&tendenl 

bOf thU amonnt, $1,330,737.98 are deposited in tbo State treasary; the balaoce la the (eatimated) 
lOKKt&t unpaid on acbool lands already sold. 

(Returns from Hon. John Fraser and Hon. Allen B. Lcmmon, State superintendents 
<^f public instruction, for the two years indicated, with printed report of the former for 
1^5-76.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

^w general supervision of the educational interests of the State there is a State 
**J^iMendent of public imtructioHf elected every two years. 



70 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATIOK. 



For examination of teachers, with a view to the granting of State diplomas valid 
throughout the State during the life of the holders, or State certiiicates valid for three 
or hvc years, there is a State board of educatioHy consisting of the State 8ui)eriutcudeut, 
the chancellor of the State university, the president of the State Agricultural College, 
and the principals of the State normal schools at Emporia and Leavenworth. 

For management and investment of the State school funds, including the university 
fund, there is a hoard of commissUmers of the acJiool funds, composed of the State super- 
intendent; secretary of state, and attorney general. 

LOCAL. 

For supervision of common schools in counties there is in each county a county svper- 
intendent of public instructionj elected hy the people every second year. He must rex)ort 
to the State superintendent each Octoher. 

For examination of teachers in each county there are county hoards of examinerB, 
composed of the county superintendent and two persons appointed by the county 
commissioners. 

For the care of schools in districts, into which counties are divided for local conven- 
ience, there are district hoards, composed of a director, clerk, and treasurer, elected 
hy the voters of the district for terms of three years, one of the three going out 
annually in the order of election, to give opportunity for a change, if called for. 
Graded school districts, composed of two or more ordinary districts, united for the 
establishment of a graaed school, have a board of three officers with the same titles, 
elected and changed in the same way. 

For the care of schools in cities there are hoards of education^ composed, in cities of 
more than 15,000 inhabitants, of three members for each ward, elected by the quali- 
fied voters thereof; in cities of 2,000 to 15,000 inhabitants, of two members for each 
ward. In each case, there is provision for an annual change of one member. 

ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

GENERAL CONDITION. 

The figures of the statistical summary before given indicate an advance that is 
exceedingly encouraging, the increase of 19,884 in the number of youth of school a^ 
being met by an increased enrolment fairly corresponding of 10,695 in the public 
schools, and much more than overtaken by 28,716 additional daily attendance in those 
schools, with 951 more in private or church schools. The valuation of the State school 
fund and of the sites, buildings, and other property belonging to the schools has gone 
down; but not more in projwrtion than that of almost ever>' other kind of j^roperty, 
while the receipts and expenditures for maintenance of the school system have consid- 
erably advanced, and that in the face of a financial pressure aftecting nearly every 
kind of business. No report giving any further information respecting the pubUc 
schools and their related institutions has been published for 1876-^77. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



OFFICERS. 



As stated previously, in cities of 2,000 to 15,000 inhabitants the general law calls 
for boards of education, consisting of 2 members, elected by the people from each 
ward for 2 years' terms; in cities of more than 15,000, of 3 urom each ward, elected 
for terms of 3 years each. In both cases there is provision for a change of one member 
each year in each ward. City superintendents of schools are the usual executive offi- 
cers of the boards. — (School laws, 1877.) 



STATISTICS. 



Cities. 


Population. 


Children of 
school age. 


Enrolment 


Average at- 
tendance. 


Teachers. 


Expenditora. 


Atcbison 


ais,ooo 

07,500 


3.000 
2,652 


M,3S0 
1,449 


1,130 
1,S10 


93 
30 


$13,640 


Lawrenco. ....... . 


S5,815 







oBatimated. 



bin private and parochial achools aboat 300 more. 
ADDITIONAL PARHCULARS. 



Atchison. — No report of the city schools for 1876-77 having been published, the sta- 
tistics above given contain all our information for that year, except that a return from 
Superintendent Scott shows 5 school buildings, with 12 primarj', 6 crammar^ and 4 
high school rooms used for both study and recitation, and 4 high school rooms for reel- 



KANSAS. 71 

tation only, the bnildiDgs, Tvith their sites, fomiture, and. apparatus, beinc estimated 
at $64,100. The schools T^ere taoght for 180 days out of the 200 school days of the 
year. 

Lawrence, — The classification here is the now common one of primary, grammar, and 
high schools, the course of the first covering 5 years, of the second 2, of the third 3. 
There was a regrading at the he^nning of the school year 187t>-77, making the course 
consist of wh(3e year grades, instead of partly half year ones, as formerly. -This 
arrangement on the whole has worked more satisfactorily than the former one, and 
allows of as many promotions as the other, although iiot of as frequent ones. The 
high school has a course in English, modem languages, and sciences; also such course 
iu the ancient languages as the board may from time to time prescribe. — (Report for 
1676-77, with return trom Superintendent Boles.) 

TRAIPNG OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL BCHOOLB. 

It was mentioned in the Commissioner's Report for 1876 that, in consequence of the 
failure of the legislature to make appropriations for the support of the three State 
normal schools, the one at Concordia and that at Leavenworth had been closed for the 
greater part of that year. A letter from the president of the normal school board at 
Concordia informs us that the school remained closed at least through 1877, and the 
absence of either report or return from the school at Leavenworth appears to indicate 
that it also remains in the same condition. A circular, dated 1877, from the one at 
Emporia, however, shows that the struggle for existence which it made in 187G has 
been successful, and that it is to go on in its work under an arrangement which involves 
dependence on the proceeds of the sale of lands and on tuition tees. A return for 1877 
gives the number of instructors as 6, the numb(^r in normal classes as 139, of whom 80 
Avere young women. There are two courses of study, an elementary common school 
coarse and an advanced normal and scientific course. The printed circular gives 3 
years for the lower course and 2 for the higher ; but the written return, of later date, 
states that the former covers 2 years and the entire normal course 4, indicating a modi- 
fication made in the autumn of 1877. 

NORMAL DEPARTMKNT. 

The catalogue of the University of Kansas for 1876-^77 states that as no appropria- 
tion had been made by law for the support of the normal department for the two years 
heginuing July 1, 1877, the regents had found it necessary to so change the course of 
Btudy as to lessen the cost of instruction. The common school course which had been 
tanght during 1876 and part of 1877 was therefore dropped, and arrangements made 
for only a higher normal course of 3 years, to bo prepared for either in the preparatory 
department of the university or in high schools accredited as preparatory schools, and 
to be prosecuted afterward, as far as respects academic stuaies, in the regular uni- 
versity classes ; as respects common English branches, under students ftt)m the upper 
normal classes, directed and supervised by the principal of this department. Students 
iu the normal department, 120 in 1876-^7 ; in the higher normal course at the opening 
of ltf77-'78, only 12. 

KORMAJL INSTITUTES. 

To make up in some degree for the lack of normal schools and to bring the means 
of special training for the various duties of a school within reach of all who either 
were already teachers or might desire to be such, a law was passed in 1877 requiring 
county superintendents to hold annually iu their respective counties a normal insti- 
tute of not less than ten weeks' duration for these classes. The expenses of such insti- 
tutes are to be defrayed from the fee of $1 paid by each candidate for a teacher's 
certificate and a registration fee of $1 to be paid by each person attending the insti- 
tutes, with whatever additional sum county conmiissioncrs might allow, this sum not 
to exceed $100. Two or more counties with less than 3,000 inhabitants in each, with 
the consent of the State superintendent, may unite in holding a normal institute under 
certain prescribed conditions. An excellent course of study for these institutes has 
been prepared and issued by State Superintendent Lemmon, and there are indica- 
tions that they are being held throughout the State. A Kansas paper, in close com- 
munication with the office of the superintendent, states that "during the months of 
July and August, 1877, 60 were held, giving employment to over 200 teachers and 
providing a first class school of methods to nearly 5,000 other teachers, at a total cost 
of less than $16,000. For the support of these schools the State appropriated $2,800, 
the counties in which they were held about $5,000, and the teachers paid the re- 
Daalnder." 

The same paper savs : "The most noticeable results of this system of establishing a 
normal school m each county for a term of weeks each year are a gradual raising of 
"^•standard of teachers, a development of now and progressive ideas, and a correc- 



72 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

tion of abuses and' [bad] practices in schools, with a general awakening of tho people 
to a sense of their duties and responsibilities in the matter of educating the ueuerations 
that are soon to follow them.'' 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBUC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

In the absence of a State report, official information respecting this class of schools 
is wanting, except what comes through the catalogue of the State university. This 
shows that the proposition made to tho hi^h schools of the State to adopt a uniform 
3 years' course of study, with a view to linking themselves with the university and 
having their graduates admitted to its freshman class, has been adopted thus far by 
only 5 high schools. These are the schools at Atchison, Emporia^ Lawrence, Leaven- 
worth, and Winchester. This arrangement implies that the high schools of these 
cities adopt for themselves tlie following studies, in connection with the higher Eng- 
lish : in Latin, three books of Ca?sar*s Commentaries and three of Virgil's w£neid; in 
Greek, Harkness's First Book and three books of Xenophon's Anabasis. Students pre- 
paring for a scientific course may substitute for the Greek an equivalent amount of study 
in natural philosophy and French or German. 

Besides the above mentioned high schools, there are others at Burlington, Hiawatha, 
Manhattan, Salina, and Topeka, at least, with some 50 higher departments in graded 
schools elsewhere ; but from none except the one at Lawrence, where there are 5 
teachers, including the principal, are any statistics now available. 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For statistics of business colleges, private academic schools, and preparatory de{»art- 
ments of colleges and universities, see Tables IV, VI, VII,. and IX of the appendix, and 
the summaries of these in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

Returns for 1877 have been received from 8 universities and colleges of Kansas. For 
full statistics, see Table IX of the appendix, and the summary of it in the Report of 
the Commissioner preceding. 

In the Kansas State Universitu, only 2 of the several departments contemplated have 
as yet been organized, viz, that of science, literature, and the arts, and the normal 
department. Ihe former comprises 6 courses of instruction, namely, 2 leading to 
the degree of a. b. and 4 to that of B. s. A preparatory dcimrtmeut has been organized 
to supply the existing need of suitable preparatory schools, but it is not to be a per- 
manent feature of the university. Approved high schools are expected to do the 
preparatoiy work in the near future. 

A majority of the colleges in this State are open to both sexes. Five of the 6 which 
report collegiate students have among the number 56 young women. 

COLLEGES FOR WOMEN. 

In addition to the provision made for the higher education of women in the colleges 
just mentioned, one, the College of the Sisters of Bethany, at Topeka, is devoted exclu- 
sively to this work. The college is chartered, and teacnes amon^ other branches mu- 
sic, drawing, painting, French, and German. It has apparatus lor the illustration of 
physics, a gymnasium, and a library of 703 volumes. — (Return.) The bishop of the 
Protestant Episcopal diocese of Kansas is its president and gives it his i>er80ual super- 
Tision. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

From the State Agricultural College, Manhattan, there is no information additional to 
that contained in the report of the State superintendent for 1875-76, which showed 
that instruction was given in farm work, botany, practical horticulture, chemistry, 
and physics, elementary English and matliematics, higher mathematics, German and 
French, industrial drawing, mechanical employments, printing, telegraphy, and instru- 
mental music. The number of instructors for that year was 16; of students, 303. 

The three scientific courses provided by the State University are in chemistrv, natural 
history, and in civil and topographical engineering. The studies in the fresnman and 
sophomore classes are the same as those of corresponding classes in the general scien- 
tific course. During the remaining two years the studies are principally those which 
bear more nearly upon the various divisions of scientific study pursued. — (State 
report.) 



KANSAS. 73 

In Baker UMverniy, Hi^jhland Universityy and Lane Unitenity there are also scientific 
courses. Total of students in these and in the scientific studies of the State univer- 
fiity, according to returns firom them, 110. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

KANSAS INSTITUnOX FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB, OLATHE. 

This institution has instructed 178 pupils since its foundation in 1866, and had in 
1876-T7 an attendance of 115, of whom 54 were males and 61 females. The elementary 
branches of a common school education are taught, besides the employments of print- 
ing, shoemaking, and tailoring. — (Return, 1877.) 

KANSAS INSTITUTION FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE BLIND, WYANDOTTE. 

Forty-two pupils were under instruction here in 1876-'77. The branches taught are 

spelling, Boston type, New York point, music, grammar, elocution, American literature, 

geology, United States history, geography, arithmetic, and algebra. The employments 

are, for the boys, brush and broom making, and, for the girls, fancy work ana palm leaf 

hat making. The plan has been recently adopted of paying the boys in the broom 

shop for their labor, and its results have been excellent. Under it the manufacture of 

brooms has been increased from 75 dozen to SOO dozen. By this plan, too, such boys 

as have had to depend on charity for their clothing are nearly enabled to pay for it 

themselves. Thus there is cultivated a spirit of independence, and business habits are 

fostered, each boy keeping his own accounts with the shop* — (Return and printed re« 

port, 1877.) 

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. 

Hod. Allbn B. Lemmos, State superintendent qf public instruction, Tapeka, 

[Term, 1877-1879.] 
STATE BOARD OF EUUCATIOH. 

(Term, that of the official tenure of members in their several offices ] 



Members. 



Post-offlee. 



Hob. Allen B. Lemmoo, State soperintendent of pabllc instmctlon 

ChanoeUor Jomea liarvin, D. d., of State University 

Preddent John A.. Anderson, of State A sricnltarol College . 

Principal Charles R. Pomeroj. d. d., of State Normal School 



Topeka. 
Lawrence. 
Manhattan. 
Emporia. 



74 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



KEIWTUCKT. 

STATISTICAL SIBIMARY. 



POPULATION AND ATTENDANCE. 

Youth of school age (6-20), white . . . 
Youth of school age (6-16), colored . . 

Whole nnmher of school age 

Enrolled in public schools a 

Colored enrolment a 

Average attendance 

Average attendance of colored youth 

SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOLS. 

School districts not in cities (white) . 

School districts (colored) 

School-houses for colored pupils 

Value of thcue 

New school-houses built 

Value of these 

Number of private schools 

Pupils in such schools 

Number of academies 

Number of colleges 



TEACHERS AND THEIR PAY. 

Number of male teachers 

Number of female teachers , 

Niunber of colored males 

Number of colored females 

Average salary of males a month. . . 
Average salary of females a month. 



INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

Whole income for public schools 

Whole expenditure for public schools. 

SCHOOL FUND AND SCHOOL PROPERTY. 

Permanent school fund 

Estimated value of all school property. 



1875-76. 



448, 142 

CO, 602 

498, 744 

228,000 



156,000 



112 

$21,000 

700 



75 
25 



4,020 
1,610 



$1,513,789 
1, 491, 000 



$1,600,000 
1, 970, 000 



1876-77. 



459, 395 
53,126 

512, 521 

208,500 
19,107 

125, 000 
13,393 



5,836 

620 

287 

$83,402 



$23,000 

700 

35,000 

75 

25 



4,000 

2,000 

331 

199 

$40 

35 



$1,827,575 
1, 130, 000 



$1,600,000 
2, 300, 000 



Increase. 



11,253 

2,524 

13,777 



Dec 



$2,000 



390 



$313, 786 



$330,000 



a The total ODTolmoDt for 1876-'77 is probably to be obtained by inclading the colored enrolmen 
given eeparately, which voald leave a decrease of 393 on the (estimated) enrolment of the year 1 

(From printed reports of Hon. Howard A. M. Henderson for 1875-76 and 1876-77, 
written returns to Bureau of Education for the same school years. The financial t 
meut is from the latter, the other statistics mainly Irom the former ; but, as tl 
turns from several counties and many districts have been wanting for both yean 
figures used by the superintendent are, in some cases, only the result of an effo 
reach an estimate which may come near the truth. Some of the above statistics 
published in the abstract portion of the Report of this Bureau for 1876 as for that ; 
they belonged properly to the school year ending June 30, 1877.) 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

GENERAL. 

A State superintendent of puhlio instrui^tion is chosen by the people every fourth 
for all the duties connected with a general supervision and annual report of the p 
Bchools. 



KENTUCKY. 75 

A State hoard of edttooHoitf in wbicli the attorney general, secretary of state, and two 
professional teachers selected by the other members of the boaixl are associated with 
the superintendent, aids him in establishing rules and regulations for the schools, rec- 
ommending text books, and hearing appeals from the action of county coumiissioncrs. 

A State hoard of examiners for testing the qualifications of such teachers as desire 
State certificates, good in any county for five years, is formed by uniting with the 
State superintendent two professional teachei-s selected by him. 

LOCAL. 

A counttf commiiHoner of common schooU is chosen for each county by the county conrt 
of claims every second year, and performs the ordinary duties of a superintendent of 
poblic schools.^ 

A county hoard of examiners, for examining and licensing those who wish to teach 
in the public schools of the county, is formed in each of these divisions of the State by 
the county commissioner associating with himself two parsons chosen by him. Cer- 
tificates issued by this board are g(wd within the county for two or four years, accord- 
ing to grade. The board may also select, from the list of text books put fortli by the 
State board of education, a uniform series for the county, which shall not be changed 
for two years. 

A school trustee for each district is chosen annually by the ])eople, to engage teachers, 
provide the needful school buildings, and care for and make annual report of schools ; 
the boards are hereafter to consist of 3 members, one going out each year, to admit of 
new election. For colored school districts 3 trustees are api>ointed by the county com- 
iniasioner. 

ELEMENTABY INSTRUCTION. 

GEXERAL COXDITIOX. 

Notwithstanding decrease in the distributable school ftind, a consequent decrease in 
the 8tat« allowance for each child, and considerable complaint of comparatively slight 
results from the State system. Superintendent Henderson thinks that on the whole 
there is an increasing interest in common schools. Exclusive of 15 cities and towns in 
Trhich the schools are well graded and about 500 teachers are employed, schools were 
taught in 1876-*77 in all but 36 of the 5,836 school districts for white children in the 
State, and in 532 of the 620 districts for colored children. In the districts in which no 
schools were held, the failure to have them is attributed to epidemics, tire, or want of 
a suitable and comfortable place. Of the 700 private schools, too, with their twenty- 
five to thirty-five thousand pui>ils, many are said to have been in part public schools, 
the common school of the district being taught in connection with the private one, 
ou consideration of a certain State allowance for each public pupil, or the latter being 
an extension of the former, as a pay school, after the free school session has expired. 
At least eight-ninths of the children under instruction in the State, Dr. Henderson holds, 
are heing taught through the agency of common schools; and he conceives that the 
nsnlts achieved are far beyond vmat could bo reached with the same expenditure under 
any other than a public system. By a comparison of Kentucky with many other States, • 
he shows that the want of still larger and more satisfactory results is to be attributed 
not to a lack of sufiQcient State aid for the schools, but to the absence of voluntary 
local taxation, supplementary to the State allowance. On this point he says decidedly : 
"The school system of Kentucky can only be made the equal of that of other States 
^hoae success we admire and covet for ourselves, by doing as they have done, namely, 
cease to rely solely ux)on an insufficient and variable State bonus, and by district taxa- 
tion raise the necessary funds to lengthen the term and improve the character of the 
district schooL''— (State report for l«7fr-'77.) 

SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREX. 

There were 532 schools for colored children taught during the year. Though the aid 
giyen the^ie schools by the State is comparatively small, the colored people have by 
private subscriptions supplemented the public bonus and in many instances had good 
Khoolfl. In some localities the farmers, recognizing the value of schools for the colored 
people, as contributing to the permanency of their labor, have aided in sustaining such 
schools. That antagonism which at first threatened to overthrow the system or im- 
pair its usefulness is rapidly yielding to more enlightened views and to the judicious 
wuMel of prudent, intelligent men of the colored race. In several counties institutes 
are being organized composed of colored teachers, and colored citizens of the better 
class are accepting the office of trustee. 

There are color^ school districts reported in all but 8 counties, aggregating 620 dis- 
^cts. In aU but 88 of these districts schools were taught, and in those which had no 
ichoola the colored population is sparse and scattered. These results are certainly 

^ addition to the oomralsftionor for tbo county of Jefferson, there is one lor the oity of Louisville, 
<iMted hifloniaUy by the city eoonoiL 



76 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 



remarkable for a gtystem that has had strong prejudices to contend against and h 
not more than three years "in practical oxHjration. — (State rejwrt, loT^-TT.) 

GRADED SCHOOLS. 

The graded schools in the 15 cities and towns where they have been establis] 
said by Dr. Henderson to be the pride of the citizens and to have so demon 
their educational efficiency as to awaken no regret except that they were n< 
earlier. He wishes every town of GOO inhabitants to endeavor to establish an< 
tain one, and proposes to draft a supplementary article to chapter 18 of the law 
the provisions of which any town may estabhsh a system of graded schools "^ 
further special legislation. To aid still further in this good work, he publishef 
appendix to his report abundant suggestions as to the proper grading of such scl 
(State report for 1876-77.) 

KINDERGiLRTEX. 

A Kindergarten of the German and English Academy, Louisville, rex>ort« 1 coi 
with 25 to 30 children, 4 to 7 years of age. trained in the occupations and "^ 
apparatus of FrobeFs system, "with excellent results." Another, forming a 
meut of Mrs. W. B. NohVs school, in the same city, reports a conductor who is 
uate of Mrs. Kraus-Ba?lte*8 training class in New York City, a teacher of dancii 
24 pupils, 3 to 8 yeai"8 of age. In the former the children are under training 
daily ; in the latter, 3 hours. The latter, besides the usual Frobel occupation 
oral lessons in German, has dancing and light gymnastic exercises, and speaks 
effects of the training as "decidedly beneficial," fostering habits of obedience, p 
ness, neatness, and patience, cultivating the taste, bringing out latent in^ 

genius, and imparting grace of motion, polish of manner, and improved physic 
ition. A third school, which was held in connection with the Female Semi 
Georgetown, is reported by the principal to be discontinued for want of proper 
elation by the parents of the merits of the system, though he himself was de 
with it and believed it a method of instruction for primary classes whicl 
eventually supersede all others. 

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 

OFFICERS. 

Boards of trustees, differing in number and in term of office in different 
appear to be the ordinary school officei*s for the cities of the State, no gene 
prescribing the number or the term. City superintendents servo as executive 
of the boards in the chief cities. In Louisville, besides the board of trustee 
posed of two members from each ward, there is a board of examiners, comp 
the city superintendent and 6 or more professional teachers, chosen by the con 
on examination and course of study, to examine applicants for the position of 1 
in the public schools. 

STATISTICS. 



Cities. 


PopnlatJon. 


Children cf 
school age. 


Enrolment. 


Avenge 
attendance. 


Teachers. 


Expen 


Covinston 


35,0C0 

15,000 

al-A OOO 

18,500 


9.800 

5,980 

45,000 

0,500 


3,500 

1.788 

17,533 

2,674 


%i90 

1,545 

11,951 

1,969 


63 

31 

6284 

40 




Lexington 

liOuisTiUe ■ 




Newport 









a Statistics of Lontftyllle are for 1876, none for 1877 having been received. 
b Besides 4 music teachers and 37 teachers of German. 

ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. 

Grades in the city schools, — State Superintendent Henderson, in his Kentucky 
Lawyer, published 1877, says, p. 259: "We have now graded schools in every 
the Commonwealth, with the exception of Bowling Green, and efforts are bein) 
there to establish one." 

Covington, — A return from Superintendent Best gives 35 as the number of p 
school rooms; grammar school rooms, 24; high school rooms, 5; sittings in all, 
number of days schools were taught, 200 ; valuation of all school property, $196 

Lexington, — '* The educational system here includes colored as well as whit« ch 
and is purely elementary as to both, except that in the most advanced deporti 
each school some studies are attended to which form part of the course ii 
schools." — (Lettet from Superintendent Harrison.) The number of colored cl 
enrolled was 768; average daily attendance of these, CGI; teachers for the 



KENTUCKY. 77 

school buildings for both white and colored, 9 ; school rooms, 31 ; value of school 

buildings belonging to the free school system, $40,000. — (Return.) 
Louisville, — There are in this city 8 grades below the high schools, the course in 

Trhich is 4 years, and the enrolment in 1^75-^76, of both sexes, 6C0. For the prepara- 
tion of teachers, there is a training school in which young women rexjeive special in- 
stniction as to methods and disciphne, and are then appointed to positions as openings 
occur. Five of the city schools are for colored children, and in the year covered by 
the report 3 night schools were maintained, enrolling ^66 pupils, with an average 
attendance of 443 additional to the numbers given in the table. These night schools 
were open from the third Monday in Octol)er to the last Friday in February. Tbey 
have been for bovs and young men. Others for girls and young women are proposed. — 
(Report for 187i>^76.) 

Newport. — The enrolment is the same as that reported for 1875-76, but the average 
attendance is 80 less. Schools were in session 10 mouths. In 1876 the high school 
▼as nominally abolished by the board and one class substituted for it called the higher 
intermediate. Two grades were taught, however, with the assistance of the super- 
intendent, corresponmng to the first and second yeargrades of the former high school, 
with an enrolment of 48 and average attendance of 37 pupils. — (Report.) 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

That better teachers are desirable and that normal schools arc the great agents to 
snpply them, Dr. Henderson says, no one at all acqnainteil with the facts will deny. 
Kor can it be denied that all the States having a well develoi)ed system of common 
schools have supplied such schools as necessary adjuncts to that system. The testi- 
mony as to their utility, too, he holds, is unifonn. Having addressed inquiries on this 
Bubject to a number of representative educators, he received from all substantially the 
same reply, namely: "They are invaluable auxiliaries to our system;" "they have 
improved the qualifications of our teachers 60 per cent.;" "the normal graduates 
are always preferred ; " " the normal graduates raise the aspirations of the teachers 
and induce them to study and pursue the approved methods of the new education ; " 
"by teaching in the institutes they multiidy themselves through inducing others to 
idopt their methods; " " they have proven a grand power in grading and Uiscix)lining 
ooTHchools;" "they have elevated, in the public sentiment, the esteem in which 
teaching is held ; " " by all means secure them for your State at the earliest possible 
moment ; " ** once tested you will wonder that you have done without them so long ; " 
"nothing yields so large a dividend on the cost." 

As a means of securing such valuable aids to the State system with very little extra 
cost, Dr. Henderaon suggests the addition of two normal professors to the present staff 
of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, utilizing the other professors for such 
branches as would fill out a good normal course. This plan would yield the full means 
of instruction at a cost of only about $5,000 annually beyond what is now incurred. 
Then, to secure normal stvdeuts, he would have 200 young men selected by the county 
conrts of claims and sustained at the college out of the interest of the surplus school 
moneys, which, now amounting to $339,000, have been bonded by the State and yield 
for distribution nearly $20,000. This sum, apijortioned to the counties in proportion 
to school population, gives, in most cases, less than two cents a child, an amount so 
little appreciable in results that Dr. Henderson thinks there would be a real gain in 
appropriating the whole surplus bond revenue, with the consent of the several couu- 
ties, to the proposed training of 2'')0 better teachers annually for the schools. If the 
plan thus outlined should be carried out, it wouhl give the State a nonnal school, in 
connection with its own existing college, at an expense of only $5,000 annually, to 
begin with, additional to the present cost of schools — a small sum for a large State 
and as a means to a great benefit. 

Other plans for securing normal instruction, less practicable and more expensive, 
bave l)een suggested : (1) that the State establish a normal professorship in each of 
the colleges within it and in several of the female seminaincs; (2) that a faculty of 
i^onnal professors should be organized, who should constitute a peripatetic school, 
travelling from one section to another and holding at each point a session of two to 
four months; (3) that several schools for training teachers, with a grand central 
normal imiversity, should be established. 

Pending the discussion of these plans for State normal school training, the depend- 
ence for special preparation of teachei*s has to be on the normal de])artments of Berea 
College and Columbus College ; the Kentucky Normal School of Messrs. Vance and 
Cami>bell, at Carlisle ;* the Glasgow Training School, under A. W. Mell, at Glasgow ; 

'Gradnates of the normal coarsen in this scliool bave, b}* tbo charter, a rij^ht to tench in the common 
Mnwit of the 8tAte for five years without examination by either the State or oonnty buarUs.— (Circulai 
wiHshool, 1S77.) 



78 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP EDUCATION. 

tTie Normal School at Morgantown, tinder W. J. Finley ; and the Loniaville Tniinin 
School, connected with the school system of that city. For statistics, see Table III i 
the appendix, and a sunmiary of it in the Coumiissi oner's Report preceding. — (Stat 
report for 1876-'77 and returns of normal schools to Bureau of Education.) 

TEACHERS* IX8TITCTE8. 

Institutes for fuller instruction of teachers were held during 1877 in nearly ever 
county, and were largely attended. The reports respecting them made to the supej 
int^ndent were uniform in attestation of their value. The State regards these iusti 
tutes of such importance as to require the attendance of teachers, x^rescribing th 
penalty of forfeiture of certificate when there is wilful absence. — (Report of 8Ui)eriii 
tendont, 1876-77.) 

EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL. 

A great aid to the fuller preparation of teachers for their work is now afforded by 
useful educational journal established in 1876 and still continued. This is the Eclecti 
Teacher, published monthly at Carlisle, and containing, besides much matter fur th 
teachers, the official decisions of the State superintendent, with intelligence from coi 
respondents in a considerable number of the Southern States. In this last respec 
especially it supplies a need that has been long and deeply felt. 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The report of Superintendent Henderson for 1876-77 contains no definite inform^) 
tion as to this class of schools, and the returns from the few cities reporting add littl 
to our knowledge either of the number of them or the pupils in them ; there are 
teachers, with 46 pupils, at Cynthiana; apparently 3, witn 175 pupils, at Covington 
1, with 48 pupils, at T^ewport; and 20, with 660 pupils, at Louisville. The figures fo 
Louisville are for 1876, and the high school there is spoken of in exalted terms of codj 
mendation by the committee on examinations. 

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

For statistics of business colleges, private academic schools, and preparatory depart 
ments of colleges, see Tables IV, VI, VII, and IX of the appendix, and the summarie 
of these in the Commissioner's Report preceding. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

COLLEGES. 

The colleges reiwrting for 1877 number 10. Four of these admit both sexes. 

For statistics under this head, see Table IX of the appendix, and a summary of thi 
in the Report of the Commissioner preceding. 

The State University, with buildings valued at $250,000 and productive funds yieM 
ing an income of 1^25,000 annually, comprises the Agricultural and Mechanical CoUeg 
ofKentucky ; there are also colleges of ai'ts, of law^, of medicine, of the Bible, and 
commercial college. In all departments, the faculty numbered 24, the studenta 301. 

No information has been received for